Only the pipe bombs and one of the aerosol canisters detonated, causing a small fire, which was quickly extinguished by the fire department. Bomb technicians immediately examined the bombs and relayed to police at the school the possibility of devices with motion activators. Harris parked his vehicle in the junior student parking lot, and Klebold parked in the adjoining senior student parking lot. The school cafeteria was their primary bomb target; the cafeteria had a long outside window-wall, ground-level doors, and was just north of the senior parking lot.
As Harris pulled into the parking lot, he encountered classmate Brooks Brown, with whom he had recently patched up a longstanding series of disputes. According to Brown, who was smoking a cigarette, he was surprised to see Harris, whom he earlier noted had been absent from a class test. Harris seemed unconcerned, commenting "It doesn't matter anymore. Get out of here. Go home.
Meanwhile, Harris and Klebold armed themselves, using straps and webbing to conceal weapons beneath black dusters. They lugged backpacks and duffel bags that were filled with pipe bombs and ammunition. Harris also had his shotgun in one of the bags. Beneath the trench coats, Harris wore a homemade bandolier and a white T-shirt that read " Natural selection " in black letters; Klebold wore a black T-shirt that read "Wrath" in red letters.
The cafeteria bombs failed to detonate. Had these bombs exploded with full power, they could have killed or severely wounded all of the students in the cafeteria, and possibly made the ceiling collapse by destroying the pillars holding it up, dropping the library into the cafeteria. Klebold threw a pipe bomb towards the parking lot; the bomb only partially detonated. Thinking that the pipe bomb was no more than a crude senior prank , Castaldo didn't take it seriously. Several students who were inside the school during the incident first thought that they were watching a prank.
A witness reported hearing "Go! Harris aimed his carbine down the west staircase in the direction of three students: Daniel Rohrbough, Sean Graves, and Lance Kirklin. The students were about to walk up the staircase directly below the shooters. Harris fired, killing Rohrbough  and injuring Graves and Kirklin. The shooters turned and began firing west in the direction of five students sitting on the grassy hillside adjacent to the steps and opposite the west entrance of the school. The other three escaped uninjured. Klebold walked down the steps toward the cafeteria. He came up to Lance Kirklin, who was already wounded and lying on the ground, weakly calling for help.
Klebold said, "Sure. I'll help you," then shot Kirklin in the face with his shotgun, critically wounding him. He rubbed blood on his face and played dead. He then stepped over the injured Graves to enter the cafeteria. Klebold only briefly entered the cafeteria and did not shoot at the several people still inside. Officials speculated that Klebold went to check on the propane bombs. Harris was still on top of the stairs shooting, and severely wounded and partially paralyzed year-old Anne-Marie Hochhalter as she tried to flee.
They walked toward the west entrance, throwing pipe bombs in several directions, including onto the roof; only a few of these pipe bombs detonated. Witnesses heard one of them say "This is what we always wanted to do. This is awesome! Meanwhile, art teacher Patti Nielson was inside the school; she had noticed the commotion and walked toward the west entrance with student Brian Anderson. Nielson had intended to walk outside to tell the two students to "Knock it off,"  thinking they were either filming a video or pulling a student prank.
Anderson and Nielson ran back down the hall into the library, and Nielson alerted the students inside to the danger, telling them to get under desks and keep silent. She dialed and hid under the library's administrative counter. At AM, a custodian called Deputy Neil Gardner, the assigned resource officer to Columbine, on the school radio, requesting assistance in the senior parking lot. The only paved route took him around the school to the east and south on Pierce Street, where at AM, he heard on his police radio that a female was down, and assumed she had been struck by a car.
While exiting his patrol car in the Senior lot at AM, he heard another call on the school radio, "Neil, there's a shooter in the school". Harris, at the west entrance, immediately turned and fired ten shots from his carbine at Gardner, who was sixty yards away. Harris then reemerged and fired at least four more rounds at Gardner which missed and struck two parked cars , before retreating into the building. No one was hit during the exchange of gunfire. I need someone in the south lot with me. Klebold shot Stephanie Munson in the ankle; she was able to walk out of the school.
After proceeding through the hall several times and shooting toward—and missing—any students they saw, they went toward the west entrance and turned into the library hallway. Taking the shortest route, he drove his motorcycle over grass between the athletic fields and headed toward the west entrance. When he saw Deputy Scott Taborsky following him in a patrol car, he abandoned his motorcycle for the safety of the car.
From the hilltop, Deputy Smoker fired three rounds from his pistol at Harris, who again retreated into the building. As before, no one was hit. Inside the school cafeteria, teacher Dave Sanders and two custodians, Jon Curtis and Jay Gallatine, initially told students to get under the tables, then successfully evacuated students up the staircase leading to the second floor of the school.
The stairs were located around the corner from the library hallway in the main south hallway. Sanders then tried to secure as much of the school as he could. By now, Harris and Klebold were inside the main hallway. Sanders and another student were down at the end of the hallway, where he gestured for students in the library to stay. They encountered Harris and Klebold, who were approaching from the corner of the north hallway.
Sanders and the student turned and ran in the opposite direction. Klebold walked over towards Sanders, who had collapsed, and tossed a pipe bomb into the cafeteria, then returned to Harris up the library hallway. Sanders struggled toward the science area, and a teacher took him into a classroom where 30 students were located. Due to his knowledge of first aid, student Aaron Hancey was brought to the classroom from another by teachers despite the unfolding commotion.
With the assistance of a fellow student named Kevin Starkey, and teacher Teresa Miller, Hancey administered first aid to Sanders for three hours, attempting to stem the blood loss using shirts from students in the room, and showing him pictures from his wallet to keep him talking. As the shooting unfolded, Patti Nielson talked on the phone with emergency services, telling her story and urging students in the library to take cover beneath desks. According to transcripts, her call was received by a 9—1—1 operator at AM  Fifty-two students, two teachers and two librarians were in the library.
Harris fired his shotgun twice at a desk. Student Evan Todd had been standing near a pillar when the shooters entered the library and had just taken cover behind a copier. The shooters walked into the library, towards the two rows of computers. Disabled student Kyle Velasquez was sitting at the north row. Klebold fired his shotgun twice at Velasquez, fatally hitting him in the head and back. The shooters put down their ammunition-filled duffel bags at the south—or lower—row of computers and reloaded their weapons. They walked between the computer rows, toward the windows facing the outside staircase.
They — especially Klebold, began shouting and speaking to all the students in the library. Throughout the massacre in the library, they ordered everybody in the library to get up and said the library was going to explode. They also stated how long they had been waiting for this, and seemed to be enjoying themselves, shouting things like "yahoo" after shooting.
They repeatedly ordered the jocks to stand up. One of them said "Anybody with a white hat or a sports emblem on it is dead". Noticing that the police were evacuating students outside the school, they shot out the windows in the direction of the police. He shouted for the jocks to stand up, and when no one did, he said, "Fine, I'll just start shooting! Harris walked toward the lower row of computer desks with his shotgun, firing a single shot under the first desk from a short distance away, while down on one knee. He hit year-old Steven Curnow with a mortal wound to the neck.
Harris walked over to a table south of the lower computer table, slapped the surface twice and knelt, saying " Peek-a-boo " to year-old Cassie Bernall before shooting her once in the head, killing her. After fatally shooting Bernall, Harris turned toward the next table, where Bree Pasquale sat next to the table rather than under it. Harris's nose was bleeding heavily ; witnesses later reported that he seemed disoriented and had blood around his mouth. Harris asked Pasquale if she wanted to die, and she responded with a plea for her life. Harris laughed and responded "Everyone's gonna die.
Klebold noticed Ireland trying to provide aid to Hall, who had suffered a wound to his knee. As Ireland tried to help Hall, his head rose above the table, Klebold shot him a second time, hitting him twice in the head and once in the foot. Ireland was knocked unconscious, but survived. Klebold called to Harris, "There's a nigger over here! Harris left Pasquale and joined him. According to witnesses, they taunted Shoels for a few seconds, making derogatory racial comments.
The gunmen both fired under the table; Harris shot Shoels once in the chest, killing him, and Klebold shot and killed Kechter. Though Shoels was not shot in the head, Klebold said: "I didn't know black brains could fly that far. Harris then yelled; "Who's ready to die next?! It landed on Steepleton's thigh; Hall quickly tossed it behind them, and it exploded in mid-air. Harris walked toward the bookcases between the west and center section of tables in the library. He jumped on one and shook it, apparently attempting to topple it, then shot at the books which had fallen. Klebold walked to the east area of the library.
Harris walked from the bookcase, past the central area to meet Klebold. The latter shot at a display case next to the door, then turned and shot toward the closest table, hitting and injuring year-old Mark Kintgen in the head and shoulder. He then turned toward the table to his left and fired, injuring year-olds Lisa Kreutz, Lauren Townsend and Valeen Schnurr with the same shotgun blast. Klebold then moved toward the same table and fired several shots with the TEC-9, killing Lauren Townsend. Harris approached another table where two girls were hiding. He bent down to look at them and dismissed them as "pathetic".
Tomlin moved out from under the table. Klebold shot him repeatedly, killing him. Harris then walked back over to the other side of the table where Townsend lay dead. Behind the table, a year-old girl named Kelly Fleming had, like Bree Pasquale, sat next to the table rather than beneath it due to a lack of space. Harris shot Fleming with his shotgun, hitting her in the back and killing her. Harris then pointed his carbine under a table, but the student he was aiming at moved out of the way. Harris turned his gun back on the student and told him to identify himself.
It was John Savage, an acquaintance of Klebold's. He asked Klebold what they were doing, to which he shrugged and answered, "killing people. Possibly because of a fire alarm, Klebold said, "What? Klebold said no, and told him to run. Savage fled, escaping through the library's main entrance. After Savage left, Harris turned and fired his carbine at the table directly north of where he had been, hitting the ear and hand of year-old Daniel Mauser. Mauser reacted by either shoving a chair at Harris or grabbing at his leg; Harris fired again and hit Mauser in the center of the face at close range, killing him.
There were no further victims. They had killed 10 people in the library and wounded Of the 56 library hostages, 34 remained unharmed.
Investigators would later find that the shooters had enough ammunition to have killed them all. At this point, several witnesses later said they heard the shooters comment that they no longer found a thrill in shooting their victims. Klebold was quoted as saying, "Maybe we should start knifing people, that might be more fun. Harris threw a Molotov cocktail toward the southwestern end of the library, but it failed to explode.
Harris then went around the east side of the counter and Klebold joined him from the west; they converged close to where Todd had moved after having been wounded. Todd was wearing a white hat. Klebold asked if he was a jock, and when Todd said no Klebold responded "Well, that's good. We don't like jocks. When Klebold asked Todd to give him one reason why he should not kill him, Todd said: "I don't want trouble.
You don't even know what fucking trouble is! Who's a fag now?! I mean, I don't have a problem with you guys. I never will and I never did. You can have at him if you want to. Harris, who was likely not paying much attention to the exchange, looked at Todd, then back at Klebold and said: "Let's go to the commons. While Harris was walking away, Klebold said, "Wait a minute!
There's one more thing! Klebold joined Harris at the library entrance. The two walked out of the library at AM. Cautiously, fearing the shooters' return, 29 uninjured and 10 injured survivors began to evacuate the library through the north emergency exit door, which led to the sidewalk adjacent to the west entrance. Kacey Ruegsegger was evacuated from the library by Craig Scott. Had she not been evacuated at this point, Ruegsegger would likely have bled to death from her injuries.
After leaving the library, the gunmen entered the science area, where they caused a fire in an empty storage closet. It was extinguished by a teacher who had hidden in an adjacent room. The gunmen then proceeded toward the south hallway, where they shot into an empty science room. At AM, they were captured on the school security cameras as they re-entered the cafeteria. The recording shows Harris kneeling on the landing and firing a single shot toward one of the propane bombs left in the cafeteria, in an unsuccessful attempt to detonate it.
As Klebold approached the propane bomb and examined it, Harris took a drink from one of the cups left behind. Klebold lit a Molotov cocktail and threw it at the propane bomb. They left the cafeteria at AM, several seconds after the Molotov cocktail exploded. About a minute later, the gallon of fuel attached to the bomb ignited, blowing out a few windows and causing a fire that was extinguished by the fire sprinklers a few minutes later.
After leaving the cafeteria, they returned to the main north and south hallways of the school, shooting aimlessly. They walked through the south hallway into the main office before returning to the north hallway. On several occasions, they looked through the windows of classroom doors, making eye contact with students hidden inside, but they never tried to enter any of the rooms. They taunted students hidden inside a bathroom, making such comments as: "We know you're in there" and "Let's kill anyone we find in here," but never attempted to enter the bathroom.
At AM, they returned to the cafeteria, and briefly entered the school kitchen. They reentered the library, perhaps to watch their car bombs detonate, one of which had been set to explode at noon, and both of which failed. Once inside, at PM, they shot through the west windows at police, who returned fire. Nobody was injured in the exchange. By PM, both gunmen had killed themselves. In a subsequent interview, Kreutz recalled hearing a comment such as, "You in the library," around this time. Harris sat down with his back to a bookshelf and fired his shotgun through the roof of his mouth ; Klebold went down on his knees and shot himself in the left temple with his TEC Just before shooting himself, Klebold lit a Molotov cocktail on a nearby table, underneath which Patrick Ireland was laying, which caused the tabletop to momentarily catch fire.
Underneath the scorched film of material was a piece of Harris's brain matter, suggesting Harris had shot himself by this point. In , the National Enquirer published two post-mortem photos of Harris and Klebold, showing both teenagers lying on their backs and the guns in seemingly curious locations. This led to speculation that Harris shot Klebold before killing himself. A total of rounds of ammunition were fired by the perpetrators during the massacre.
Harris fired nearly twice as much as Klebold; he fired his carbine rifle a total of 96 times, and discharged his shotgun 25 times. Klebold fired the TEC-9 handgun 55 times, and 12 rounds from his double-barreled shotgun. Law enforcement officers fired rounds during exchanges of gunfire with the shooters. By noon, SWAT teams were stationed outside the school, and ambulances started taking the wounded to local hospitals. They were also hampered by the sound of the fire alarms. Meanwhile, families of students and staff were asked to gather at nearby Leawood Elementary School to await information.
All students, teachers, and school employees were taken away, questioned, and offered medical care in small holding areas before being bussed to meet with their family members at Leawood Elementary. Some of the victims' families were told to wait on one final school bus that never came. Patrick Ireland had regained and lost consciousness several times after being shot by Klebold. He became known as "the boy in the window". Lisa Kreutz, shot in the shoulder, arms, hand, and thigh, remained laying in the library.
She had tried to move but became light-headed. Kreutz kept track of time by the sound of the school's bells until police arrived. A shirt was also tied to the doorknob. SWAT officers evacuated the room of students and called for a paramedic. He was the only teacher to die in the shooting. Kreutz was finally evacuated at PM, along with Patti Nielson, Brian Anderson, and the three library staff who had hidden in the rooms adjacent to the library.
President Bill Clinton issued a statement. Stone said that police officers were searching the bodies of the gunmen. They feared they had used their pipe bombs to booby-trap corpses, including their own. The bomb detonated inside the trailer but no one was injured. The bomb squad disrupted the car bomb. Klebold's car was repaired and, in , put up for auction. On the morning of April 21, bomb squads combed the high school. The total count of deaths was 12 students 14 including the shooters and one teacher; 20 students and one teacher were injured as a result of the shootings. Three more victims were injured indirectly as they tried to escape the school.
It was then the worst school shooting in U. Thirteen of the bodies were still inside the high school as investigators photographed the building. Formal identification of the dead had not yet taken place, but families of the children thought to have been killed had been notified. Throughout the late afternoon and early evening, the bodies were gradually removed from the school and taken to the Jeffco Coroner's Office to be identified and autopsied.
An official statement was released, naming the 15 confirmed deaths and 27 injuries related to the massacre. In the days following the shootings, Rachel Scott's car and John Tomlin's truck became memorials,  and impromptu memorials were held in Clement Park. On April 30, carpenter Greg Zanis erected 15 six feet tall wooden crosses to honor those who had died at the school. Daniel Rohrbough's father cut down the two meant for the gunmen. Also on April 30, high-ranking officials of Jeffco and the Jeffco Sheriff's Office met to decide if they should reveal that Michael Guerra had drafted an affidavit for a search warrant of Harris's residence more than a year before the shootings, based on his previous investigation of Harris's website and activities.
Over the next two years, Guerra's original draft and investigative file documents were lost. In September , a Jeffco investigator failed to find the documents during a secret search of the county's computer system. A second attempt in late found copies of the document within the Jeffco archives. Their loss was termed "troubling" by a grand jury convened after the file's existence was reported in April The documents were reconstructed and released to the public, but the original documents are still missing.
The final grand jury investigation was released in September In the wake of the shooting, victims Rachel Scott and Cassie Bernall came to be regarded as Christian martyrs by Evangelical Christians. Emily Wyant, the closest living witness to Bernall's death, denied that Bernall and Harris had such an exchange. Survivor Valeen Schnurr claims that she was the one questioned as to her belief in God.
Another witness, Craig Scott claimed the discussion was with Bernall. When asked to indicate where the conversation had been coming from, he pointed to where Schnurr was shot. In August , students returned to the school, and principal Frank Deangelis led a rally of students clad in "We are Columbine" shirts. Several former students and teachers suffer from PTSD. He was The shooting was planned as a terrorist attack that would cause "the most deaths in U.
Soon after the massacre, it was thought Harris and Klebold targeted jocks, blacks, and Christians. Dunaway wrote they "cannot answer the most fundamental question—why? The FBI concluded that the killers were victims of mental illness , that Harris was a clinical psychopath , and Klebold was depressive. Dwayne Fuselier, the supervisor in charge of the Columbine investigation, would later remark: "I believe Eric went to the school to kill and didn't care if he died, while Dylan wanted to die and didn't care if others died as well.
In April a year before the shooting , Harris wrote a letter of apology to the owner of the van as part of his diversion program. I didn't like life too much. According to this theory—used by Dave Cullen for his book Columbine — Harris had been the mastermind. He had a messianic-level superiority complex and hoped to demonstrate his superiority to the world.
Klebold was a follower who primarily participated in the massacre as a means to simply end his life. There have been other attempts to diagnose Harris and Klebold with mental illness. Peter Langman believes Harris was a psychopath and Klebold was schizotypal. The FBI's theory has been met with criticism. The link between bullying and school violence has attracted increasing attention since the massacre.
Both of the shooters were classified as gifted children who had allegedly been victims of bullying for years. Early stories following the shootings charged that school administrators and teachers at Columbine had long condoned bullying. Accounts from various parents and school staffers describe bullying at the school as "rampant.
Vanderau noted that a "cup of fecal matter" was thrown at them. Klebold is known to have remarked to his father of his hatred of the jocks at CHS, adding that Harris in particular had been victimized. Klebold had stated, "They sure give Eric hell. There were people fearful of walking by a table where you knew you didn't belong, stuff like that. Certain groups certainly got preferential treatment across the board.
This made him reluctant to take his shirt off in gym class, and other students would laugh at him. A year after the massacre, an analysis by officials at the U. Secret Service of 37 premeditated school shootings found that bullying, which some of the shooters described "in terms that approached torment", played the major role in more than two-thirds of the attacks. It happens all the time! Dave Cullen disputes the theory of "revenge for bullying" as a motivation. While acknowledging the pervasiveness of bullying in high schools including CHS, he has claimed they were not victims of bullying.
He said Harris was more often the perpetrator than victim of bullying. During junior year, Harris and Klebold both had been confronted by a group of students at CHS—all members of the football team—who sprayed them with ketchup and mustard while referring to them as "faggots" and " queers ". That happened while teachers watched.
They couldn't fight back. They wore the ketchup all day and went home covered with it. In a fact check published on 19th April , on the eve of the 20th yearly commemmoration of the massacre, Gillian Brockell in The Washington Post underscored that, contrary to the popular view, Harris and Klebold were not in the so called Trench Coat Mafia and not isolated outcasts or loners, and that their attack was not a revenge for being bullied.
During and after the initial investigations, social cliques within high schools such as the Trench Coat Mafia were widely discussed. One perception formed was that Harris and Klebold were both outcasts who had been isolated from their classmates, prompting feelings of helplessness, insecurity, and depression, as well as a strong need for attention.
One of Harris's last journal entries read: "I hate you people for leaving me out of so many fun things. Sociologist Ralph Larkin has theorized the massacre was to trigger a revolution of outcast students and the dispossessed; "as an overtly political act in the name of oppressed students victimized by their peers The Columbine shootings redefined such acts not merely as revenge but as a means of protest of bullying, intimidation, social isolation, and public rituals of humiliation. On the Basement Tapes, Harris claimed they would "kick-start a revolution".
The attack occurred on April 20 Adolf Hitler 's birthday , which led to media speculation that the attack was political.
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In retrospect, Anderson stated that there were many things the pair did not tell friends. Harris at least did revere the Nazis and often praised them in his journal. Klebold and Harris might have originally selected April 19—the date of the Oklahoma City Bombing—as the date for the massacre, but the attack occurred on April Manes asked if Harris was going shooting that night.
Harris replied he would tomorrow. In one scheduled meeting with his appointed psychiatrist, Harris had complained of depression , anger, and suicidal thoughts.
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He was prescribed Zoloft. He complained of feeling restless and having trouble concentrating; his doctor switched him to Luvox , a similar selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor SSRI. Toxicology reports confirmed that Harris had the antidepressent Luvox in his bloodstream at the time of the shootings. Harris wanted to join the United States Marine Corps.
His application to the Marines was rejected shortly before the shootings because he had taken Luvox. Blame for the shootings was also directed at other metal or 'dark music' bands. In the late s, Marilyn Manson and his eponymous band established themselves as a household name,  and as one of the most controversial rock acts in music history. Immediately after the massacre, a majority of blame were directed at the band and, specifically, at its outspoken frontman. Despite this, Marilyn Manson were widely criticized by religious,  political,  and entertainment-industry figures.
The letter named Marilyn Manson for producing songs which "eerily reflect" the actions of Harris and Klebold. On May 4, a hearing on the marketing and distribution of violent content to minors by the television, music, film and video-game industries was held by the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. The committee heard testimony from former Secretary of Education and co-founder of conservative violent entertainment watchdog group Empower America William Bennett , the Archbishop of Denver Charles J.
Chaput , professors and mental-health professionals. Speakers criticized the band and its label-mate Nine Inch Nails for their alleged contribution to a cultural environment enabling violence such as the Columbine shootings. Bill O'Reilly argued that "disturbed kids" without direction from responsible parents could misinterpret the message of his music as endorsing the belief that "when I'm dead [then] everybody's going to know me. Well, I think that's a very valid point and I think that it's a reflection of, not necessarily this programme but of television in general, that if you die and enough people are watching you become a martyr, you become a hero, you become well known.
So when you have these things like Columbine, and you have these kids who are angry and they have something to say and no one's listening, the media sends a message that says if you do something loud enough and it gets our attention then you will be famous for it. Those kids ended up on the cover of Time magazine twice, the media gave them exactly what they wanted. That's why I never did any interviews around that time when I was being blamed for it because I didn't want to contribute to something that I found to be reprehensible.
During the supporting tour for Holy Wood , Manson appeared in Michael Moore 's documentary, Bowling for Columbine ; his appearance was filmed during the band's first show in Denver since the shooting. When Moore asked Manson what he would have said to the students at Columbine he replied, "I wouldn't say a single word to them. I would listen to what they have to say and that's what no one did.
Feel no remorse, no sense of shame. As above, Klebold wrote in Harris's yearbook "My wrath for January's incident will be godlike,"  and he wore a shirt saying "Wrath" during the massacre. Harris noted the coincidence of the album's title and release date in his journal "a subliminal final "Adios" tribute to Reb and Vodka.
I ripped the hell outa the system". First and foremost, KMFDM would like to express their deep and heartfelt sympathy for the parents, families and friends of the murdered and injured children in Littleton. We are sick and appalled, as is the rest of the nation, by what took place in Colorado yesterday. KMFDM are an art form—not a political party. From the beginning, our music has been a statement against war, oppression, fascism and violence against others.
While some of the former band members are German as reported in the media, none of us condone any Nazi beliefs whatsoever. Parents of some of the victims filed several unsuccessful lawsuits against film companies, over films such as The Basketball Diaries , which includes a dream sequence with a student shooting his classmates in a trench coat. Violent video games were also blamed.
They were avid fans of Doom especially. Harris named his shotgun Arlene after a character in the Doom novels. After the massacre, rumors circulated that Harris created Doom levels resembling CHS, but the alleged levels were never found. The Harris family relocated often, as Harris's father was a U. Air Force transport pilot. His mother was a homemaker. The family moved from Plattsburgh, New York , to Littleton, Colorado, in July , when his father retired from military service. The Harris family lived in rented accommodations for the first three years that they lived in the Littleton area.
His older brother attended college at the University of Colorado Boulder. Both Dylan and his older brother attended confirmation classes in accordance with the Lutheran tradition. At the family home, the Klebolds also observed some rituals in keeping with Klebold's maternal grandfather's Jewish heritage. Unlike the white caps of the jocks, Harris and Klebold wore black baseball caps.
As was typical in the s, they wore them backwards. Following the Columbine shooting, schools across the United States instituted new security measures such as see-through backpacks, metal detectors, school uniforms, and security guards. Some schools implemented the numbering of school doors in order to improve public safety response.
Several schools throughout the country resorted to requiring students to wear computer-generated IDs.
Schools also adopted a zero tolerance approach to possession of weapons and threatening behavior by students. Virginia Tech , Sandy Hook , and Stoneman Douglas were three subsequent school shootings that far eclipsed the terror that took place at Columbine. Some schools renewed existing anti-bullying policies. Police departments reassessed their tactics and now train for Columbine-like situations after criticism over the slow response and progress of the SWAT teams during the shooting.
Police followed the traditional tactic at Columbine: surround the building, set up a perimeter, and contain the damage. That approach has been replaced by a tactic that takes into account the presence of an active shooter whose interest is to kill, not to take hostages, known as the Immediate Action Rapid Deployment tactic. This tactic calls for a four-person team to advance into the site of any ongoing shooting, optimally a diamond-shaped wedge, but even with just a single officer if more are not available.
Police officers using this tactic are trained to move toward the sound of gunfire and neutralize the shooter as quickly as possible. Dave Cullen has stated: "The active protocol has proved successful at numerous shootings At Virginia Tech alone, it probably saved dozens of lives. After the massacre, many survivors and relatives of deceased victims filed lawsuits.
In , youth advocate Melissa Helmbrecht organized a remembrance event in Denver featuring two surviving students, called "A Call to Hope. In , a new library, the HOPE memorial library, was built next to the west entrance. On February 26, , thousands of pieces of evidence from the massacre were put on display at the Jeffco fairgrounds in Golden. A permanent memorial "to honor and remember the victims of the April 20, shootings at Columbine High School" was dedicated on September 21, , in Clement Park.
The shooting resulted in calls for more gun control measures. The gun show loophole and background checks became a focus of a national debate. In , federal and state legislation was introduced that would require safety locks on firearms as well as ban the importation of high-capacity ammunition magazines. Though laws were passed that made it a crime to buy guns for criminals and minors, there was considerable controversy over legislation pertaining to background checks at gun shows.
There was concern in the gun lobby over restrictions on Second Amendment rights in the United States. It was passed in the Senate , but did not pass in the House. Michael Moore's documentary Bowling for Columbine focused heavily on the American obsession with handguns, its grip on Jeffco, and its role in the shooting. The black comedy, Duck! The Carbine High Massacre is inspired by the Columbine massacre. The Michael Moore documentary film Bowling for Columbine won several awards. In , the shooting was dramatized in the documentary Zero Hour.
In , the massacre was documented in an episode of the National Geographic Channel documentary series The Final Report. Columbine students Jonathan and Stephen Cohen wrote a song called Friend of Mine Columbine , which briefly received airplay in the US after being performed at a memorial service broadcast on nationwide television. The song was pressed to CD, with the proceeds benefiting families affected by the massacre, and over 10, copies were ordered.
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Since the advent of online social media, a fandom for shooters Harris and Klebold has had a documented presence on social media sites, especially Tumblr. Columbiners create fan art and fan fiction , and have a scholarly interest in the shooting. The Columbine shootings influenced subsequent school shootings,   a number of whose plots mention it, and which in some cases, led to the closing of entire school districts. Fuller Torrey of the Treatment Advocacy Center , a legacy of the Columbine shootings is its "allure to disaffected youth.
Ralph Larkin examined twelve major school shootings in the US in the following eight years and found that in eight of those, "the shooters made explicit reference to Harris and Klebold. A investigation by CNN identified "more than 40 people In , journalist Malcolm Gladwell writing in The New Yorker magazine proposed a threshold model of school shootings in which Harris and Klebold were the triggering actors in "a slow-motion, ever-evolving riot, in which each new participant's action makes sense in reaction to and in combination with those who came before.
The first copycat may have been the W. Myers High School shooting , just eight days after Columbine, when a year-old Canadian student went into his school at lunchtime with a sawed-off. In , Charles Andrew Williams , the Santana High School shooter, reportedly told his friends that he was going to "pull a Columbine," though none of them took him seriously. He took his grandfather's weapon and his squad car, and drove to his former high school in Red Lake and murdered several students before killing himself.
In an apparent reference to Columbine, he asked one student if they believed in God. The perpetrator of the Dawson College shooting wrote a note praising Harris and Klebold. He wore a shirt saying "Humanity is Overrated". In a self-made video recording sent to the news media by Seung-Hui Cho prior to his committing the Virginia Tech shootings, he referred to the Columbine massacre as an apparent motivation. The Tumblr fandom gained widespread media attention in February after three of its members conspired to commit a mass shooting at a Halifax mall on Valentine's Day.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the labor violence, see Columbine Mine massacre. School shooting in the U. Eric Harris left and Dylan Klebold right , the perpetrators, recorded on the high school's surveillance cameras in the cafeteria, 11 minutes before their suicides. Total deaths in order of sustaining fatal injuries.
Rachel Scott , Killed on grass outside west entrance by Eric Harris. Daniel Rohrbough , Killed at bottom of stairs leading to west entrance by Eric Harris. William David Sanders , 47 teacher. Shot in hallway adjacent library by Eric Harris and died of blood loss in a science classroom.
Kyle Velasquez , Killed while sat on a chair near the middle of the north computer table in the library by Dylan Klebold. Steven Curnow , Killed at the west end of the south computer table in the library by Eric Harris. Cassie Bernall , Killed under table 19 of the library by Eric Harris. Isaiah Shoels , Killed under table 16 of the library by Eric Harris. Matthew Kechter , Killed under table 16 of the library by Dylan Klebold.
Lauren Townsend , Killed under table 2 of the library by Dylan Klebold. John Tomlin , Killed next to table 6 of the library by Dylan Klebold, after being already wounded by Eric Harris. Kelly Fleming , Killed next to table 2 of the library by Eric Harris. Daniel Mauser , Killed under table 9 by Eric Harris. Corey DePooter , Killed under table 14 by both shooters.
Eric Harris , 18 perpetrator. Suicide next to bookshelf at the southwest corner of the library. Dylan Klebold , 17 perpetrator. Play media. I think there's something going on that you can't see from the outside We're having an alarming rate of killings in schools, and youth violence and an increase in drugs.
I would say that though they're not all to be blamed on a shock entertainer like Marilyn Manson, I think he promotes it and can be part of the blame.
They are able to hook into the Internet and play video games that are extraordinarily violent, that cause the blood pressure to rise and the adrenaline level to go up, games that cause people to be killed and the players to die themselves. It is a very intense experience. They are able to get into Internet chat rooms and, if there are no nuts or people of the same mentality in their hometown, hook up with people around the country. They are able to rent from the video store—not just go down and see Natural Born Killers or The Basketball Diaries —but they are able to bring it home and watch it repeatedly.
In this case, even maybe make their own violent film. Many have said this murder was very much akin to The Basketball Diaries , in which a student goes in and shoots others in the classroom. I have seen a video of that, and many others may have. In music, there is Marilyn Manson, an individual who chooses the name of a mass murderer as part of his name. The lyrics of his music are consistent with his choice of name. They are violent and nihilistic , and there are groups all over the world who do this, some German groups and others.
I guess what I am saying is, a person already troubled in this modern high-tech world can be in their car and hear the music, they can be in their room and see the video, they can go into the chat rooms and act out these video games and even take it to real life. Something there is very much of a problem.
See also: Natural Born Killers copycat crimes. Main article: Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. Main article: Columbine Memorial. Main article: Columbine High School massacre in popular culture. Colorado portal Criminal justice portal s portal. Postal Service designates "Littleton" as the default place name for addresses in the school's ZIP code ;  thus, the massacre was widely reported as having happened in the adjacent city of Littleton.
If Anderson had purchased the guns from a federally licensed dealer, it would have been considered a " straw purchase " and considered illegal under federal law. When first bombs go off, attack. Paton of the National Center for Scientific Research in Paris analyzed the videos created by post-Columbine school shooting perpetrators. A recurring set of motifs was found, including explicit statements of admiration and identification with previous perpetrators. Paton said the videos serve the perpetrators by distinguishing themselves from their classmates and associating themselves with the previous perpetrators.
Alexandria, VA. Alexandria, VA Jensen, E. Praeger, Westport, CN. New York, NY. Pgs Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Imprint. March 3, Corwin Press. Jensen has appeared on over television and radio stations, both domestic and international including CNN. Eric and Diane both contribute time to the community in different ways. This fund provides private, discretionary options enabling scientists to respond quickly to areas of greatest need without having to wait for public funding for urgent projects.
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