Farming was still the main identification While structural changes over the last three marker of the Ballyowen Palatines and their farm hundred and five years have hidden any dwellings and like all farm heritage these buildings archaeological evidence of the Palatines, have undergone structural changes and alterations something has not changed. In the interview with to their fabric and no recording has occured of any Mr William Poole in Ballyowen July, , he Palatine style architectural features that may have reflected on his Palatine heritage and stated that existed.
Barnard , Dublin: Stationary Office. It is with great pleasure that I wish to acknowledge Fitzpatrick, M. Volume VI. Cha ges i I ish rural housing time to send me interesting articles of Wexford Cork: Cork University Press. William Poole and family was and is much appreciated. It was wonderful to sit and chat with Hartrick, J. Many Doyle and Ms D. Lewis for Hi k, V. Hi k, V. The Palatines: and Its Bibliography Afte ath. Lyttleton, J. Plantation Ireland Settlement and Hore, P. Dublin: Wexford. London: Elliot Stock. Four Courts Press.
The Bassett, G. Available at: Pla tatio. Interdisciplinary Essays on the History of an Irish County. Dublin: Geography Browne, B. Wexford: Sean Ros Press. Loftus, S. Irish Rural Family Scrapbook London: Landscapes Series. Cork: Cork University Daunt Books. National Archives 20 Ce sus of. Colfer, B. People Make Places. Sadlier, T. The Fa ilies of Mayglass Fa stead. I Reeners, R. In County Available-at: Wexford. Kilkenny: The Heritage Council. This paper argues that in the case of surface-survey recovered artefacts degree of patination should be deployed as an aid to these methodologies, to enable the categorisation of otherwise undiagnostic lithics.
The county of Leicestershire is used as a case study on account of stability of environmental factors which enable the deployment of such conjunctive methodologies. Confusion exists in the literature about patination, and thus initial synthesis is of paramount importance. This paper firstly offers a brief clarification of the meaning of the word, and the provenance of the flint, and then arguments for its causes are discussed. The re-creation of patina by experimentation is visited, and finally a model for lithic dating in Leicestershire is suggested. It is argued that although degree of patination is only a general gauge of chronology currently, the stability of environmental factors producing it endorses its value as an effective chronological support to traditional approaches.
In British and Irish contexts the visual change of fractured flint over a period of time is termed Flint was formed in the chalk bedrock of the Upper patination, and for the purposes of this paper is Cretaceous epoch in two distinct regions in Britain. Hurst and Kelly Northern Ireland Mortimore et al , 7. There , ; Reynier , ; Richards and Allen are no natural flint resources in the Republic of , This point is rarely mentioned in the Ireland.
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The majority of flint artefacts recovered literature Froome , , , and although from Leicestershire derive from secondary raw infrared spectra analysis determines no major material sources glacial tills and river gravels structural differences between the two Schmalz transported by the Anglian ice, originating in the , X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the Lincolnshire and east Yorkshire chalk beds Henson patinated surface and the underlying material , 2. They argue that either alkali ions exchange for protons Originally, the patination of flint was assumed to by diffusion, or that the silica latticework itself be simply a phenomenon of weathering processes dissolves ibid, De Puydt ; Ubaghs , although de Mortillet suggested that the actions of Arguments for multiple influences such as a o i a id i o ju ction with heat, light and temperature, soil chemistry and water caused the effect.
He authors e. Burroni et al.
State by State List - updated and collated
This has been furthered by agreed with this argument over forty years later, Glauberman and Thorsen , 26 , who argue and Hurst and Kelly and Kelly and Hurst that site aspect is a vital consideration. Judd had previously suggested that maintaining that south and southwest facing flint contained permeable opaline silica, and slopes support the build-up of clay and calcium Vincienne and Oakley agreed, carbonate, therefore retaining more heat and less suggesting that its porosity could also account for moisture. They argue that an elevated level of the absorption of colouring agents.
However, these materials, in conjunction with heat enhances Curwen , argued that opal was dissolved the patination process. The discussion so far argues overwhelmingly for Alkaline chemical reaction is now widely agreed to alkaline chemical reaction as the major catalyst for be the catalyst for the patination effect, with the patination, and experiments have been majority of authors maintaining that visual surface undertaken to recreate the process.
However, van Noort catalyst for chemical reaction of chalk with flint. However, Burroni et al. Froome different degrees of patination can be deployed to , also suggests that as alkaline soils separate components of mixed assemblages. This develop they become less calcareous in nature, is an important point which forms the backbone of introducing another facet to the argument for the discussion. He maintains that earlier deposited lithics are subject to higher degrees of calcium Thus far it has been suggested that topography, carbonate than later ones, and are thus more climate and an alkaline environment are the most prone to more patination.
It is the stability of these variables that enable the quantitative measurement of the phenomenon. It is argued that the topography of Leicestershire is A Chronological Model for Leicestershire relatively consistent, as is the geology and the climate, with rainfall and temperature remaining Over three quarters of the county of Leicestershire stable since the end of the Atlantic period. Soils is designated agricultural land, with a large are likely to have changed and evolved percentage being used for arable agriculture, and considerably since the end of the Devensian thus ploughed on a regular basis Leicestershire period, although the one stabilising factor is the County Council In conjunction with the highly calcareous nature of the bedrock and availability of disturbed soil, there exists a strong superficial geology, which covers most of the tradition of archaeological field survey in the county.
It is this factor which is most important in county, with over 20 field walking groups, some arguing for the conditions in which patination can ith o e ea s e pe ie e. This, i be assessed chronologically. It experiences a temperate climate with mild winters and cool summers, with It has long been suggested by amateur field consistent rainfall.
The topography in the walkers and academics alike that the patination of southeast and southwest of the county is gently flint recovered from the plough soil of undulating lowland, elevating between and Leicestershire is a relatively consistent metres AOD. The northeast of the county phenomenon which is correlated with chronology.
The late lithic specialist Roger Jacobi of calcium carbonate compounds. The superficial unofficially supported this association in respect of geology of the county is principally glacial till Leicestershire Cooper pers. Thus the factors affecting patination can also produces an alkaline environment. Modern be considered as constant and analogous across soil formations are clayey and relatively consistent the whole county. However, it is categorised by patina association. For example, argued here that flint artefacts can be whilst assessing mixed era assemblages, Mesolithic chronologically diagnosed by patina association.
Similarly, the t a slu e t ilk - hite a d late fli ts slightl comparison of the lack of patina from diagnostic patinated or unpatinated. The key to the later lithics such as barbed and tanged or leaf- successful application of this methodology lies in shaped arrowheads can be used to categorise the deploying the degree of patination in conjunction remaining artefacts recovered from the plough with typological and technological characteristics, soil. This methodology can be extended to scatters in recognition of the environmental attributes that possess no diagnostic artefacts area by responsible for the patination process.
However, it would be inconsistencies in the variable factors, patination is churlish to use patination for distinguishing not a reliable indicator of chronology Glauberman between early and late era assemblages due to the and Thorsen ; Ophoven ; van Nest ; current ambiguity of the phenomenon. However, others concede that from the Leicestershire plough soil can be patina can be correlated to age under certain patinated generally they are not , but this only circumstances Hurst and Kelly ; Honea ; serves to demonstrate the ephemerality of Frederick et al.
For example, Hurst and Kelly advocate a ough o elatio between age and patina, providing environmental and site variables are constant Hurst and Kelly , ; Honea Discussion and Conclusion Josselyn and Frederick et al. The environment. This causes an alteration in the flint dichotomy between the two ideologies could not surface, either producing perceived colouration as be more profound, although the recent leaning a result of incident light effects or by the re- towards the concept of chronologically diagnostic absorption of soluble silica compounds and patination is encouraging Burroni et al.
This chemical deterioration has been Glauberman and Thorsen ; Frederick et al. The key to the proposed The case has been argued for the deployment of model is in micro-regional permanency. The Bibliography only element that does vary is time and it is this that enables the differentiation of patination Bellard, A. However, the model proffered de France, 27 4 : It is merely an attempt to Burroni, D. Journal of Archaeological stability of variables that Leicestershire enjoys. It is Science, I Bowman, to assess this methodology in areas that do P.
Leicestershire support constancy. Time is the only unquantifiable, Landscapes. Leicestershire Museums but crucial factor and it is this which is the crucial Archaeological Fieldwork Group.
Monograph No. Further research would undoubtedly add to the Curwen, E. The logical first Flint. Antiquity, De chronologically ratified assemblages into degrees Mortillet. This ould esult i a li a of dated flint samples which could be used as a de Puydt, M. The next step should be the Bas. Finally, testing of the model into areas of the Frederick, C. Texas: environmental factors are most crucial in causing United States Army. Froome, R. Acknowledgements Glauberman, P. Graeme terrain of the Netherlands and Belgium. Journal of Taphonomy, 10 1 : Raw Materials.
Archaeometry, 54 1 : Mortimore, R. Peterborough: Geological and the East Midlands. Lithics, 6: Conservation Review Series. Honea, K. Plains Anthropologist, 9 23 : Science Progress, Ophoven, C. Reynier, M. British Solutions and Archaeological Flint Gloss. Archaeological Reports Limited. North American Archaeologist, Richards, J. France, 26 9 : Archaeometry, Science, : Verlag Archaeologica Archaeology, 13 1 : Judd, J.
Proceedings of the Geological Association, Schmalz, R. Flint Artefacts. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Kelly, A. Shepherd, W. Its Origin, Properties American Antiquity, London: Faber. Leicestershire County Council. Liege: th [Accessed: 11 December ]. Des Sciences. APAN Extern, They are one of the best known orders from the Medieval period and have fascinated the author as well as historians for many years, from their obscure, poorly recorded beginnings to their dramatic and much publicised downfall.
With their beginning roughly dated to upon permission from the Emperor of Jerusalem, Baldwin II, they originally were intended to provide protection for pilgrims to the Holy City. During and indeed after the Crusades they spread to other areas outside of the Holy Land, mainly Europe, and left a number of castles and churches behind until they eventually reached Ireland It is here that the author shall focus the majority of the essay.
Using a variety of published and online sources the author shall provide a brief background and timeline of the order, before moving to focus the majority of the essay on Templar activity in Ireland, looking at architectural remains as well as artefacts and written records which, it is hoped, shall shed some light on their role and various activities undertaken in this small country. Introduction An Introduction to the Order The Templars have become a popular image when The foremost theory on Templar formation one refers to medieval knights or the Crusades.
This theory stems from the existence Muslims to protect pilgrims and that they wore of many accounts from pilgrims travelling to chainmail armour covered with a plain white Jerusalem and other holy places. One such account mantle decorated with a single red cross on the by a pilgrim visiting Jerusalem in describes chest. Perhaps one of the main reasons their name the journey from Joppa to Jerusalem along a has survived is due to their appearance in video dangerous mountain route containing many places games and movies, although most of these portray for the Saracens to lie in wait for Christians Forey a very negative image.
As with most subjects, the , 6. The Russian monk Kevin of Kiev also only way to learn about the Templars is to read stresses the dangers of pilgrimage when he widely from a variety of sources to get any sort of travelled to Syria and describes how Ascalon was a clear picture of what went on inside this base to launch attacks on people travelling from mysterious order.
This paper focuses mainly on the the coast Forey , 6. Te pla s p ese e a d a haeological legacy in Ireland. The first part deals with when and why the In a small group of Western knights led by Templar Order was founded, while the second Hugh de Payns presented themselves to King examines how the Templars came to Ireland and Baldwin II of Jerusalem with the wish to form a explores what they left behind.
The only other orders to attain this privilege were the Hospitallers and Cistercians Frale , Despite the criticism they later faced, the original nine Templars would have been a godsend to the pilgrims. Since the conquest of Jerusalem there was a serious lack of manpower and it was almost impossible to spare soldiers to patrol pilgrim routes Upton-Ward , 6. Towards the end of poverty, chastity and obedience, the one the s the Templars emerged as a fully-fledged difference being that they were allowed to bear military order, the first of its kind Nicholson , arms ibid, 7.
The King assigned to the new order. The Pope s fa ou to a ds the O de p o pted a residence in his palace, close to the al-Aqsa Christian kings to provide gifts of land allowing the mosque, which the crusaders had identified as the Templars to establish headquarters in European Temple of Solomon. It is from this building that the countries such as Portugal, Spain, France, Britain Templars get their name, originally being referred and Ireland Upton-Ward , 4 , aiding their to as the Knights of the Temple. Within a few years dispersal as well as growth. The Irish Annals suggest that there is no evidence The Templar uniform included chainmail armour, of the Order in Ireland until King Henry II of leather boots and the iconic white mantle England arrived on the island.
After his conquest of reserved for the knights with a red cross on the the country he gifted land to the Templars by chest. Lower ranking squires and retainers wore charter Wood , His reasons for doing black or brown Wood , The chainmail this are unclear. However, Henry made a vow to was an idea taken from the Saracen warriors, who the Pope to travel to the Holy Land at the head of could move more freely and quickly than the a large army and to provide for Templars, as Western knights fighting in heavy plate armour. His decision to give Irish lands to the Order to three horses ibid.
The most famous seal of the can be interpreted as an attempt to carry out this order is that of two knights riding a single horse vow. It is not certain when the charter was issued, Fig. However, we now know the Deed on which the name Matthew the Templar is knights were wealthy enough to own a horse.
The Order was praised by Saint Bernard of Henry issued the deed on the condition that the Clairvaux in his De Laude nova militiae in which he Templars prayed for his soul and those of his claimed the Order had flourished for abandoning a ancestors. It included the grant of lands such as mindless wish for justice and worldly gain and the vills a settlement or taxable unit of Clontarf, instead focusing on protecting churches and the Dublin and Crook, mills near Waterford and poor ibid, 9.
Others were confused as to how a Wexford, the Church of Saint Alloch and its land military organisation could be considered a and 1, acres of land. Anglo-Norman lords and religious order when its members practiced the art I ish o ilit soo follo ed the Ki g s e a ple of war. Nevertheless, the Order was held in high gifting even more land to the Order. The De Lacy regard. This was family granted land in County Dublin, the Burkes in limited in cities; only one house belonging to them Sligo and the Fitzgeralds in Kildare. In a grant issued by Henry III they were declared free of all Surprisingly, apart from the Christ Church Deed, taxes, which included crops grown on their land as the only mention of the Templars in the Irish well as wood from their forests, all of which was Annals states that in the Orders of the immune to being seized by local lords Wood , Templars and Hospitallers were confirmed, which They were also free from having to pay tolls, is erroneous as they were confirmed in and which included their own markets and fairs Wood Wood , This was probably , King Edward I later gave the Templars intended to convey that in Pope Lucius total criminal and civil jurisdiction over their confirmed all privileges bestowed upon them by tenants and vassals, as well as any others who Pope Alexander Wood , He also freed them from all military service and ordinary feudal customs Wood , Duties and Privileges The knights showed an astounding unwillingness to become involved in matters outside of their Ireland was mainly under English rule at the time, own interests; several times they were asked to which meant that the Master of the Templars on supply weapons and men at arms for different the island was generally chosen from the English causes, such as protecting the country or fighting General Chapter.
Along with the Prior of the in the Scottish wars, but with the help of the Hospitallers and the Irish auditor, one of his duties Justiciar they were able to avoid having to do so was to audit the ou t s a ou ts. It does ot Wood , There is only one recorded appear, however, that the Master had established instance that they went against this, when they headquarters in Ireland. It is possible that this was acted as mediators between the Earl of Richmond due to visits around the country and frequent trips and Anglo-Norman Lords in Ireland who were to London as an officer Wood , To help manifesting against him due to allegations of aid the Crusades, once a year the Order was treason Wood , They were involved in allowed to collect donations from churches countless legal contests concerning presentation throughout Ireland to help buy food, horses, of churches and pleas of land.
However, due to armour and other necessary supplies for those many plea rolls being destroyed or missing, there Templars in the Holy Land, this earned them some are scant records with few details of what enemies within the Irish clergy Wood , The majority of younger Templar knights in Ireland Templar mills were one of their largest sources of were of Anglo-Norman descent with names such income. By law the tenants had to support the as de Langeport and de Pourbriggs appearing on mills belonging to their landlords or local ruler by documents. The lower ranks, which permitted bringing their crops and paying for them to be members of the citizen classes, contain Irish ground Wood , This strongly suggests that they were the Templars, which massively reduced any recruiting Irish men to fight in the Crusades.
In they were also granted permission to export wool for sale As well as gifts of land and property, the Templars and the quantity of crops they produced was so enjoyed a large number of other privileges. Their great that in the King granted a five-year churches were under their direct control and free licence to the Master to sell his wheat anywhere in from interdiction by priests or bishops Wood Ireland Wood , Rent from tenants , Despite their great wealth, items retrieved from the Templar properties, which were recorded and valued in minute detail, were very few in number and simple.
They consisted of farming implements, stock, ecclesiastical ornaments, garments, books very few of which were non-religious and a very surprising lack of arms Wood , Wood, in his paper, lists the weapons as follows: three swords in Clontarf, a military cloak in is the church and parts of the outer wall Kilsaran, two lances, one iron helmet, a balister Loughshinny and District Development and two baudreys and a bow in Kilclogan. Due to Association Those built on the continent typically had materials and cattle Wood , Other A lack of recorded information makes it difficult to examples include Temple Church in London and trace Templar activities in Ireland, however one the Convent of Christ Castle in Tomar, Portugal.
The church Ireland, so Templar churches cannot be identified graveyard contains a small number of Templar on the basis of their ground plan only. In most graves: large, flat, rectangular slabs with the cases the knights probably repaired the churches Templar sword and a lamb carved onto their on their land or built new ones similar to those surfaces. Both the Templars and Hospitallers had already found in Ireland.
Apart from one record of a small house being built near Carlingford Mac Ivor , Arrest and Downfall of the Order 74 , it is difficult to find any other traces of In January the Templars were arrested all buildings built by the Templars, although ruins on across Europe on allegations made by King Philip the Temple House estate in Sligo are believed to of France Frale , In Ireland the Templars represent the remains of a settlement built by the were held in Dublin Castle and thanks to Piers Templars after the land was given to them by the Gaveston, the King s Deputy, who arrived in July Burke family.
This particular building has been left , they were allowed to retain the income of in a ruinous state due to centuries of recycling of their manors in Kilclogan, Crook and Kilbarry in its building materials, however the vaulted ceilings order to provide themselves with sustenance are still visible in areas on the ground floor. Baldungan castle in Loughshinny is another castle During this time guardians were appointed to believed to have been built by the knights collect rent and manage their estates Wood , Loughshinny and District Development At the same time the King of England was Association On 19th June the Justiciar and treasurer their buildings would suggest that a large part of were ordered to provide for the expedition to this income went towards funding the crusaders as Scotland as well as supplies elsewhere in Ireland well as maintenance on their properties and other Wood , In comparison to the French Templars who were The Templars have left their mark on the land in tortured ruthlessly on orders of the King, the Irish the form of ruined buildings and in some cases knights were treated remarkably well.
They were place names, although it cannot be taken for accused of denying Christ and defiling the cross g a ted that just e ause a pla e has Te ple as during their initiation ceremony and various other part of its name that it is associated with the blasphemies such as worshipping idols, not Order.
Their activities in Ireland tell a different believing in the sacrament of the altar, and the story to the traditional image of the Knights Grand Master having the ability to absolve them Te pla. Thei la k of i te est i the ou t s from all sin Wood , During the trials affairs and unwillingness to fight in Ireland and the held in Christ Church they strongly denied all these Scottish wars are suggestive of a wish to live charges while their brothers in France were peacefully and engage in as little violence as confessing to almost every allegation made against possible, while dedicating themselves to their the due to to tu e.
These false o fessio s farms and fulfilling the oaths they made upon were later recanted once the Pope intervened entering the Order. Despite their wealthy estates, Frale , Due to insufficient evidence they lived frugally and had a deep interest in against the Irish Templars their only punishment religion. Very few non-religious books were was to do penance in monasteries while all of their recovered from their properties during their estates were given to the Hospitallers, a terrible dissolution, which contradicts accusations of thing for the Templars, considering the two orders blasphemy or devil worship.
The King of France, were enemies Wood , The Pope ho ought a out the Te pla s do fall, as officially disbanded the Templars in Conclusion As previously mentioned, the Irish Templars showed no sig s of i te est i the ou t s affai s Bibliography other than the Grand Master s duties in banking. Records from the trial also show that some of the Forey, A. From the e had o e fo t ea s e pe ie e ith the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries. Ireland was used as a sort of eti e e t ho e fo those knights no longer able to fight and who Frale, B.
Dunboyne: Maverick House collecting donations. Their dedication to the Publishers. County Louth. Journal of the Armagh Diocesan Historical Society, 4: Wood, H. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Nicholson, H. Leicester: Leicester University Press. This paper uses published and unpublished data from Devon and Cornwall to assess the potential role of metalworkers in Bronze Age society within local and national traditions. Devon and Cornwall are of particular interest as these counties have an abundance of tin, which is necessary for bronze production, and had continental trade links, which may have increased the significance of the metalsmith.
Twenty-two sites have been identified where metalworking evidence is associated with occupational contexts. This is supplemented by a further eight findspots where metalwork has been found in an occupational context and six findspots where Bronze Age metalworking evidence has been found without a specific context.
The presence of metalworking craftware associated with settlements indicates the possibility for permanent or semi-permanent metalworking structures, which may have held an extended significance. The sites are then discussed in relation to past and ongoing debates.
Overall, this paper offers an important contribution to the current understanding of how a metalsmith may have operated within prehistoric society, using the most current evidence, which provides a base from which to develop future research. Introduction ;  characterisation of a full-time, itinerant, specialist metalsmith by analysing the It is a well-established problem amongst Bronze social implications of the recovered material to Age archaeologists that whilst bronze artefacts better understand the individual e. Barber have been recovered in abundance, there is Kuijpers , 66 contests that by the comparatively little evidence for the metalworkers later Bronze Age, even farmers might have been that crafted them.
Metalsmithing required haphaza dl p oducing utilitarian tools, specialist knowledge and abilities and one might challengi g the aste s h pothesis. Such evidence, This paper considers past interpretations of the however, is severely lacking. It is this issue that metalworker and explores their role in Cornwall likely led Childe , 4 to describe Bronze Age and Devon based on current evidence. The terms etals iths as the aste s of these ste ies. Occupational sites with is also too spa se fo pe a e t o k-shops in evidence of metalworking are used to better full-ti e p odu tio.
Pea e suggests understand how a metalsmith might have instead a seasonal model responding to customer operated locally and nationally. Other authors distinguish between a village smith and a high-status smith Burgess , ; Gibson , whereby two types of production evolved: everyday items were The Academic Context produced by an individual or group with basic Firstly, though, it is important to contextualise the knowledge of metalsmithing, while more elaborate present paper in light of past research to illustrate objects required a specialised individual.
Childe ; archaeological record is difficult though. There is  viewed Bronze Age metalsmiths as highly limited burial evidence Barber , and skilled individuals, proposing an itinerant trader, occupation areas rarely indicate a full-time smith. This also meant they held no social produced significant quantities of pottery and ranking, despite their specialist abilities, and metalworking evidence, though this is largely explains why no graves are present Childe attributable only to refuse areas, rather than , Childe , suggested that Childe s theo ies a d the otio of a det i alised, itinerant smiths occupied temporary sites, such as full-time, itinerant metalsmith is now widely Heathery Burn cave, Co.
Durham, where considered problematic Gibson ; Kuijpers approximately two hundred objects, including Rowlands contends the position, weapons, tools, ornaments and metalworking status and actions of a metalsmith in the majority equipment, were recovered Britton The of ethnographic studies are conditioned by socio- uncertain contexts of these finds, however, make economic factors, such as settlement patterns and it difficult to identify the individual who deposited availability of raw material.
Metalsmiths often them. Mould fragments , which has been transferred by with no site context could be lost objects, whilst archaeologists onto the British Bronze Age small collections of moulds and crucibles such as at Burgess , ; Pearce Ethnography Grimes Graves, Norfolk Needham b , might has also emphasised the highly ritualised or be the result of a single casting episode. Mass political nature of metalsmithing in non-literate deposits of metalworking equipment such as at societies Barber , , which may have Jarslhof, Scotland Curle or Sigwells, impacted the social significance of a metalsmith.
Somerset Tabor and Randall forthcoming could This evidence can be highly subjective though, and represent larger production centres. Kristiansen and Larsson metalworking, though many of these could be In addition, many Age metalwork production centres across object moulds are missing from the archaeological southern Britain, contradicting the itinerant record. Needham , 46 suggests the model. The building popularity of metal detecting has also resulted in an increase of metal artefacts and thus common mould finds of stone and clay are even further in the minority.
This past research offers a framework for the present study, demonstrating the caution needed in proposing generalised conclusions and the necessary focus on the find context. To begin understanding this data it is therefore necessary to discuss sites individually, Thirty occupation areas were identified with before considering them as part of a wider debate. Only two Devon within the constraints of this paper so four sites sites have both metalwork and metalworking have been selected for discussion, with reference evidence, while nine are present in Cornwall Fig.
Occupational sites with associated metalwork are rare and have also been included here as metal Gwithian, Gwinear-Gwithian, Cornwall 7 tools required maintenance, which could indicate Excavations at the Bronze Age coastal settlement that a metalworker with a basic knowledge of at Gwithian produced extensive evidence of maintaining tools was present. Additionally, six farming, fishing and craftsworking Megaw et al.
This socketed axehead Pearce , The sword mould was well-prepared The tools are not explicit indicators of for casting and would have likely produced a metalworking and could have been multi- Wilburton or late Penard phase sword c. Whetstones have been recovered from 1, B. Needham forthcoming. Trethellan Farm hence, it is possible it was discarded. Northover Nowakowski , , Kuijpers , forthcoming contends that the debris is strongly suggests experimenting with this type of representative of Late Bronze Age metalworking in implement to analyse residual metallic traces and the area, particularly supported by the presence of overall use-wear to aid future interpretations.
Copper ingots at settlement Although these tools could represent sites, however, are relatively uncommon. For metalworking by individuals, it would not be instance, at both Churston Ferriers, Devon, and essential for a metalsmith to be undertaking these Tamarisk Farm, Cornwall, ingot fragments were acts. It is socketed axe mould were also recovered from possible therefore that metalworking was taking near the hearths of two Middle-Late Bronze Age place away from settlements.
Needham posited this mould produced Part-time individuals might have operated over an later Bronze Age Stogursey axeheads, contributing extended period at Higher Besore. Four cassiterite to his Bulfo d-Hels u a ufa tu i g t aditio , pebbles were recovered from a posthole of an and the deposition of these moulds near hearths earlier Bronze Age context, whilst crucible could possibly relate to the metalworking process.
The and Randall forthcoming. As a coastal site, it is presence of only debris poses a problem for possible that simpler metalworking might have interpreting the nature of the individual been conducted at Gwithian using sand moulds cf. The wide variety of industries present on site is possibly indicative of a multi-skilled community, Dean Moor, Dean Prior, Dartmoor, Devon 30 with the knowledge of producing basic utilitarian objects not confined to a single individual.
At least one broken or worn Truro College, Threemilestone, Kenwyn, Cornwall whetstone was recovered from each hut, though 10 whether they were utilised for maintaining metal objects is uncertain. Tin slag recovered from the At Higher Besore, four Late Bronze Age dwellings hearth of Hut 7 could be considered a direct were excavated with associated metallurgical indicator of smelting within an occupation area. This contrasts with earlier sites, such though, with limited other metallurgical debris; it as Tremough, Cornwall, where the variety of is possible that the slag was brought to the site mould types present indicate a diverse Middle accidentally from an external location Fox , Bronze Age metalsmith Jones forthcoming.
Alternatively, it is possible that the missing waste was deposited away from the settlement. The Dainton debris, however, was intentionally deposited rather than associated with a specific The context of a cassiterite pebble is particularly structure, making it difficult to understand the role interesting as it was found beneath a layer of of a smith at Dainton. It is estimated that two charcoal in the floor of Hut 5b Fox , Hut casting episodes took place using the moulds, 5 is a double structure, with two roundhouses while the crucibles indicate a minimum of six uses attached together 5a and 5b.
One whetstone was Jones forthcoming, Needham thus recovered from 5a, but no other metalworking suggests the crucibles were used elsewhere before indicators were recovered. There are limited signs being deposited at Dainton, possibly indicating the of economic activity, but it is possible the dual hut localised mobility of the smith. The crucibles were structure represents the division of space, with 5b locally produced Jones forthcoming and what representing a craftsworking area and 5a a living starts to emerge is the image of a localised area.
This type of dual-construction is uncommon specialist smith operating as required. There is still much metalworking evidence missing though and the actual site of smithing remains Dean Moor holds significance too because elusive. Needham , parallels Dainton metalworking evidence is unusual in southwestern with Norton Fitzwarren, Somerset; Fimber, upland areas. At movement of populations from lowland areas, Norton Fitzwarren, a collection of seventy clay where craftsworking took place from autumn to mould fragments were also found in a pit Ellis spring, to upland areas for agriculture over the and it is possible the conditions in a pit allow summer.
This model is certainly supported by the for mould fragments to survive in a recognisable current abundance of lowland Middle Bronze Age form Needham , Therefore, finds not settlements with extensive craftsworking deposited in such a manner might be less evidence. Dean Moor offers some slight evidence archaeologically visible now. Stoneycombe Quarry, Dainton, Ipplepen, Devon Discussion 35 Metalworking in Devon and Cornwall can thus be At Stoneycombe Quarry, at least one hundred and seen as a varied set of processes, and it is essential fifty clay mould fragments and forty three crucible to set this within a broader context.
Despite the occupational history. This might also have the volume of fragments, it is estimated that only been the case at Higher Besore. Call if interested. On Saturday March 1, the Squad responded for a female pedestrian struck by an automobile. As a result of the impact, she reportedly rolled onto the hood of the vehicle before falling to the ground.
Later that day, the Squad responded for another pedestrian hit by an automobile. She reported she struck her head on the hood of the car, which caused a laceration and swelling to her forehead and pain to her head, shoulder and hip. She was immobilized and transported to UMCP. A few hours later, the Squad responded for an individual who was found wandering around in a state of confusion.
The in reportedly admitted ingesting [re bottle of "sleeping aid pills The tered oxygen and rushed the p Capital Health Systems' Fuld Campus for treatment. On Thursday. March 6. The patient was dizzy and confused and suffered lacerations and abrasions to his face and wrist. For more information on donation or volunteering opportunities, call or visit www pfars.
Top scorers were Douglas Wellemeyer and Kyle Russo, who won 13th and 14th overall. All sidewalk proj- ects would levy a 50 percent cost on affected residents. A public hearing for the sidewalk projects is slated for Township Committee's regular April 7 meeting. The Township passed an ordinance by a vote amending smoke dele tor provisions and adding carbon monoxide alarm re- quirements in the Township. The ordinance stipulates that the Bureau of Fire Pre- vention inspects all one and two single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings for compliance with the Uni- form Fire Safety Act smoke detector and carbon monox- ide.
Sandra Persichetti, execu- tive director of Princeton Community Housing, which oversees a significant por- tion of affordable housing in the Princetons, worried that the fees would be too high for residents living in low- and moderate-income hous- ing. Princeton Shopping Center is under renovation, but our stores are open for business as usual. As always, we are here with everything you want, everything you need. Municipal Fire Official Ron Dilapo said that his depart- ment was trying to stay in line with state regulations.
We're not trying to make a profit on this — we're cov- ering our fees. Dilapo said. Deputy Mayor Bernie Mill- er voted against the measure, saying there were "too many unanswered questions about how to deal with this regard- ing affordable housing and we shouldn't do this until we have more questions. Mumford, former Member in the School of Mathemat- ics , and currently University Profes- sor at Brown University, have been chosen to re- ceive the Wolf Prize in Mathematics. Peter Goddard. Director of the Institute, commented, "We are delighted to see the seminal work in mathemat- ics and astrophysics being done by our Faculty.
Mem- bers, and Visitors receiving further international rec- ognition by the award of these important prizes. The Institute is very proud of the achievements of these math- ematicians and physicists, which have had a profound impact on the development of their subjects over recent decades. Deligne for his work on mixed Hodge the- ory, the Weil conjectures, and the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, and for his contributions to arithmetic. Griffiths will be honored for his work on variations of Hodge structures, the theo- ry of periods of abelian in- tegrals, and for his contribu- tions to complex differential geometry.
Mumford was chosen for his work on alge- braic surfaces, on geomet- ric invariant theory, and for laying the foundations of the modern algebraic theory of moduli of curves and theta functions. This year's Crafoord Prize rewards mathematical dis- coveries that are significant for the fundamental laws of nature and research on black holes and the early Universe. Half the prize will be shared by Mr. Witten and Mr. Kont- sevich for "their important contributions to mathemat- ics inspired by modern theo- retical physics.
Sunyaev for "his decisive contributions to high energy astrophysics and cosmology. Renovations New Homes Green Design lasleybrahaney. These include astronomy and mathemat- ics, geosciences, and bio- sciences with a particular emphasis on ecology. No bail was set and Mr. Tkacs was turned over to the Mer- cer County Sheriff's Depart- ment. Vladimir Voevodsky, 41, of Princeton Township was arrested March 4 at p. Voevodsky was taken to Borough headquarters where he was charged with obstruction and was later released. According to police re- ports, Mr.
Jackson attempt- ed to make a right turn from Alexander Street on to Fac- ulty Road and cut the right turn too tightly. His vehicle struck the traffic signal causing it to break off and land on top of the trailer, though Mr. Jackson drove the truck approximately 50 feet before the traffic light fell off on to Faculty Road. Jackson was charged with careless driving. Salazar allegedly ran from the officer and hid under- neath a car and subsequent- ly became disorderly when confronted by police in the parking lot at Wither- spoon Street.
He was taken to Borough headquarters and later released. James Tkacs, 54, of Princ- eton Township was arrested March 6, at p. Princeton Township Police responded to a motor vehicle accident on February 27 at p. Jackson, 32, of Charlotte Church, Va. Neiison Professional Organizer Time to get organized! The suspect, described as a short male, wearing a leather jacket and wool cap, then reportedly fled down Carnahan Place toward Henry Avenue. Police were not able to lo- cate the suspect.
John F. Police said Mr. Gore sold the CDs locally, which led them to his identification. Gore was also reportedly found to have some of the stolen items in his possession at his residence. Police said a "majority" of the stolen items had been recovered. Meyer, Experience Counts. When it comes to family law, complex and sensn. At Riker Danzig, our family law attorneys have the experience and resources to address and resolve your family's needs and legal concerns. Our practice is unique in its emphasis on sophisticated ii iani ial matters and issues beyond the tradto'i mal, iuch as 1 cohabitation agreements, dissolution of domestic I i.
We also have the seasoned counsel of former New Jersey State Supreme Court Justices, whose opinions have helped structure New Jersey family law, To find out how we can lend you strength when you need it the most call us today or contact Jan Bernstein at ]bemstein nker,com. We're committed to helping New jersey families, because we're one of them. We have lorj of room so the dogs have plenty of exercise, stimulation, and lOClailza tion.
Typically, there will be 30 or more dogs here each day. Customers come from all over the Princeton area and beyond. The Lawrence site offers an especially happy setting for the dogs, who are all ages, sizes, and breeds. In addi- tion to four outdoor yards, there are indoor play areas, and feeding, sleeping, and grooming areas, all of which are kept spotlessly clean. We love what we do. Every- one who works here loves animals. We offer cage-free over- nights, and there is always someone here with the dogs all night long. We are the only daycare facility in the area that provides 24 -hour service.
We want to see how It Intel 'I mingles with the other dogs, and how the dog acts without its owner. We u'. We don't take aggressive dogs. It is espe- cially important that they have Bordatella for kennel cough. Chi- huahuas to Great Danes have been clients, with all sizes and breeds in between, reports Ms. We put dogs who are a little more mellow together, and we find that the dogs often form friendships with each other. They are usually very well-behaved. Generally, clients bring their dogs' own food, and the staff will also give medi- cations, if needed.
Many dogs come five days a week; others three times or once a week. Typical overnights are five to seven days, but many dogs often stay longer. Sleeping accommodations are on the second floor, with bunk beds and floor beds available. We don't have customers. We have relationships. Nobody Beat! Belle Mead Garage for Service! There is always someone here with the dogs. This is so important.
We offer quality care for the dogs and peace of mind for their owners, who know their pet is in a safe, happy, and supervised environment. Dog counselor Christine Kramer holds Jake, a Cavalier spaniel-papillion mix. Some owners miss their dogs so much, they will even call and ask to speak to the dog, notes Ms. He was very upset because he was looking for his wife, and now, he just wanted to make sure his dog was safe.
Pets are such an important part of the family. Lini, who grew up with ani- mals, and as she says, "I was always the kid bringing home the strays. My first job was as a vet tech, and when I was 19, I started Whisker Watchers, a pet-sitting and dog-walking business, which continues to serve the area. Best Service "I really love doing the day- care now, and I feel we pro- vide the best service. When I first started, people said, 'You can't have dogs togeth- er. There will be problems. Dogs are pack animals. They like to be to- gether.
They need to exercise to get rid of their extra en- ergy. It's important for dogs to be socialized. It's better for the dog, and the younger, the better. After the bath, dogs are dried in an open pen by an air dryer. Obedience and general command training is also available, as is transportation, if clients need their dogs to be picked up and taken home. Lini is proud that All Good Dogs Daycare has filled an important need, which continues to increase.
Knowing that we offer such a valuable ser- vice and that the dogs love to come here is very rewarding. We work very hard. We have a dedicated, experienced staff who first and foremost love dogs. The right people make it work. Web- site: www. Please call the Admission Office: x www. A list of his degrees includes a B. I then got so busy tu- toring kids privately that I had to turn some away.
That led to the ePrep on-line vid- eo-based system. It can help kids of all ability levels reach their educational goals by offer- ing expert instruction and providing the knowledge and strategies proven to maximize test scores. Us- ing a well-established "test- grade-review" methodology, continued practice, and an on-line video-based format, ePrep makes connecting with an expert affordable and possible anytime and from virtually anywhere in the world. Schellscheidt's love of teaching continued to surface throughout his ca- reer.
He had tutored from the time he graduated from Princeton, and later taught at the Hun School and at Rutgers. Academic Standard "I've been tutoring part- or full-time for 17 years. I like meeting kids and helping them succeed," he explains. When you engage in preparing for an activity like the SAT, you can see im- provement in a short time. If kids prepare for the SAT properly, they not only can improve their scores, but gain important learning and study skills. Schellscheidt points out that there are four options available.
The first is totally electronic in which students purchase the product and receive test booklets and videos in the mail. Students will take the test, register answers on a paper with a pencil, just as will be the case during the actual test. The answers will be graded electronically, with commentary by educa- tion experts. The second option is a hy- brid program in which the same package is purchased, but with the added compo- nent of meeting with Mr.
Schellscheidt once a week for private tutoring. He also gives the student a weekly on-line assignment. A third possibility enables Get a head start! Mary E. Early here that the detection and treatment jcture known are the keys to prevent- cular mesh- ing optic nerve damage a drain for the and blindness from glau- s humor that coma. Our prac- less than 20 tice is located at Montgom-? Schellscheidt's supervi- sion. The fourth option is one- on-one private tutoring with Mr. In this case, he notes, "When a student first comes in. I'll give a practice test for 20 to 25 minutes in math, critical reading, or writing.
I'll grade the test. We'll re- view the wrong answers, the ones that were skipped, the right answers, but that were guessed, and also the right ones that took the student too long to complete. Schellscheidt emphasizes the importance of repetition and practice. The more prac- tice you've had, the better you will do. If the kids work on one or two subjects, I can typically make a difference in five weeks. With more time, I can change think- ing and problem-solving, primarily by practice tests and review and by demon- strating how to approach the problem.
The program is designed to incorporate practice by doing. Schellscheidt's private students from the class of were accepted in such colleges and universities as Brown, Bucknell. Colgate, Columbia, Cornell. Dart- mouth, Georgetown, NYU. Princeton, and the Univer- sity of Pennsylvania. His private students are primar- ily from the Princeton and Montgomery area, and on- line students come from all over the world. Schells- cheidt. With our pro- gram, students can access on-line expert teachers in offered subject areas.
They will get feedback from the computer. As the student works through the course, ePrep continually analyzes the student's po- tential, directs his or her ef- forts, and tracks progress.
Full text of "Town Topics (Princeton), Mar. 12, "
An electronic "study hall" offers more than sub- ject lessons on math, critical reading, writing, and SAT strategies. This is an important question type. It's on every test. Standard Package ePrep has initiated pi- lot programs in six public schools in the U.
There are vid- eos in the program, created by Mr. I look forward to do- ing this. The main point is that we're do- ing this is in a very novel way, in a way that is cost-. We are distinguished by the way we help kids learn, including content, problem-solving, and thinking skills.
These are test-taking strategies that can help not only with the SAT, but in college and later In life. Schellscheidt's hours are by appointment. Website, www. March 12 5 p. Thursday, March 13 a. Jersey Sym- phony Orchestra; Richardson Auditorium. Heritage 'enter, Mor rlsvllle, Pa. Also Saturday at 8 p. New Brunswick. Also Sat- urday at 8 p. Also Saturday at 8 and p. Also Saturday at 4 and 8 p. Saturday, March 15 a. Sunday, March 16 3 p. Monday, March 17 Recycling 7 p. Tuesday, March 18 p. Wednesday, March 19 2 p.
Ronald K. Smeltzer; Suzanne Patterson Build- ing. Thursday, March 20 7 p. Welcome to Nollywood; Princeton Public Library. March 21 8 p. Saturday, March 22 p. Monday, March 24 p. March 26 p. Todd; Princeton Public Library. Rocky Hill. Thursday, March 27 6 p. Also Fri- day at a. Friday, March 28 8 p. All Saints' Church. Call Wednesday, March a. Aerobics; SPB. Let's Talk; RC. America: ; SPB. Memoir Writing; SC. Memory Improvement; SPB.
Let's Talk in English; SC p. Art with Bob; SPB. Short Fiction; SPB. Let's Talk Too; SC. FitRhythms; Elm Court. Thursday, March am Adv. Bridge; SPB. Art with Hannah; SPB. Contemporary Poems; SPB. Friday, March a. Tax Help; SPB. Aeneid; SPB. Ping-Pong; SPB. Chair Exercise. SC p. Monday, March a. Group Drumming; SPB. Beginning English; HBH. Chair Exercise; SC. Wonder of Wordplay; SPB. Yoga; HBH. Tuesday, March a. Blood Pressure; RC. Writing, Acts; SPB. Great Decisions; BH. Strength Training; SPB. Bridge; SPB 1 p. Computer Lab; SPB. Cosmic Perspectives; SPB. Easter Origami; SPB. Blood Pressure; SC.
Let's Talk in English; SC. Science Cafe; SPB. Short Fiction; SPB p. Marc Alan Drimmer, M. Most deserving, however — and a wise choice to keep the Board in balance — is Princeton Borough Councilman Andrew Koontz. Having demonstrated his popularity and skill in continu- ally winning elections, Koontz is well known for his advo- cacy of tight budgeting, expanding recreational activities, and a community-orientation to local policing.
As chair of the local Democratic Municipal Committee, he has built a strong organizational base to advance a pro- gressive people-oriented agenda. He knows how to tackle redevelopment projects, to untangle traffic congestion, support local retail, and expand parking as well as transit opportunities. His experience with managing many cost-saving shared services in the Princetons - joint fire, recreation, library, community TV, health, human service, sewer, and plan- ning departments - has won him not only support in the Borough but in surrounding Princeton Township as well.
Andrew Koontz brings not only knowledge and energy, but also a sharp eye that would well serve the Freeholder Board and the interests of all Mercer County taxpayers. Reed is a former mayor of Princeton Borough In Acknowledging the Positives of OneCard, Local Merchants Could Save in the Long Term To the Editor: There seems to be a lot of misinformation circulating about the recently announced Heartland Payment Systems Community OneCard, and I'd like to share my thoughts on the economics and benefits of accepting and using the card for merchants and the community.
First let me state that this card's role in life appears to be one of a plastic Robin Hood, taking from one to give to another. Presently, credit card issuing banks take a percentage from each purchase. The Heartland Community OneCard takes a percentage as well, however percent is redirected back into the local community. Heartland is proposing a 1. In my estab- lishment, American Express accounts for about a third of total charges, resulting in my average rate being 2. This means that I can expect to save 33 per- cent on credit transaction fees with OneCard purchases, while knowing that the 1.
Above this amount the vendor would actually save money. If widespread merchants join in, and cardholders use the card regularly, the library and other non-profits could be on far better footing. Yet another merchant suggested that this program is discriminatory to those who do not participate. I agree. I also say to this merchant that advertising is discrimina- tory against those that do not advertise. Consumers are discriminating in their taste, their desire for quality, and many other factors. Marketing costs money. I suggest that any merchant who chooses not to participate is no different than one who selects to advertise in one form of media versus another.
OneCard holders are empowered. The individual chooses where to shop and what card they wish to use. They may choose to direct these funds to the library, any other par- ticipating non-profit, or they can keep the cash. If they donate the funds they also enjoys a tax deduction for these amounts.
From the library perspective, I think it is a huge mistake not to embrace such an innovative idea. It saddens me to think that this delay on the part of the library may remove it from the keystone position in the minds and wallets of the OneCard carrying population, or worse, allowing an equally deserving organization the opportunity to jump at this unique and prestigious position of "sponsor". The event is intended to retire unser- viceable flags. This ceremony creates a particularly dignified and sol- emn occasion for the retirement of unserviceable flags. According to Flag Rules and Regulations, "when a flag has served Its useful purpose, it should be destroyed.
For the individual citizens, this : should be done discreetly so the act of destruction is not perceived as a protest of desecration. The flag drop off box is located at Mercer Engine Com- pany 3. New Jer sey. Everyone is invited to come. If you have any questions, call between 9 a. On hand were "ce- lebrity" bartenders. Tom McCool. McCool did a fantastic job of making Irish coffee for the packed bar and Mr. A good time was had by all. Buckingham Place can help! It's distur- bance. Ac- cording to the authorized chronology ac- companying Conversations with Edward Albee The Zoo Story, "as a present to himself on his thirtieth birthday.
As he tells one interviewer, he "lived" The Catcher in the Rye. Stage vm. Page Reading the texi oi plays without see- ing them performed is a bit like reading song li iic s without hearing the music. You need the dimension of performance and all the nuances that accomplished or In- spired actors can communicate or discover in the playing. Of course nothing can match the excitement of see- ing and hearing what an inspired cast can do with those words, particularly when the actors are Richard Burton and Eliza- beth Taylor in the film version of Virginia Woolf Here you see a real-life couple giving the performances of their movie lives as a couple at war and at play, tooth and nail, no holds barred, and obviously enjoy- ing themselves as they tear into one another.
The Collected Plays of Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf broke the bounds of the medium; it was not merely a play, it was a phenomenon, an unprecedented theatrical and cul- tural event. I can't find the exact phrasing of Brit- ish critic Kenneth Tynan's response but it was some- thing like "Why is it that excite- ment like this al- ways comes from America? The arts and entertainment world wasn't exactly a wasteland in the years just before Virginia Woolf exploded on the scene. But this play about an academic couple at a small New England college what could be duller to imagine?
Edward Albee gleefully destroying and putting each other back together again sent off shock waves that reached beyond New York three years before the film was released. How was such a thing possible? You could say it was word of mouth, an appropriate phrase given the word-drunk brilliance of George and Martha in full furious flight — but that isn't enough to explain the way the play reached into every corner of the country.
Satur- day Review critic John Gassner wrote in June that the re- cord "comes alive as few previously recorded perfor- mances of plays have done," and that the dramatic action is delivered "powerfully with- out recourse to other theatrical elements. Albee had classical music in mind, but the furious, slashing George- and-Martha counterpoint could also be compared to a couple of dueling rappers using all the word-weapons in their rep- ertoire. Around the same time the record came out, the first album by Mike Nichols and Elaine May was in the stores and undoubt- edly outselling the more expensive Albee set.
But just as people all over the country memorized Nichols and May routines like the one about the adultress and her lover guiltily and tearfully listing the virtues of the betrayed husband "He's a saint, he's a saint! It's even said that Bette Davis and James Mason were mentioned for the lead roles when the film was cast imagine Bette Davis do- ing a faculty wife imitating Bette Davis.
It was also his debut. Blazing the Way The movie version of Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf had a substantive impact on Hollywood, evidence of which can be found on the documentary about the making of the film that comes with the DVD. According to Jack Valenti, who had just taken over as the president of the Motion Picture Association of America, the movie "drove a stake into the heart of censorship.
It took some determined diplomatic maneuvering to get Edward Albee's trailblazer onto the screen virtually intact. The fact that Hollywood wasn't afraid of Virginia Woolf opened the way for the nudity in Antonioni's Blow-Up the same year and for everything that has followed, for better or for worse.
Nl Krwiv. March a. Tuesday- April 1: a. April 2: a. Book donations accepted through Friday. This initiative will enable the library to contribute religion content to Microsoft's Live Search Books service and thus in- crease worldwide access to its historic religion collec- tion. Princeton Seminary Pres- ident Iain Torrance said, "This seminary exists to serve the church both near and far.
Continuity, depth, and access are what make a library great. Microsoft will help us to be accessible as never before. We are really grateful for their partner- ship. Col- laboration with Microsoft and its technologies, which are designed to assist dis- covery and use, continues the Seminary's investment in enhancing online resources. Microsoft will give the Semi- nary digital copies of all the materials and allow them to be shared with non-com- mercial institutions and non- profit organizations, which will enable the Seminary to advance in a concrete way the vision of a theological library for the world, and en- able students, researchers, and scholars global access to Princeton Theological Seminary books in the pub- lic domain.
One of the Seminary's goals in this project is to bring online some of the treasures in its library col- lection representing, for ex- ample, religious texts from the early history of printing, editions of John Calvin and John Knox, writings of the Puritans, and hymn verses of Isaac Watts. The digitization is expect- ed to begin in the first quar- ter of and will cover the scanning of thousands of books. Microsoft is scanning only out-of-copyright mate- rials, focusing primarily on pre content.
The digi- tization will be performed by the Internet Archive, which has made open access a core component of its mission. Participation in the Micro- soft Initiative marks a sin- gular milestone on the way to the Seminary's bicenten- nial in , and the library takes pleasure in working in this collaboration with Mi- crosoft and the Internet Ar- chive. Crocco, James Lenox Librarian of the Semi- nary. We are proud to have the necessary technical and organizational infrastructure to support this partnership," he said.
For more information, contact Donald M. Vorp, Princeton Theological Semi- nary Library, at don. Out of submissions, the Hun Review was recognized as an exemplary school literary magazine and was judged to be at the Su- perior Level. While some faculty mem- bers contribute to the mag- azine. The Hun Review is written, edited, designed, and produced entirely by students. The School sup- ports the program financial- ly and Mr. Charles O'Brien serves as an advisor to the editorial board. According to Mr. A Hot Thriller RomanceAnna earns a living as a luxury escort giving pleasure and fulfilling A Hot Thriller RomanceAnna earns a living as a luxury escort giving pleasure and fulfilling fantasies to rich and powerful men, however in her private life she is a simple girl.
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With an attack against the Las Vegas Monorail, CIA Director Alexandra Dupuis calls in the agent she counts on in dangerous situations - even though that agent feels betrayed by the very government she serves, the very country she protects Literary Agent: A Thriller. Jaclyn Johnson is back in an all-new, pulse-pounding adventure, and this time, the deck is Jaclyn Johnson is back in an all-new, pulse-pounding adventure, and this time, the deck is stacked fully against her!