The Winters Tale (Blooms Shakespeare Through the Ages)

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I was really surprised to learn that Shakespeare might have written the role of the Chorus, Time, for himself. It is the Chorus who announces this jump in time at the beginning of Act IV, proclaiming that "Your patience this allowing, I turn my glass, and give my scene such growing", letting scholars believe that Shakespeare referred to his scene in the literal sense. It is a nice little theory, and I like picturing the Bard getting in on the action onstage as well.

Usually he lets his audience in on every secret, by passing on and showing them the vital pieces of knowledge to understand the plot at hand, plot twists really weren't his priority. In "The Winter's Tale" however, he does not merely decline to do so, he straight off tries to lead the audience utterly astray, view spoiler [by making Paulina proclaim the death of the Queen, even though the latter is still alive. Especially if we're focusing on Leontes' spiritual journey. This hell, this winter is created and sustained only by himself. Next, at the end of Act III and the beginning of Act V, we are given glimpses of the Purgatorio , Leontes sixteen year period of repentance and penance.

And finally, in the remainder of Act V, we have the Paradiso in his reunion with daughter, wife and friend. I love this analysis because it shows what a universal story "The Winter's Tale" is, and I really love cross-textual studies. Overall, I really enjoyed how rich the story was and how many different interpretations it opened up.

It won't become a favorite of mine, because it lacks humour and brilliance, but it's definitely a vital read nonetheless. Shelves: plays , classics. Fake news! But where Leontes painfully shows what destruction a powerful mad man can cause — maybe they should perform this play at the White House?

However, while I loved the characters and the themes of this play, the quality of the lines was not as good as I read in Shakespeare's other works.

THE WINTER’S TALE

Compared with "The Tempest" written around the same time , the words of the former take the story to a higher level. That elevation I missed here, but perhaps The Winter's Tale will truly show its magic once I see it performed. Therefore, I will for now give this tragi-comedic play 3,5 stars. An astonishing work, late Shakespeare at his best, maybe just prior to the Tempest. Best children's role in the canon, Mamilius. Perhaps the most jealous of all the Bard's jealous lovers and spouses, Leontes. The most innocent accused, Hermione. The best stage direction, "Exit pursued by a Bear.

Then there is the Chorus, unique in the canon: "I am Time. I have passed" as Amherst's T Baird said. Sixteen years between the first half and…Enough time for Perdita to grow from baby to Babe. By the way, "Babe" is difficult to render into the Romance languages, like Italian: No, not "bimbo, or Bambina, or Tesoro. Autolycus sings the famous "When daffodils begin to peer" which includes my fave line, "For a quart of ale is a dish for a king" He says, "I cannot tell, good sir, for which of his virtues it was, but he was certainly whipped out of the court [White House]" IV.

And Comey? There is the riotous thievery of Autolycus…recently played to perfection by Director Fred Sullivan, Jr. And finally, there is the animation of art, the statue invigorated--a variation on the Renaissance topos. AS in every play by the Bard, one finds acute analysis of character and satire of leaders, as in IV. As a student of lunar mapping and influence in the seventeenth century, I love madness termed "lunes," and I apply the word to the US would-be King Humperty-Dumpstery. One of Shakespeare's last four, this usually gets filed under Romance in the more modern anthologies, but you could just as easily file it under fustercluck.

There's an underlying logic to this bifurcated tale, but I'm not sure I buy it. It's a sharply divided tragi-comedy. The first three acts are a compressed tragedy of Leontes, who puts the insane in insanely jealous. It's hurried, and despite hints that Leontes' masculine insecurities have festered for years, the violence of his reaction to One of Shakespeare's last four, this usually gets filed under Romance in the more modern anthologies, but you could just as easily file it under fustercluck.

It's hurried, and despite hints that Leontes' masculine insecurities have festered for years, the violence of his reaction to an affair that exists only in his mind is tough to reconcile. So things go horribly-horribly wrong yeah, I was surprised too. Then there's a bear attack. Then a statue of Leontes' long-dead wife comes to life on stage.

Then everyone gets married. And each shift is about that jarring. The bear attack especially felt like the first time you see fangs in From Dusk Til Dawn --completely unexpected. There's certainly enough here to make me excited to reread it, but for now I think I'm doubting those folk who call this one of Shakespeare's greatest triumphs because he made so many improbable pieces work. So far, after one admittedly quick read, it isn't working.

This has quickly moved up to become one of my favorite Shakespeare play that I've read. It has a fairytale quality to it that I adored. And it definitely feels wintery which I loved. It has an interesting mix of tragedy and comedy, with a romantic ending, which reminds me a lot of The Tempest another of my favorites.

Very pleased to have read this one, and I can't wait to discuss it in lecture! View 1 comment. Nov 12, Cindy Rollins rated it liked it.

You can see Shakespeare getting darker and darker as he ages. I would despair if I didn't know two of his best plays are still to come. One thing you do notice is that Shakespeare understands redemption. He offers it to even the worst tyrants. Not many writers are brave enough to that. View all 5 comments. Written near the very end of Shakespeare's run, this is a mature work from a mature writer. It has elements that are oddly light and somewhat comical but it's not quite a comedy.

It's not a tragedy either. I think it's more a fairy tale about forgiveness late in life and magically being granted a second chance. This is wish-fulfillment from a writer who must have experienced a lot of personal pain. It's also the most heartfelt and insightful depiction of love and relationships that I've seen in t Written near the very end of Shakespeare's run, this is a mature work from a mature writer.

It's also the most heartfelt and insightful depiction of love and relationships that I've seen in the Shakespeare plays. The tragedies don't have room for love and the comedies are just too simplistic and farcical to show any real insight e. Much Ado About Nothing is charming but is exactly what the title professes.

There's just something so sad about this fantasy. Even as beautiful, wonderfully uplifting events are occurring one senses a deep pain and regret from Shakespeare himself; the events depicted are just too beautiful, the forgiveness too perfect for such a thing to ever happen in the real world.

The joy of this fictional world only underscores the pain and heartache and regret of the real world. Shakespeare's wish-fulfillment fantasy is glorious and devastating all at the same time. I have drunk and seen the spider. The king of Sicily is a paranoid git. Was he always of this character or did he arrive at such by an untoward alignment of humors? Again, just go with it. The tyrant is convinced that his wife has been untrue. The king of Bohemia is the suspect. His wife is pregnant, a physical symbol of his being cuckolded. This is a comedy, right?

He's allowed to fume and bellow, allowing a stage of fire and fury to pers I have drunk and seen the spider. He's allowed to fume and bellow, allowing a stage of fire and fury to persist through a trial and beyond with a flourish of Nixonian exactness. The accused flee and then the sunny Czech coast becomes the subsequent location as sixteen years have lapsed since the previous act, the interim allowing the child to have grown to a plot pivot. There is an amazing of wooing where the natural character of the garden is discussed and explored.

A beautiful queen named Hermione, resurrection, the oracle of Delphi, a jealous husband, someone trying to do good gets eaten by a bear, royalty does not know is royalty, love wants to conquer, happy end. Shelves: romance. Not one of the Bard's best efforts 15 June Some people have suggested that when it comes to very old, or even ancient literature, the fact that we still have it is testimony to the lasting quality of that work, and as such it should not be rated, or more aptly receive a low rating, because of that.

Okay, I agree that this is certainly the case when it comes to a lot of the ancient literature that we have, but I also suggest that maybe some rubbish has also come down to us. Then there is also Not one of the Bard's best efforts 15 June Some people have suggested that when it comes to very old, or even ancient literature, the fact that we still have it is testimony to the lasting quality of that work, and as such it should not be rated, or more aptly receive a low rating, because of that.

Then there is also the question of taste, meaning that while one may appreciate Homer , one may also believe that Virgil is just a load of propaganderous rubbish that should never have been preserved though that is not necessarily my opinion. The thing with Shakespeare is that most of his works were preserved though there is some debate over the exact nature of the allegedly lost play Loves Labour's Found , which means that not only do we have his timeless classics such as Hamlet we also have his rubbish, such as this play. Okay, I may be burnt at the stake by the Shakespearian Appreciation Society for suggesting that one of Shakespeare's plays was rubbish though if they did that then they would have to burn every high school student who hates Shakespeare simply because they are forced to read him in school , but in the case of A Winter's Tale, I have to say that this is pretty much the case.

Okay, we have some confusion with geography, considering there is a scene set on a beach in Bohemia. Yes, that's right, a beach in Bohemia. If you are wondering what is so bad about a beach in Bohemia, well, here is a map of Bohemia: [image error] Yep, that's right, it is land locked, and okay, you may suggest that it could be on a lake, or even a river, but since the main characters jumped on a ship and sailed to Bohemia, I get the impression that maybe, just maybe, the intention was to suggest that they were going across the sea.

Okay, it would not be the first time that a major production company is a little or a lot loose with the truth — Hollywood does it all the time — and the audience probably didn't care, or didn't even realise since a bulk of the audience were probably uneducated and illiterate , but because of this many of us have come to the conclusion that Shakespeare was not all that good with geography. Then there is the other aspect of the play that seemed to come right out of nowhere. Here we are, watching some guy deliver a speech on a beach in Bohemia and then put a baby in a chest, when all of the sudden, completely out of left field, comes this: Who proceeds to chase the character off stage, at which point a clown or a fool, probably a fool, considering what he did steps back onto the stage to tell the audience that he watched a bear run down the poor character and begin to rip him to pieces.

In fact, this is a comedy or is supposed to be one which means nobody is supposed to die. However, in a way the play doesn't seem to know what it is, and nor does the writer. The play begins with a king fuming with rage over the perception that maybe his wife has cheated on him, and he gets angrier and angrier until he reaches a point where he has effectively alienated everybody that he knows and loves. Then the play takes a dramatic shift from this very dark and tragic atmosphere and throws it into the idyllic atmosphere of the common person, and takes the different theme of the person of royal blood growing up among the common people and having no idea of their heritage, until it is suddenly revealed to them later on in the play.

Finally, you have the last scene, which simply seems to be tacked on, where the wife, who we first thought was dead, turns out not to be dead, but is in fact a statue, and after the whole scene of the king moaning over how bad he had been and how unfair he had treated his wife, boom, suddenly she is no longer a statue, but back to her former self.

As I said at the beginning, not one of his best plays. This is one of my favorite Shakespearean plays. It's like a fairy tale that is pagan in setting but Christian in its themes, which include guilt, repentance, redemption, resurrection, forgiveness, grace,and love. There are, in a sense, two plays here, divided by the passage of time. The first play ends with the stage note, "Exit, pursued by a bear. An added benefit of this audio--Ciaran Hines plays This is one of my favorite Shakespearean plays. Jun 01, Kelly rated it liked it Recommends it for: hardcore Shakespeare fans.

This one is a bit more difficult to get into. Shelves: owned , , shakespeare , brit-lit , theatre. This is one of the more bizarre plotlines. With bizarre characters. Which don't fit together. The plot doesn't quite cobble enough for me. It's like a puzzle, where the edges of the pieces sort of lay on top of each other, instead of locking together.

So you end up with Niagara Falls falling off backwards on the picture. There are some interesting statements made here, and a few scenes of good fun There are many other ones to read first. Picking up tis play to read I knew absolutley nothing about it other than having heard it's name. I have to say I am glad I took a chance on the unknown because this play was truly a pleasure to read. Once I got used to the English used in it reading it became almost melodic in my head. There is no doubt Shakespeare knew how to make words dance.

This play almost feels like it should be two separate plays since they are so very different in feel. The first half a tragedy and the sequel a romance. I feel like Shakespeare wrote this play as sort of an homage to the Greek classics. I loved that even with all the flowery language multiple times requiring me to look up words he quickly managed to start the film projector in my head I was seeing the action happening in my head. Truly a classic and I am so thrilled that my first foray into Shakespeare unknown to me was such a resounding success!!

Jan 31, Holly rated it it was amazing Shelves: holly-recommends , top-shelf. I remember listening to my 12th grade english teacher explain why he didn't like the book. It has too much, he said. The romance and the lost child and the political intrigue and the clown and magic. But that's exactly why I love it: the giant jumble of everything Shakespeare loved to explore. I love the surprisingly strong and well-developed female characters. I love the story and the wild adventures that happen, but which are all grounded in an emotional story about love, family and regret.

Pe I remember listening to my 12th grade english teacher explain why he didn't like the book. Perhaps The Winter's Tale doesn't have the tragic weight of Lear or Hamlet, but it's always my favorite to read. Readers also enjoyed. About William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare baptised 26 April was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. His surviving works consist of 38 plays, sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His plays have been tr William Shakespeare baptised 26 April was an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At the age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway, who bore him three children: Susanna, and twins Hamnet and Judith. Between and he began a successful career in London as an actor, writer, and part owner of the playing company the Lord Chamberlain's Men, later known as the King's Men. He appears to have retired to Stratford around , where he died three years later.

Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive, and there has been considerable speculation about such matters as his sexuality, religious beliefs, and whether the works attributed to him were written by others. But yet speak: first you, my liege. Yet strangely this time Shakespeare does not devote a stage direction on the margins to [Silence],92 thus running the risk that an incompetent prompter would uselessly prompt Paulina. And that those veins Did verily bear blood? In fact Polixenes and Camillo name each of her actions, lest the audience might miss something: she embraces Leontes, and hangs on his neck V.

Music, awake her: strike! Come; I'll fill your grave up. Stir; nay, come away. Bequeath to death your numbness, for from him Dear life redeems you. The rest of the commands are to be delivered very slowly, yielding a pause between each other. On the contrary, Hermione must have stood on a platform superimposed on the main stage.

This, unlike the balcony, would have easily allowed Hermione to step down and to come effectively in full view of the amazed characters on the stage and of the audience. Actually there may be exceptions to this rule, especially when the inferiors hold temporarily the upper hand in the action. In this case Leontes feels deeply thankful and debtor to Paulina, who then is let go first. Moreover, the choice to have the characters clear the stage with the excuse of conversing about what each one has been doing for sixteen years is a tactic frequently used by Shakespeare, because it effectively spares the audience needless exposition.

In the following sections I will attempt to focus in particular on its literary, theatrical, geographic, and political resonances. Pandosto was basically built up picking up material from common contemporary romance literature, with little concern for originality. Romance in prose, deeply influenced by the Greek romances and always featuring impossible quests, marvels or unexpected agnitions,95 was a most popular literary genre among Elizabethans and Jacobeans. In spite of the fact that Pandosto was unoriginal, crudely constructed and badly written, it enjoyed a massive popularity for more than a 94 Some examples: groups of six lines such as III.

Howard, Katherine Eisman Maus, ed. If on the one hand Shakespeare maintains the basic plot and practically all the characters of Pandosto have their correspondent in the play, he also introduces some important changes. Her lover Dorastus becomes Florizel in the play, thus connecting the young man with the flowers of spring. At a more general level, to turn a story into a play is to focus on action and cut out dispersive monologues, descriptions and digressions.

Shakespeare tried hard to give life to characters and make the plot credible. It is Time here which achieves results, while characters seem to have little power over their destiny: being at the mercy of it, they do not show strength, loyalty, self-sacrifice, love or other virtues. Pandosto stereotypically ends to give moral satisfaction to the Elizabethan reader: Pandosto must be punished for the evil he has caused so it is right to have him suffer: getting away with a happy reunion would not match expectations.

It seems indeed to be infused with the political and legal views of Jacobean England. Another crucial issue is that of royal authority. In the second part of the play Leontes chooses to give up his tyrannical attitude and accepts to be wisely couselled by Paulina. When in V. Consequently the myths of the Golden Age and of the Arthurian past were reinvigorated and readily associated with the Stuarts. Men seemed in fact to believe that a second Golden Age, restoring an ideally pure world, would begin thanks to James. One of these is the unexpected harmonious conclusion to potentially tragic events, which seems a sign of hope just like the aspired restoration of the Golden Age.

Also the choice to have the play begin in Sicily and not in Bohemia, as in Pandosto, is not just due to the reference to the myth of Proserpina or to the fact that the island was well known for crimes of jealousy and revenge. More importantly, Sicily seems to embody the idea of the Ovidian Golden Age. Virgil opened his Fourth Eclogue with an invocation to the Muses of Sicily to help him poetically celebrate the Golden Age, Pliny wrote that its land rewarded the rustic a hundred times and Cicero claimed that corn originated there and flowers bloomed in profusion at all seasons.

Unlike parsimonious Elizabeth, he spent a lot of money on lavish gifts for his favourites, he accumulated huge debts which were then paid off by raising taxes and impositions and by selling positions and privileges. Moreover, plausible rumours widespread about his exercise of homosexual practices at court.

Greenblatt, pp. Though the scene is set in autumn, the reunion of Perdita and Florizel with Leontes promises new life, just like spring. Astraea was in fact the virgin figure of justice who, according to Ovid, was the last of the immortals to leave the Earth when the first Golden Age collapsed. Thus her return is seen by Virgil as the signal of the restoration of the Golden Age. It is to be noticed also that the presiding deity of the returning Golden Age is Apollo, traditionally the god revealer of truth and punisher of injustices.

In the play he is consistently present as an oracular deity who reveals the truth about Hermione but also strikes at Leontes when he rejects his word. Apollo is also the patron of physicians, and this curative function appears at the end of the play when the oracle is fulfilled. Being also the god of shepherds, he seems an appropriate deity in pastoral Bohemia. According to Ovid, Autolycus was the name of the son of Mercury and Chione.

SCENE IV. The Shepherd's cottage.

On the same night in which Autolycus was conceived, though, Chione conceived another child by Apollo, Philammon. So Autolycus, a master in artful trickery, was the twin half- brother of one who excelled in the arts of his father, Apollo. Yet the E. Cooper Dictionary, quoted in Hardman, p. The Emperor of Russia was my father; O that he were alive, and here beholding His daughter's trial! In a plight which crosses the boundaries both of Sicily and of Jacobean England, Hermione invokes his father, the Emperor of Russia.

His account of the extremely harsh weather, snow and hail he faced, revolutionized the meaning of the tales told in winter, where this season is seen both as fate and as an alien world which causes death: Shakespeare, in fact, setting the first two acts of the play in this season achieves this feeling. Much more important was the mission of Richard Chancellor who, after separating from Willoughby in a tempest, went on to encounter Ivan the Terrible, the Emperor of Russia. After this contact, a flourishing trade developed between England and Russia: Russian ambassadors visited London in , , and , while in a group of Muscovites students came to study at Winchester, Eton, Cambridge and Oxford.

Ambassadors, writers and explorers who reached Russia and got to know Ivan IV the Terrible came back to England with an appalling account of his behaviour: he was violent, suspicious of his subjects and of the English themselves, he tortured his own relatives as well as his people and eventually had them cut in pieces, and he had his brother killed and his wife slaughtered after stripping her clothes off her and setting her naked in front of everyone.

The connection between Leontes and Ivan IV is even more direct if we consider that he also had to face the consequences of his own tyranny. In fact he killed his son during a violent fight. In fact the connections with Russian matters would have made the English spectators aware of their own social and political alterity. This has originated a few problems as it is easily observable that Bohemia does not have a coast. In fact it has been observed on historical atlases that Bohemia used to have a small foothold on the Adriatic for short periods in the late 13th and early 16th century.

In the age in which Shakespeare wrote the play the English might not have known much about Bohemia, but they might have known some texts referring to the existence of its coast. It seems much more likely that he just followed once again his source, Pandosto. He did not have any concern about possible attacks on the part of Jonson who, indeed, accused Shakespeare of being wanting in Art and sometimes even Sense, or any other critics.

Lovell Beddoes, p. So we should only read Elbe instead of sea and the shipwreck would be totally plausible as the river is deep enough for a ship to sink, and it is also very good for a disaster of this kind on the stage. However, even if Shakespeare ignored the geographic configuration of Bohemia it would be wrong to compromise the whole reputation of the dramatist for such a petty blunder. The link he establishes between this region and the sea is moral rather than geographic the meaning of the shipwreck and the importance it has in the structure of the play, that is to convey the transition between tragedy and comedy, must be enough to neglect irrelevant facts.

If before the twentieth century very little critical treatment was devoted to it, modern scholars wonder why Shakespeare introduced a bear on stage.

A Journal for Critical Debate

The ship that brings Perdita onto the Bohemian shore sinks with all its crew, so it would have been much more economical, if really Antigonus had to die, to have him drown with the rest of the sailors. There may be a very concrete reason why Shakespeare made his choice: the bear-pit in Southwark had a tame animal to let out so the management took this chance to make a popular hit of the play.

In addition, it was almost impossible to have a bear routinely wait in the backstage for his cue to enter the stage and then pursue Antigonus without mauling him. A Casebook, London: Macmillan, , p. Given their young age they could have been much less of a danger for the actors and the people off-stage; moreover, Ravelhoffer thinks that bears are particularly amenable to performance training and discipline. However there is no doubt that an actor disguised as a bear would have been much more manageable, alarming and funny: he would just need to be able to walk on all fours without flexing his knees and then rise on his hind legs.

So if we grant that the bear was actually a dressed up man, there must be a precise reason for Shakespeare to introduce it, other than to gain popularity and attract attention with spectacle. Shakespeare uses storms as symbols of tragedy, and wild animals are often associated with them. More importantly, the bear represents indeed the most violent way to signal the transition between the two levels on which the play is built: tragedy and comedy. Wolves and bears, they say, Casting their savageness aside, have done Like offices of pity. This is an example of Providence which strongly appealed to an audience who still retained something of the medieval belief that God cared for holy men and innocents.

One of the two climbs up a tree while the other one falls down flat onto the ground and pretends to be dead. The bear does not devour the man on the ground because, as the exemplum reads, a breathless body must not be touched. Infant Perdita, for whose role a doll or a dummy were employed, was probably swaddled in tight bands as to be supposed to lie motionless, seemingly dead. Therefore, according to the Elizabethan popular belief, the bear would have treated her respectfully and maybe gently sniffed at it before chasing Antigonus off-stage. In IV. In the commonplace debate between Nature and Art, Perdita defends the former whereas Polixenes answers: Yet nature is made better by no mean But nature makes that mean; so over that art Which you say adds to nature, is an art That nature makes.

You see, sweet maid, we marry A gentler scion to the wildest stock, And make conceive a bark of baser kind By bud of nobler race. This is an art Which does mend nature- change it rather; but The art itself is nature. Impute it not a crime To me or my swift passage that I slide O'er sixteen years, and leave the growth untried Of that wide gap, since it is in my pow'r To o'erthrow law, and in one self-born hour To plant and o'erwhelm custom.

In this way Time also defends the work of the dramatist who adjusts custom and nature to his own purposes. Here's the midwife's name to't, one Mistress Taleporter, and five or six honest wives that were present. Why should I carry lies abroad? It was thought she was a woman, and was turn'd into a cold fish for she would not exchange flesh with one that lov'd her. The ballad is very pitiful, and as true. Is it true too, think you? Five justices' hands at it; and witnesses more than my pack will hold.

Here the concept of literary truth and reliability is effectively ridiculed.

The Winter's Tale (Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages)

Autolycus sells his ballad as true because a midwife and six honest wives claim that what is told really happened, but of course such a bunch of unknown and generic witnesses cannot possibly prove the truth of the story. Thus Shakespeare makes a fool of Jonson who looks for literary truth by giving him a group of shrewish women to vouch for it, and at the same time he ironically implies that truth cannot be reached because it cannot even be defined.

In this way Shakespeare ultimately gives up every bond with the claim to truth. Pafford, London: Methuen, Norton, Bradbrook, M. Evans, G. Granville-Barker, Harley, Prefaces to Shakespeare. Batsford, Hardman, C. Moorman, F. A Casebook, London: Macmillan, Unbuckle, unbuckle. Should I now meet my father. Nay, you shall have no hat. The swifter speed the better. I understand the business; I hear it. To have an open ear, a quick eye, and a nimble hand, is necessary for a cut-purse: a good nose is requisite also, to smell out work for the other senses.

I see this is the time that the unjust man doth thrive. What an exchange had this been without boot! Sure, the gods do this year connive at us, and we may do anything extempore. The prince himself is about a piece of iniquity; stealing away from his father with his clog at his heels. Aside, aside: here is more matter for a hot brain. See, see, what a man you are now! She being none of your flesh and blood, your flesh and blood has not offended the king; and so your flesh and blood is not to be punished by him. Show those things you found about her; those secret things, all but what she has with her: this being done, let the law go whistle: I warrant you.

Indeed, brother-in-law was the furthest off you could have been to him, and then your blood had been the dearer by I know not how much an ounce. Well, let us to the king: there is that in this fardel will make him scratch his beard. Your affairs there, what, with whom, the condition of that fardel, the place of your dwelling, your names, your ages, of what having, breeding, and anything that is fitting to be known, discover.

A lie; you are rough and hairy. Let me have no lying; it becomes none but tradesmen, and they often give us soldiers the lie; but we pay them for it with stamped coin, not stabbing steel; therefore they do not give us the lie.

Your worship had like to have given us one, if you had not taken yourself with the manner. Whether it like me or no, I am a courtier. Seest thou not the air of the court in these enfoldings? I am courtier, cap-a-pe, and one that will either push on or pluck back thy business there: whereupon I command thee to open thy affair. The fardel there? Wherefore that box? Sir, there lies such secrets in this fardel and box which none must know but the king; and which he shall know within this hour if I may come to the speech of him. If that shepherd be not now in hand-fast, let him fly: the curses he shall have, the torture he shall feel, will break the back of man, the heart of monster.

Not he alone shall suffer what wit can make heavy and vengeance bitter; but those that are germane to him, though removed fifty times, shall all come under the hangman: which though it be great pity, yet it is necessary. An old sheep-whistling rogue, a ram-tender, to offer to have his daughter come into grace! Some say he shall be stoned; but that death is too soft for him, say I: draw our throne into a sheep cote!

But what talk we of these traitorly rascals, whose miseries are to be smiled at, their offences being so capital? He seems to be of great authority: close with him, give him gold; and though authority be a stubborn bear, yet he is oft led by the nose with gold. Show the inside of your purse to the outside of his hand, and no more ado.



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