Head Games, The Simple Physics of Protective Helmets

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Both players and parents perceived recreational facility food options as unhealthy and identified that travel and time constraints contributed to less healthy choices. Results indicate recreation facilities are only one of a range of environments that influence eating behaviours of adolescent ice hockey players. This study determined whether ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution CES vs.

Seven males Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, before the 3 rd period P3 , and after the final sprint in the protocol. Compared to dehydration in the NF trial Mean core temperature was reduced by CES ingestion throughout the protocol These results suggest that compared to progressive dehydration, staying hydrated by ingesting a CES helps preserve performance, while reducing thermal and perceptual strains, in P3 of cycle-based simulation of ice hockey exercise.

These benefits are observed despite greater glycogen use in P3 with CES ingestion. Concussion in the international ice hockey World Championships and Olympic Winter Games between and Concussions in sports are a growing concern. This study describes the incidence, injury characteristics and time trends of concussions in international ice hockey.

The average injury rate IR for concussion was 1. However, the annual IR for concussion in the men's tournaments has been lower than that in the World Junior tournaments since When a concussion occurred with contact to a flexible board, the IR was 0. In contrast, the IR was 1. In the men's tournaments, the trend of concussions caused by illegal hits decreased over the study period.

After the 4th Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport was published , none of the concussed players in the men's WC returned to play on the day of injury. The annual risk of concussion in the men's WC has decreased during the study period.

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This was most likely due to a reduction in illegal hits. The risk of concussion was significantly lower if games were played on rinks with flexible boards and glass. Rink modifications, improved education and strict rule enforcement should be considered by policymakers in international ice hockey.

Evaluation of cardiovascular demands of game play and practice in women's ice hockey. Preparation for the physical demands of competition often involves game simulation during practice. This paradigm is thought to promote physiological adaptations that enhance maximal performance. However, a mismatch between practice intensity and actual competition intensity may not provide adequate training to achieve optimal game-play fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of practice in meeting the cardiovascular demands of a women's ice hockey game.

Heart rate HR data from 11 U. National Women's Ice Hockey team members were collected 5-second intervals during a game and a typical practice session. Data was normalized to individual HRmax determined during Vo 2 max testing. Working time was defined as a game shift or practice-working interval. Elite women hockey players experience significantly greater cardiovascular load during game play than during practice. This mismatch in cardiovascular demand may prevent players from achieving "game shape," thus affecting competition play.

Measuring static seated pressure distributions and risk for skin pressure ulceration in ice sledge hockey players. To determine whether sledge hockey players with physical disability have higher average seated pressures compared to non-disabled controls. Fifteen age-matched controls without physical disability and 15 experimental participants with physical disability were studied using a pressure mapping device to determine risk for skin pressure ulceration and the impact of cushioning and knee angle positioning on seated pressure distributions.

Regardless of participant group, cushioning, or knee angle, average seated pressures exceeded clinically acceptable seated pressures. Implications for Rehabilitation Ice sledge hockey is a fast growing adaptive sport. Adaptive sports have been associated with several positive improvements in overall health and quality of life, though may be putting players at risk for skin ulceration.

Measured static seated pressure in sledges greatly exceeds current clinically accepted clinical guidelines. The frequency and potential long-term effects of sport-related traumatic brain injuries TBI make it a major public health concern. The culture within contact sports, such as ice hockey , encourages aggression that puts youth at risk of TBI such as concussion.


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Newspaper reports play an important role in conveying and shaping the culture around health-related behaviors. We qualitatively studied reports about sport-related TBI in four major North American newspapers over the last quarter-century. We used the grounded-theory approach to identify major themes and then did a content analysis to compare the frequency of key themes between — and — The major themes were: perceptions of brain injury, aggression, equipment, rules and regulations, and youth hockey.

Across the full study period, newspaper articles from Canada and America portrayed violence and aggression that leads to TBI both as integral to hockey and as an unavoidable risk associated with playing the game. They also condemned violence in ice hockey , criticized the administrative response to TBI, and recognized the significance of TBI. In Canada, aggression was reported more often recently and there was a distinctive shift in portraying protective equipment as a solution to TBI in earlier years to a potential contributing factor to TBI later in the study period.

Newspapers from both countries showed similar recent trends in regards to a need for rule changes to curb youth sport-related TBI. This study provides a rich description of the reporting around TBI in contact sport. Understanding this reporting is important for evaluating whether the dangers of sport-related TBI are being appropriately communicated by the media. Trends in North American newspaper reporting of brain injury in ice hockey. We used the grounded-theory approach to identify major themes and then did a content analysis to compare the frequency of key themes between and American newspapers gave a greater attention to 'perception of risks' and the role of protective equipment, and discussed TBI in a broader context in the recent time period.

Ice hockey lung — a case of mass nitrogen dioxide poisoning in the Czech Republic. Nitrogen dioxide NO2 is a toxic gas, a product of combustion in malfunctioning ice -resurfacing machines. NO2 poisoning is rare but potentially lethal. The authors report a case of mass NO2 poisoning involving 15 amateur ice hockey players in the Czech Republic.

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All players were treated in the Department of Respiratory Diseases at Brno University Hospital in November — three as inpatients because they developed pneumonitis. All patients were followed-up until November Complete recovery in all but one patient was achieved by December None of the 15 patients developed asthma-like disease or chronic cough.

Corticosteroids appeared to be useful in treatment. Electric-powered ice -resurfacing machines are preferable in indoor ice skating arenas.

THE HEAD PROTECTION ALTERNATIVE TO USING HELMET FOR SKATING OR BIKE // ENNUI CITY BEANIE // VLOG68

Psychologic, situational, and physiologic variables and on- ice performance of youth hockey goalkeepers. To determine the relationship between psychologic, situational, and physiologic variables and on- ice performance of youth hockey goalkeepers. This study was structured to identify relationships and predictors of goalie performance. Because athletes playing solo positions in team sports have not been analyzed in depth in terms of precompetition anxiety and because goalkeeper performance is critical to game outcome, we undertook a study of 43 goalies at a hockey camp.

These goalies completed psychometric inventories to assess trait and state anxiety, confidence, life stress, and social support. Holter monitors measured heart rate while the goalies rotated through on- ice stations. Goalies were videotaped at the puck-shooting machine station, and performance percent saves was calculated.

Trait somatic anxiety and positive mood state ability to share had different but significant relationships with on- ice performance. Older goalies performed well at a high level of arousal.

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Better performing goalies were more experienced, had faster heart rates "in the net," and had lower scores on all measures of anxiety. The development and reliability of a repeated anaerobic cycling test in female ice hockey players. The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the reliability of a repeated anaerobic power cycling test designed to mimic the repeated sprinting nature of the sport of ice hockey. The test consisted of "all-out" cycling for 5 seconds separated by 10 seconds of low-intensity cycling, repeated 4 times.

The relative load factor used for the resistance setting was equal to 0. The peak 5-second PO was The fatigue index averaged The intraclass correlation coefficient for peak 5-second, mean PO, and fatigue index was 0. This study reports the methodology of a repeated anaerobic power cycling test that was reliable for the measurement of PO and calculated fatigue index in varsity women ice hockey players and can be used as a laboratory-based assessment of repeated anaerobic fitness.

Skating mechanics of change-of-direction manoeuvres in ice hockey players. Ice hockey requires rapid transitions between skating trajectories to effectively navigate about the ice surface. Player performance relates in large part to effective change-of-direction manoeuvres, but little is known about how those skills are performed mechanically and the effect of equipment design on them.

The purpose of this study was to observe the kinetics involved in those manoeuvres as well as to compare whether kinetic differences may result between two skate models of varying ankle mobility. Kinetic data were collected using force strain gauge transducers on the blade holders of the skates. Bipartite patella usually is an asymptomatic anatomical variant. However, in some adolescent athletes, it causes anterior knee pain, resulting in decreased participation and performance.

We report the case of a high-level adolescent ice hockey player who underwent successful arthroscopic excision with preservation of the lateral retinaculum of a symptomatic bipartite patella after failed nonoperative treatment. The patient returned to play by 6 weeks, and month subjective follow-up scores showed high satisfaction and good clinical outcomes. For patients with a symptomatic bipartite patella, arthroscopic surgery is a good option for reducing pain and returning the athlete to competition.

Cardiovascular prevention in a high risk sport, ice hockey : applications in wider sports physical therapy practice. Although acute myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death are relatively rare occurrences in athletics, cardiovascular accidents do occur.

This manuscript presents information on the cardiovascular risks in athletics. In addition, information is provided on screening for cardiovascular risk - including history taking, chart review, physical examination - and the appropriate guidelines on the treatment of athletes found to be at risk.

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For the purpose of this article, the sport of ice hockey is used to illustrate the subject matter and highlight the behaviors in sport that carry cardiovascular risk. Physical therapists have ethical and legal responsibility to undertake the necessary screening procedures to recognize and respond to any signs of cardiovascular risk in their clients. The purpose was to identify off- ice testing variables that correlate to skating and game performance in Division I collegiate women ice hockey players.

Twenty female, forward and defensive players The on- ice RSS test included 6 timed Game performance was evaluated with game statistics: goals, assists, points, plus-minus, and shots on goal SOG. Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships. Percent fat mass was positively correlated p ice hockey players may be enhanced by greater MIP, repeat acceleration ability, and mode-specific training.

Skating performance in women ice hockey players may be enhanced by improving body composition, anaerobic power, and both lower and upper body strength in off- ice training. Trends in reporting of mechanisms and incidence of hip injuries in males playing minor ice hockey in Canada: a cross-sectional study. There has been a noted increase in the diagnosis and reporting of sporting hip injuries and conditions in the medical literature but reporting at the minor hockey level is unknown.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the trend of reporting hip injuries in amateur ice hockey players in Canada with a focus on injury type and mechanism. A retrospective review of the Hockey Canada insurance database was performed and data on ice hockey hip injuries reported between January and June were collected. Reported cases of ice hockey hip injuries were analyzed according to age, mechanism of injury, and injury subtype. Annual injury reporting rates were determined and using a linear regression analysis trended to determine the change in ice hockey hip injury reporting rate over time.

One hundred and six cases of ice hockey -related hip injuries were reported in total. The majority of injuries Most injuries were caused by a noncontact mechanism From to , the number of reported hip injuries increased by 5. Reporting of hip injuries in amateur ice hockey players is increasing.

A more accurate injury reporting system is critical for future epidemiologic studies to accurately document the rate and mechanism of hip injury in amateur ice hockey players. The primary objective of this study was to determine a relationship between aerobic capacity V. O2max and fatigue from high-intensity skating in elite male hockey players. The subjects were twenty-four male members of the senior national ice hockey team of Poland who played the position of forward or defence.

Each subject completed an on- ice Repeated-Skate Sprint test RSS consisting of 6 timed m sprints, with 30 s of rest between subsequent efforts, and an incremental test on a cycle ergometer in the laboratory, the aim of which was to establish their maximal oxygen uptake V. Sex differences in white matter alterations following repetitive subconcussive head impacts in collegiate ice hockey players. Repetitive subconcussive head impacts RSHI may lead to structural, functional, and metabolic alterations of the brain.

While differences between males and females have already been suggested following a concussion, whether there are sex differences following exposure to RSHI remains unknown. The aim of this study was to identify and to characterize sex differences following exposure to RSHI. Twenty-five collegiate ice hockey players 14 males and 11 females, Significant differences between the sexes were primarily located within the superior longitudinal fasciculus SLF , the internal capsule IC , and the corona radiata CR of the right hemisphere RH.

Ice skaters sustain a significant number of head injuries each winter. We are the first to implement an all-ages helmet policy at a university-based Canadian arena. We report our experience from a cross-sectional observational study as well as the policy's consequences on helmet use and skating participation. Educational programming was provided prior to policy implementation. The number of skaters observed was essentially unchanged by the policy; skaters were observed pre-implementation, while were observed post-implementation during the same number of observation-hours.

Falls were observed among all age groups, with preponderance among those aged An all-ages helmet policy was successful both in achieving helmet use among all skaters and in maintaining participation rates. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training HIIT on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on- ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Moral disengagement in the legitimation and realization of aggressive behavior in soccer and ice hockey. The aim of the present study was to verify that the level of tolerance for aggression is higher in a collective context than in an individual context polarization effect , and to test the association between moral disengagement, team and self-attitudes toward aggression, and tolerance and realization of aggressive acts in Swiss male soccer and ice hockey.

In individual or collective answering conditions, soccer and 98 ice hockey players viewed videotaped aggressive acts and completed a questionnaire, including measures of the perceived legitimacy of videotaped aggression, of the teammates, coach, and self attitudes toward transgressions modified TNQ , of the moral disengagement in sport modified MDSS-S , and of self-reported aggressive behavior.

A multilevel analysis confirmed a strong polarization effect on the perception of instrumental aggression, the videotaped aggressive acts appearing more tolerated in the collective than in the individual answering condition. Using a structural equation modeling, we found that the moral disengagement, which mediates the effects of perceived coach and ego attitudes toward transgressions, correlates positively with the tolerance of hostile aggression within teams, and with the level of aggressive acts reported by the participants.

Motivational climate, goal orientation, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment within Finnish junior ice hockey players. The aim of this study was to investigate the relations among situational motivational climate, dispositional approach and avoidance achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment in Finnish male junior ice hockey players. The sample comprised junior B-level male players with a mean age of Players filled questionnaires tapping their perceptions of coach motivational climate, achievement goals, perceived sport ability, and enjoyment.

For the statistical analysis, players were divided into high and low perceived sport ability groups. Multigroup structural equation modeling SEM revealed an indirect path from task-involving motivational climate via task-approach goal to enjoyment. Additionally, SEM demonstrated four other direct associations, which existed in both perceived ability groups: from ego-involving motivational climate to ego-approach and ego-avoidance goals; from ego-approach goal to ego-avoidance goal; and from task-avoidance goal to ego-avoidance goal.

Additionally, in the high perceived sport ability group, there was an association from task-involving motivational climate to enjoyment. The results of this study reveal that motivational climate emphasizing effort, personal development and improvement, and achievement goal mastering tasks are significant elements of enjoyment in junior ice hockey. Neck injuries presenting to emergency departments in the United States from to for ice hockey , soccer, and American football.

Objective: To examine the number and rate of neck injuries in the community as a whole for ice hockey , soccer, and American football by analysing data from patients presenting to emergency departments in the United States from to Methods: Data compiled for the US Consumer Product Safety Commission were used to generate estimates for the total number of neck injuries and the more specific diagnoses of neck fractures, dislocations, contusions, sprains, strains, and lacerations occurring nationally from to These data were combined with yearly participation figures to generate rates of injury presenting to emergency departments for each sport.

Results: There were an estimated neck injuries from ice hockey , 19 from soccer, and from American football. These could be broken down as follows: contusions, sprains, or strains from ice hockey , 17 from soccer, and from football; neck fractures or dislocations from ice hockey , from soccer, and from football; neck lacerations for ice hockey , 0 for soccer, and for football.

The rates for total neck injuries and combined neck contusions, sprains, or strains were higher for football than for ice hockey or soccer in all years for which data were available. Conclusion: The rate of neck injury in the United States was higher in football than in ice hockey or soccer in the time period studied. To examine the number and rate of neck injuries in the community as a whole for ice hockey , soccer, and American football by analysing data from patients presenting to emergency departments in the United States from to Data compiled for the US Consumer Product Safety Commission were used to generate estimates for the total number of neck injuries and the more specific diagnoses of neck fractures, dislocations, contusions, sprains, strains, and lacerations occurring nationally from to There were an estimated neck injuries from ice hockey , 19, from soccer, and from American football.

These could be broken down as follows: contusions, sprains, or strains from ice hockey , 17, from soccer, and from football; neck fractures or dislocations from ice hockey , from soccer, and from football; neck lacerations for ice hockey , 0 for soccer, and for football. The rate of neck injury in the United States was higher in football than in ice hockey or soccer in the time period studied. A method for determining the tridimensional angular displacement of skates during the two-legged stop in ice hockey was developed and validated.

The angles were measured by geometry, using a cinecamera and specially equipped skates. The method provides a new tool for kinetic analyses of skating movements. Investigated enforcement patterns and athlete compliance with the National Collegiate Athletic Association rule requiring the wearing of mouthguards in men's collegiate ice hockey games during one season. Surveys of athletic trainers indicated that the use of mouthguards in competition was not consistently enforced by athletic trainers, coaches,….

Proprioception of foot and ankle complex in young regular practitioners of ice hockey , ballet dancing and running. This study examined the proprioception of the foot and ankle complex in regular ice hockey practitioners, runners, and ballet dancers. A total of 45 young people with different exercise habits formed four groups: the ice hockey , ballet dancing, running, and sedentary groups. The effect of laryngoscope handle size on possible endotracheal intubation success in university football, ice hockey , and soccer players. To assess the effectiveness of a standard long-handle laryngoscope and a short-handle laryngoscope on ease of possible intubation in football, ice hockey , and soccer players.

Prospective crossover study. University Sport Medicine Clinic. Sixty-two university varsity football 62 males , 45 ice hockey 26 males and 19 females , and 39 soccer players 20 males, 19 females. Three different physicians then assessed the use of laryngoscopes of different handle sizes in supine athletes who were wearing protective equipment while in-line cervical spine immobilization was maintained.

The ease of passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was assessed using both a standard long-handle and a short-handle laryngoscope. Use of a short-handle laryngoscope was easier for all physicians in all sports as compared with a standard-sized laryngoscope. Passage of a laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx of a supine athlete was easiest in soccer players and most difficult in football and ice hockey players for both sizes of laryngoscope.

Interference from chest or shoulder pads was a common cause for difficulty in passing the laryngoscope blade into the posterior oropharynx for football and ice hockey players. In the rare instances that an endotracheal intubation is to be attempted on an unconscious athlete, a short-handle laryngoscope may provide the best chance for successful intubation. Study of the effect of a supplemental carbohydrate intake for seven elite ice hockey players before and during a game demonstrated that the supplement could result in less glycogen usage per distance skated, which had important implications for athletes who may participate in more than one game a day.

This study was conducted for determining the effects of trainings, applied to athletes during short term camp period, on their aerobic and anaerobic performance. Measurements were made by the participation of 28 volunteer male ice hockey national team players. During the day camp period, minute running and stretching for warming and then…. Effects of badminton and ice hockey on bone mass in young males: a year follow-up. Beginning at 17 years of age, BMD was measured 5 times, during 12 years, in 19 badminton players, 48 ice hockey players, and 25 controls. During the active career, badminton players gained significantly more BMD compared to ice hockey players at all sites: in their femoral neck mean difference Delta 0.

BMD gains in badminton players were higher also compared to in controls at all sites Delta 0. Both these groups lost significantly more BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine compared to the control group Delta 0. In summary, the present study may suggest that badminton is a more osteogenic sport compared to ice hockey. The BMD benefits from previous training were partially sustained with reduced activity.

Copyright Elsevier Inc. Addressing safe-play knowledge and player aggression could potentially improve ice hockey sport safety. To compare 1 safe-play knowledge and aggression between male and female adolescent ice hockey players and 2 head-impact frequency and severity between players with high and low levels of safe-play knowledge and aggression during practices and games. On field. Aggressive penalty minutes were recorded throughout the season.

One-way analyses of variance were used to compare safe play knowledge and aggression between sexes. Players were categorized as having high or low safe-play knowledge and aggression using a median split. Boys 5. Less aggressive male players sustained significantly lower head rotational accelerations during practices Coaches and sports medicine professionals should ensure that athletes of all levels.

Schmidt, Julianne D. In addition, information is provided on screening for cardiovascular risk — including history taking, chart review, physical examination — and the appropriate guidelines on the treatment of athletes found to be at risk. Examining social identity and intrateam moral behaviours in competitive youth ice hockey using stimulated recall. Social identity - identity formed through membership in groups - may play an important role in regulating intrateam moral behaviour in youth sport Bruner, M. Social identity and prosocial and antisocial behavior in youth sport.

Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15 1 , The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine this potential role through stimulated recall interviews with competitive youth- ice-hockey players. The prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport scale. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 31 1 , Thematic analysis of interview data revealed all athletes - regardless of reported frequency of intrateam antisocial behaviour - felt prosocial interactions with teammates enhanced social identity.

In contrast, the perceived influence of antisocial teammate behaviour on social identity differed depending on athletes' reported frequency of intrateam antisocial behaviour; those reporting low and median frequencies described how such behaviour undermines social identity, whereas athletes reporting high frequency did not perceive this effect. The study findings highlight the potential importance of intrateam moral behaviour and social identity for youth-sport team functioning.

The purpose of this study was to determine if off- ice performance variables could predict on- ice skating performance in Division III collegiate hockey players. The skating tests were agility cornering S-turn, 6. Off- ice variables assessed were years of playing experience, height, weight and percent body fat and off- ice performance variables included vertical jump VJ , yd dash Results indicated that yd dash It was concluded that selected off- ice tests could be used to predict on- ice performance regarding speed and recovery ability in Division III male and female hockey players.

Key pointsThe yd dash In addition to yd dash and vertical jump, the 1. Due to the specificity of selected off- ice variables as predictors of on- ice performance, coaches can. Key points The yd dash Due to the specificity of selected off- ice variables as predictors of on- ice performance, coaches. A simple video-based timing system for on- ice team testing in ice hockey : a technical report. The purpose of this study was to describe and evaluate a newly developed on- ice timing system for team evaluation in the sport of ice hockey.

We hypothesized that this new, simple, inexpensive, timing system would prove to be highly accurate and reliable. Six adult subjects age The performance times of the subjects were recorded using a handheld stopwatch, photocell, and high-speed frames per second video.

These results were then compared to allow for accuracy calculations of the stopwatch and video as compared with filtered photocell timing that was used as the "gold standard. The reliability of the video method was evaluated using the same variables in a test-retest analysis both within and between evaluators. The video timing method proved to be both highly accurate ICC: 0.

This video-based timing method provides a very rapid means of collecting a high volume of very accurate and reliable on- ice measures of skating speed and conditioning, and can easily be adapted to other testing surfaces and parameters. Children should wear helmets while ice -skating: a comparison of skating-related injuries.

This study compares injuries, especially head injuries, among ice -skaters with those among skateboarders, rollerskaters, and in-line skaters, to determine the need for helmet use during recreational ice -skating by children. A comparative study of a consecutive series of patients.


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The emergency department of a large, urban, academic, children's hospital. Children treated for injuries related to recreational ice -skating, skateboarding, rollerskating, and in-line skating. During a month period, consecutive children were evaluated in the emergency department for skating-related injuries.

Children were predominantly male The most frequent mechanism of injury was a fall. Overall, Ice -skaters were more likely to have adult supervision than were skateboarders relative risk [RR]: 5. Ice -skaters were at greater risk of injury to the head Ice -skaters demonstrated lacerations to the head in Injuries to ice -skaters occurred more often in an indoor skating facility The risk of injury associated with body checking among Pee Wee ice hockey players: an evaluation of Hockey Canada's national body checking policy change.

In , Hockey Canada introduced an evidence-informed policy change delaying the earliest age of introduction to body checking in ice hockey until Bantam ages nationwide. To determine if the risk of injury, including concussions, changes for Pee Wee years ice hockey players in the season following a national policy change disallowing body checking. In a historical cohort study, Pee Wee players were recruited from teams in all divisions of play in prior to the rule change and in following the change. Baseline information, injury and exposure data for both cohorts were collected using validated injury surveillance.

Based on multivariable Poisson regression with exposure hours as an offset, the adjusted incidence rate ratio associated with the national policy change disallowing body checking was 0. Physical fitness and performance of polish ice-hockey players competing at different sports levels.

Abstract The study aimed to determine the values of selected aerobic and anaerobic capacity variables, physical profiles, and to analyze the results of on- ice tests performed by ice-hockey players relegated to a lower league. The study was conducted one week after the end of the playoffs in the seasons under consideration. The results revealed that only in the experimental group the analysed variables changed significantly between the seasons. In the Wingate test, significant changes were only noted in mean relative power a decrease from 9. Mostly this is done through the use of a hard plastic shell separated from the head by a softer foam liner.

The amount of shock and force absorbed by each helmet depends not only on the type of shell material used but also the type of liner. Thicker shell materials and foams can take more force but may conform less to the head, requiring more stringent retention systems to keep them in place.

Testing helmets acts as an important way to gauge what gives you the most protection. Part of this is because of the increased thickness of single-piece HDPE 2. The type of liner foam also helped absorb stress, with thicker types of foam able to absorb more stress. For example, during a 33 meter-per-second puck impact, a one-piece polycarbonate shell helmet with EPP foam had a Mostly this can be put down to weight: the lighter HDPE helmet grams had a higher chance of strain damage 5.

While two-piece HDPE helmets are a solid compromise between single-piece polycarbonate and single-piece HDPE helmets with regard to cumulative strain damage, the IRCOBI research shows that single-piece HDPE helmets fitted with a plastic disc array actually transferred the lowest average and max amounts of pressure to the testing head-forms. The single-piece HDPE helmet only transferred Because of this increased pressure transfer, the single-piece polycarbonate helmet also had a 0. Comparatively, the other four helmet designs had less than a 0.

In fact, the IRCOBI research actually showed the single-piece polycarbonate helmet was one of the worst styles of helmet design, at least in the 33 meter-per-second test. It maxed out the values for linear acceleration, angular acceleration, angular velocity, average pressure, max pressure, head injury risk and cumulative strain damage. While it did not max out the variables in the Again, this is most likely due to the sheer thinness of the polycarbonate shell, which is a little under a quarter as thick as the two-piece HDPE helmet and about a fifth as thick as the single-piece HDPE helmet.

The best helmet is one that not only fits snugly to your head but is also comfortable while at the same time providing the best amount of protection possible. Players should look for helmets that have equal amounts of protection when it comes to high-mass low-velocity impacts, like a head drop, and low-mass high-velocity impacts, such as getting hit with a puck. For this reason, it is best to purchase a helmet in person at a retailer where you can try the helmet on and staff can help you ensure the helmet fits your head properly.

Additionally, ensure the equipment you purchase has been certified by the Hockey Equipment Certification Council HECC , which evaluates and selects standards and testing procedures for hockey equipment with the purpose of providing standards by which a product may be certified for player use. HECC provides four different standards , one for each type of hockey headgear:. All HECC-certified protective hockey equipment is tested by an independent testing organization, i.

You can tell equipment has been validated as conforming to HECC standards and certifications because it will bear a blue-bordered sticker that lists the standard the equipment has been validated as conforming to — for example, ASTM F — the date that the standard was last revised, and the year after which the certification expires. All HECC certification stickers are invalid 6. For helmets, manufacturers provide a sticker on the inside of the helmet that lists the date of manufacture. As part of its goal to ensure all protective hockey equipment is manufactured to a universal safety standard, HECC maintains a list of certified products on its website, organized by manufacturer, certification, brand and model number, among other criteria.

As explained on the VICIS website, the helmet is much more similar to a car bumper than your typical helmet, deviating from the familiar hard outer shell and padding combination. It is not value-based pricing. We sought to develop the best helmet that we could, the safest helmet that we could. The Zero1 moniker is reflective of this rollout. Players reported a total of concussions during the preseason and regular season, up from in But concussion diagnosis can only help the public perception of football and the NFL to a limited extent.

The NFL has a vested interest in keeping kids in the sport and to do so it must address the concussion problem. Regardless, a helmet will never be the panacea the league needs. Manley stressed that concussions will never be fully preventable.

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