Self-control is a multifaceted phenomenon Evenden and one of its. In humans, delay tolerance measured at age four is a reliable predictor of standardized test scores, IQ, academic performance, delinquency and divorce rates later in life Mischel et al. However, the picture is not so clear-cut; in fact, if we look at non-human primates, there are large differences among species, which phylogenetic relatedness alone cannot explain.
Given the apparent importance of delay tolerance for achieving success in life, it is not surprising that a great bulk of research has tried to elucidate which factors affects the evolution of this capacity and four main hypotheses have been proposed in this respect. They highlight, respectively, the role of social structure, feeding ecology, cognitive ability, and body size on the capacity of waiting for a larger delay option.
The first two mirror the main hypotheses attempting to illuminate interspecific differences in general cognition. Specifically, the social structure hypothesis predicts that species with a more dynamic social structure i. Finally, the body size hypothesis predicts that larger species should wait longer than smaller species Stevens Several studies have tested the validity of the social structure and of the feeding ecology hypotheses in non-human primates, whereas relatively few studies have explored the cognitive and body size hypotheses.
To evaluate whether phylogenetic relatedness, social structure or feeding ecology account for interspecific differences in delay tolerance, in two studies phylogenetical-. Each individual was required to choose between a smaller option immediately available and a larger option available after a certain delay. It emerged that chimpanzees Pan troglodytes waited significantly more than bonobos Pan paniscus and common marmosets Callithrix jacchus waited significantly more than cotton-top tamarins Saguinus oedipus.
For both pair of species, the different feeding ecology is the most likely explanation for interspecific differences in delay tolerance. In fact, chimpanzees are more frugivorous than bonobos, who consume a higher percentage of leaves and grass. Whereas fruit is not always available in the environment, leaves and grass are a more constant resource. Thus, the need to wait for fruit being available and ripe enough in their habitat, may have made chimpanzees more tolerant to delay than bonobos Rosati et al. Similarly, common marmosets heavily rely on exudates and they have developed physiological and morphological adaptations to extract and eat the gum that exude from the tree holes.
Because this foraging strategy requires waiting for the gum to exude, Stevens et al. When tested in the same task, capuchin monkeys Sapajus spp. Thus, the feeding ecology hypothesis seems supported also in capuchins. The only study so far supporting the social structure hypothesis found that, in a battery of non-social self-control tasks including the delay choice task , four non-human primate species living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics showed an overall better self-control capacity than three species living in more stable social groups Amici et al. A recent study lends support to the cognitive and body size hypotheses.
Stevens carried out a phylogenetic regression analysis on data obtained in 13 nonhuman primate species to assess whether social group size, absolute and relative brain size, and body size predict performance in the delay choice task. He showed that body size and absolute brain size predicted delay tolerance, whereas social group size and relative brain size did not. Nonetheless, the above analysis neglects the role of feeding ecology. Mac Lean et al. Phylogenetic analysis showed that absolute brain volume was the best predictor of performance across all non-human animal species tested.
Moreover, across the 22 species of nonhuman primates included in the sample, dietary breadth i. Overall, feeding ecology seems to explain interspecific variation in selfcontrol in most of the research reviewed above. However, virtually all of the studies that examined the role of feeding ecology have the important limit of lacking an objective quantification of the species diet, relying instead on qualitative descriptions e.
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The only exception is represented by the study by Mac Lean et al. References Addessi, E. Delay choice vs. Amici, F. Fission—fusion dynamics, behavioral flexibility, and inhibitory control in primates. Evenden, J. Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology , — MacLean, E. L, Matthews, L. Phylogenetic comparative psychology. The evolution of self-control. Mischel, W. Delay of gratification in children. Science , — Rosati, A. The evolutionary origins of human patience: Temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults. Stevens, J. The adaptive nature of impulsivity.
In Madden G. Washington, D. Intertemporal choice. In Breed M. Oxford, UK: Academic Press. Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice. The ecology and evolution of patience in two New World primates. Tobin, H. Self-control across species Columba livia, Homo sapiens, and Rattus norvegicus. White, C. Studi osservativi analizzano la produzione spontanea di umorismo nei diversi ambiti di vita del bambino piccolo, in particolare in famiglia, al nido e nella scuola materna Bergen, ; Cameron et al.
Vengono considerati umorismo semplice gli scherzi che possono essere anche non verbali, come il nascondino, fare smorfie o suoni buffi. Si tratta in questo caso di gesti o parole che hanno lo scopo di provocare il riso o creare occasioni per condividere divertimento. In ogni caso si tratta di un. La produzione di umorismo nei bambini I pochi studi recenti sulla produzione di ironia nei bambini non sembrano cambiare il quadro delineato sopra.
Quindi non solo non possiamo far produrre umorismo in situazione sperimentale, ma non possiamo neanche delimitare un contesto di osservazione. Naturalmente questa tecnica non permette analisi statistiche sofisticate, ma si possono individuare comportamenti che non sono documentabili in situazione sperimentale o in un contesto definito a priori. In Angeleri e Airenti abbiamo mostrato come in situazione sperimentale anche bambini di 3 anni siano in grado in certi casi di comprendere enunciati ironici.
Airenti, G. Angeleri, R. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, — Attardo, S. In Anolli, L. Bergen, D. International Journal of Educology, 3, — Bryant G. Cameron, E. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 23, 5— Creusere, M. Metaphor and Symbol, 15, 29— Dews, S. In Mandell, C. Filippova, E. Child Development, 79, — Gibbs, R. Journal of Pragmatics, 44, Groch, A.
Child Development, 45, — Hoicka, E. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30, — Keltner, D. Psychological Bulletin, , — Norrick, N. Journal of Pragmatics, 35, — Pexman, P. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, — Discourse Processes, 40, — Metaphor and Symbol, 24, — Recchia, H. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, — Reddy, V. In Whiten, A. Winner, E. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. By analyzing the generated word sequences, the FDT permits to observe whether the word order distortion is systematic or not and, in particular, whether or not the original syntactic constituency groups influence word order.
Although in theory the subjects could modify the order of the elements in any possible way, the task is expected to trigger the adoption of strategies directed to minimize the cognitive effort to produce the responses. One possible strategy is to organize the elements into larger chunks that are easy to manipulate and recall them as units. The FDT has been tested with both verbal and musical materials. Both language and music have a syntactic structure, i. This work aims at examining the analogies between the results elicited with the FDT in the two domains above mentioned, in order to analyze the mechanisms underlying the task and to suggest new perspectives and applications of this new experimental methodology.
Free Distortion Task with linguistic and musical materials A series of experiments was performed with both Italian native speakers verbal FDT experiments and graduated pianists musical FDT experiments. The subjects were presented with sentences containing either 6 words verbal FDT or 6 beats musical FDT , organized in a variety of syntactic structures. The participants were asked to memorize each stimulus and to produce a new sequence containing all and only the elements presented in the stimulus, but arranged in a random order. The speakers produced oral responses, whereas the pianists played them on a keyboard.
The responses were recorded and transcribed by the experimenters. As far as the measurement of randomness is concerned, since randomness itself cannot be directly observed, only departures from randomness i. For each response, an index of distortion was scored in each transition between elements words or notes that were adjacent in the stimulus, in order to measure the probability that the contiguity between each pair of linearly consecutive elements was broken.
Results As illustrated in Figure 1, the results show that both the speakers and the pianists relied on the syntactic structure of the stimuli: the speakers were more likely to maintain the contiguity between word pairs belonging to the same phrase than between word pairs divided by a phrase boundary; similarly, the notes belonging to the same tonal function were played consecutively by the pianists more often than the notes divided by the boundaries between tonal functions.
The line plots in Figure 1 show that both the linguistic and the musical experiments elicited specific response patterns mirroring the syntactic structure of the stimulus for each stimulus type. Analogous response patterns were also elicited by two control experiments, designed to control the role of non-syntactic factors e.
The results confirm that the task turns out to be a promising method to access the syntactic analysis of the linguistic and musical structures spontaneously produced by speakers and pianists. The results of the experiments show that, when asked to freely turn wellformed sequences of elements into a disordered structure, the subjects consistently produced specific recombination patterns depending on the type of input structure.
The response patterns reflect the process of analyzing the syntactic structure of the stimuli into its constituents, irrespective of the type of material. The results thus suggest that the processes underlying the FDT are not language-specific, but they reflect a common processing strategy of structured sequences for both verbal and musical material.
Discussion In order to deepen our understanding of these processes, it is useful to focus on the nature of the task. The FDT share some similarities with the random generation task: in this paradigm, participants are asked to generate randomly ordered sequences of items selected from a constrained repertoire e. There is evidence that the human ability to generate randomly ordered sequences of items is limited, but the difficulties with random generation do not seem neither attributable to a misconception of randomness nor to short-term memory problems Wagenaar , Brugger To explain the limits of the performance, Baddeley et al.
To avoid stereotypy, the task requires the repeated intervention of the central executive component of working memory Baddeley , , that is responsible for the mechanisms resulting both in an automatic tendency to avoid the immediate repetition of an item and in the active inhibition of recently used schemata that enables the switching from one schema to another. Because the latter is an attention demanding process, any restriction of time or attentional capacity will limit the randomness of the output, resulting in more stereotyped responses.
Unlike the random generation paradigm, in the FDT participants must retrieve each item word or note contained in the stimulus only once: the task thus entail an additional involvement of the working memory in order to maintain the original sequence of items as long as the response sequence is completed. Since these processes are attention demanding, they may interfere with the concurrent mechanism for planning and monitoring the ongoing response, thus increasing the order in the generated sequence.
The order pattern that emerges in the response suggests that the participants chunk together the items belonging to the same constituent. The chunking process could be determined by 2 different factors: 1 in order to facilitare the response production, it is convenient for the subject to manage a smaller set of items than the original one Miller ; 2 the chunks could be not only directly retrieved from the short term memory store, but they could result from an active reconstruction from a main recalled element e.
In the FDT participants have to disarrange the elements of sequences that are structured into constituents: this property of the to-be-distorted material allows the experimenters to advance more detailed hypothesis about the departures from randomness in the FDT compared to the traditional random generation tasks. For example, if the constituents are psychologically salient for the subjects, the constituent structure of the stimuli could act as the schema underlying the chunking that emerges in the response pattern.
When these factors were experimentally controlled in both the verbal and the musical FDT, however, the results revealed that both speakers and pianists were actually sensitive to the abstract syntactic structure of the stimuli and they tended to preserve it in their responses. Conclusions The FDT turns out to be an effective method to elicit a spontaneous breakdown of organized sequences into their structural constituents, and it can be used to assess how people analyze complex structures into elements having a psychological relevance, and also to identify these elements. Moreover, since the FDT elicits a random generation behavior as well as a clear pattern of performance limitations, it can be possibly applied as a task for the assessment of the executive capacities.
Albertini S. Sintassi e working memory: Un nuovo paradigma di valutazione. Editors: A. Auricchio, M. Cruciani, A. Rega e M. Baddeley, A. Working Memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends Cogn. Random generation and the executive control of working memory.
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A 4 , Besson, M. Comparison between Language and Music. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, Brugger, P. Variables that influence the generation of random sequences: An update. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, Frank, S. How hierarchical is language use? B , — Miller, G. The Psychological Review, 63 2 , pp. Moro, Andrea. The boundaries of Babel. Wagenaar, W. Generation of random sequences by human subjects: A critical survey of literature. Psychological Bulletin, 77 2 , The Computer-mediated Expression of Surprise: a corpus analysis of chats by English and Italian native speakers and Italian learners of English.
This project investigates how Italian-native speakers express surprise in their mother tongue and in English as their second language when communicating on Facebook. The objective of this study was to examine, from a psycholinguistic point of view, what leads people to favour a specific linguistic expression when conveying surprise. Psychological, cognitive and neuro-scientific approaches to emotions and surprise Before analysing the verbal expression of surprise, it is necessary to understand what surprise is i.
An emotion is generally defined as a psychophysiological response to a stimulus e.
The stimulus is received by the amygdala, which forms and stores memories associated with emotional events. Since these memories are stored in our brain, we can interpret the stimulus and react to it in a specific way. In other words, we have the emotional stimulus that reaches the amigdala, the process of interpretation and, only then, the psycho-physiological response.
With surprise this process — stimulus-interpretation-response — is reversed. When, for instance, two people are talking, a sort of balance is created; the two persons speak in turn carrying on the conversation. When Speaker 1 says something unexpected to Speaker 2, the balance is broken by the latter who does not accept what he has just been told.
Then, by asking questions, he may try to re-establish the pre-existing balance. This exchange of questions and explanations may be seen as the process of interpretation that, in emotions like anger, comes before the emotion arousal. To sum up, while in any emotion we have the sequence stimulus — interpretation — response, in surprise we have stimulus — response — interpretation. Since interpretation comes only after, surprise can be defined as the instinctive response to an unexpected event and not as an emotion by itself Ortony, Moreover, contrary to emotions, surprise lasts only some milliseconds.
This difference in duration has been confirmed by experts of body-language as well see Pacori, All these differences between surprise and emotions have led me to consider surprise not as an emotion by itself but rather as an instinctive reaction emotions are generated from. This interpretation of surprise constituted the starting point of my study on the computer-mediated expression of this instinctive response by English non-native speakers. Yet, analysing the way surprise is conveyed verbally may allow us to better understand the cognitive process of this instinctive reaction.
Since surprise is so short in time, people are not given the time to think about how to express it.
When speaking in a second language, this lack of time may lead the person to use fixed expressions or to literary translate a. Further, since surprise is a reaction that makes us loose the control over the situation for only some milliseconds, it is difficult to define what is said at the very moment when the speaker is surprised. Analysing the verbal expression of such an instinctive reaction may therefore reveal how influential a mother tongue is when communicating in a foreign language.
The research to date has tended to study the expression of surprise in monolinguals, collecting data in laboratories or from texts because the different language-learning backgrounds — i. My objective was then to use these obstacles as means to examine how influential a mother tongue and the language-learning background are when expressing an instinctive reaction in a foreign language.
In order to obtain the most spontaneous and most natural possible utterances, the data was collected from original Facebook conversations. This way, it was possible to examine the language specific to chats — in opposition to spoken and written language — that, nowadays, is becoming more and more present, and that has been neglected in the past studies on emotions.
For non-native speakers, their level of English and language-learning background were taken into account as well 1: beginner; 2: pre-intermediate; 3: intermediate; 4: upper-intermediate; 5: bilingual. First, a systemic approach was adopted; by examining the combination of the reaction-, comment- and question-segments, my objective was to see whether the expression of surprise changed according to whether the language spoken was a first or a second language.
Attention was then focused on the lexical expression of surprise. After having analysed some features specific to non-native speakers i. By examining all these aspects, this research analyses how non-native speakers express surprise on Facebook. This tendency was identified in both the native and non-native speakers. Yet, in the latter, the expression of surprise resulted less natural as a consequence of the fact that the speakers were communicating in a foreign language. The occurrence of these specific symbols has led me to investigate the codes peculiar to computer-mediated communication and the way they are employed to convey surprise.
This study revealed the influence that a mother tongue, the languagelearning background and the kind of communication i. However, further research is needed in the expression of surprise by non-native speakers as well as in the way it is conveyed in computer-mediated conversations.
It might be interesting to conduct a parallel study; a comparison with a research on how, for instance, French native speakers express surprise in English in chats and social networks might lead to more solid findings about the relationship between language and surprise, and first and second language in the expression of instinctive reactions.
Moreover, my research revealed a different use of smileys in Italian and English. Analysing the expression of surprise by non-native speakers of different origins might be a way to examine the use of this specific code in diverse cultures. Harris, C. When is a First Language More Emotional? Psychophysiological Evidence from Bilingual Speakers. In Pavlenko, A. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Cambridge University Press. Krashen, S. Studia Linguistica, 35 , The cognitive structure of emotions.
Cambridge university press. Zajonc, R. Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need no Inferences. American Psychologist, 35, Pacori, M. Come interpretare i messaggi del corpo. Bari: Giunti Editore. Ivana Baldassarre Dip. Consequently, the traditional distinction between induction and deduction loses ground, since the main assumption of deduction, i.
The source of the new paradigm can be indentified with the probabilistic interpretation of conditionals, i. Differently from propositional logic, according to which conditionals mean that q the consequent follows necessarily from p the antecedent , the probabil-. A large amount of empirical studies e. Fugard et al.
Neverthless, the findings are controversial. To our knowledge, there is a lack of studies investigating whether other forms of deductive reasoning are probabilistically conceived by people. However, the two deductive theories make different predictions about the easiness to draw a conclusion from these arguments: ML theory, which assumes that the mind possesses some inference schemas, do not predict differences in reasoning difficulty between the basic connectives, such as those used in this study; MM theory, which assumes that human reasoning is based on building mental models of the possibilities of premises, predicts that MP and the derivation of a conjunct, which require only one model, are easier than the negation of a conjunct from alternative denial, which requires three models Johnson-Laird, On the contrary, according to the new paradigm, the level of believability of the propositional statements would always affect the conclusions.
As previously noted, the new paradigm predictions have been mainly tested with conditional reasoning. For this reason, this study was aimed to estabilish whether these predictions could be extended to conjunctions and alternative denials. The second aim of the study was to investigate whether the instruction to consider the premises as true decreased the believability effect. The connective sentence and statement believability were within-subjects variables, instruction was between-subjects. Reaction times were recorded. Conditionals, conjunctions and alternative denials were selected through a preliminary study aimed to estabilish the level of believability of these statements on point scale.
On the basis of the preliminary study results, 24 statements were selected, 8 for each type of connective: 4 high believability sentences mean between 70 and 90 ; 4 low believability sentences mean between 10 and The main experiment was performed with computer software E-prime 2. Three-ways interaction showed that with logical.
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Response times were lower with conditionals than the other two connectives, and those of the conjunctions were lower than alternative denials; participants also took less time to respond with highly vs. The results showed different patterns of choices among the three connective propositions: the participants endorsed more inferences with conditionals, followed by conjunctions and alternative denials.
Differently from previous studies e. Moreover, reaction times were lower for conditionals, followed by conjunctions and last by alternative denials On the whole, these results were controversial. They corroborate some predictions of deductive theories: in conformity with MMT predictions, MP and the deduction of a conjunct were easier endorsed than the negation of a conjunct from alternative denials; however, contrary to the MMT predictions, MP was endorsed more often than the deduction of a conjunct. In fact, MP, although it was affected by the believability of conditionals.
Our results partially corroborate the idea that propositional reasoning has a probabilistic nature, since the tendency to endorse inferences in function of the believability of the premises is robust, though not equally distributed among the three connective sentences. Moreover, the great frequency with which MP was endorsed suggests that conditionals are implicitly conceived in a deductive rather than in a probabilistic way. In conclusion, probabilistic approaches per se cannot explain the variability of results with connective sentences, whereas it appears premature to set aside the idea that people reason deductively.
References Braine, M. Psychological Review, 98, — Evans, J. Experimental Psychology, 56, 77— Thinking and Reasoning, 18, Fugard, A. How people interpret conditionals: Shifts towards the conditional event. Heit, E. Johnson-Laird, P. Deductive reasoning. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, — Propositional reasoning by model. Psychological Review, 99, — Matarazzo, O. Esposito et al. Oaksford, M. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 69— Over D. T The probability of conditionals: The psychological evidence. Politzer, G.
Betting on conditionals. Ramsey, F. The foundations of mathematics and other logical essays. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London. Singmann, H. The overview focusses on the work of LOCEN directed to understand the systemlevel overall organisation of brain that allows organisms, in particular primates, to express multiple motor behaviours sub-serving multiple needs, and how such behaviors are acquired through learning processes. Computational models of goal-directed and habitual behaviour. Instrumental behaviour is a fundamental means through which animals, and in particular primates, flexibly and adaptively accomplish their multiple needs with variable internal and external conditions.
Instrumental behaviour can be subdivided in habitual and goal-directed behavior. Habitual behaviour brain mechanisms link specific stimuli to instrumetal behaviours S-R , i. Goal-directed behaviour mechanisms, instead, link desired outcomes to instrumental actions A-O Baldassarre et al. The acquisition and expression of multiple behaviours relies on two highy integrated brain systems Baldassarre and Mirolli ; Baldassarre et al.
The first is related to the two main cortico-cortical pathways of brain Caligiore et al. Motivational systems behind motivation and learning Ventral striatum is a key nexus between the generation of motivational value of action outcomes e. The values of outcomes can be generated by. This generation of value is based on Pavlovian processes underlying the triggering of innate reactions towards the brain, body, and world, Mirolli et al.
Alternatively, values can be generated by intrinsic motivations Baldassarre and Mirolli, ; Baldassarre et al. The assignment of value to possible action outcomes and goals strongly relies on the production of neuromodulators, such as dopamine and noradrenaline, regulating the overall brain functioning Fiore et al. Conclusions The overall organisation of brain architecture and processes subserving primates' flexible behaviour is very complex.
However, the work of LOCENISTC-CNR reviewed here shows that its interdisciplinary investigation, pivoting on system-level computational models and computationally informed theoretical analyses of empirical evidence, can lead to identify relatively few main architectural and functioning principles underlying them. Bibliografia Baldassarre, G. Baldassarre, G. Forward and bidirectional planning based on reinforcement learning and neural networks in a simulated robot.
In Butz, M. Berlin: Springer. What Are Intrinsic Motivations? A Biological Perspective. The hierarchical organisation of cortical and basal-ganglia systems: a computationally-informed review and integrated hypothesis. In Baldassarre, G. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Intrinsically motivated learning in natural and artificial systems. Neural Networks, 41, Frontiers in Psychology, 5 , e Barto, A. Caligiore, D. Cartoni, E. Modular and hierarchical brain organization to understand assimilation, accommodation and their relation to autism in reaching tasks: a developmental robotics hypothesis.
Adaptive Behavior. Chersi, F. Ciancio, A. Fiore, V. Mannella, F. The interplay of Pavlovian and instrumental processes in devaluation experiments: a computational embodied neuroscience model tested with a simulated rat. In Tosh, C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Mirolli, M. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain and behaviour. Connection Science, 22 3 , Pezzulo, G.
From actions to goals and vice-versa: theoretical analysis and models of the ideomotor principle and TOTE. Polizzi di Sorrentino, E. Santucci, V. Schembri, M. In EpiRob , pp. Seepanomwan, K. Taffoni, F. Thill, S. Introduction Autism Spectrum Disorder henceforth ASD or simply autism is increasingly considered a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder responsible for social impairments AA. Here we focus in particular on the support and development of social competence in children. The attention on design for children with autism should be directed to make the child feel emotionally comfortable within the environment, to value the presence of others, and to develop basic communication and reciprocal interaction skills before embarking in supporting the acquisition of complex linguistic skills.
The development of new technologies has also contributed to improve emotion recognition in ASD individuals enhancing their social skills Pioggia et al. Interactive products are opening up new learning and playing opportunities for children with autism. A key element of these products is the need to be able to motivate the child to use them. Activities that children feel passionate about will be much better at motivating their learning processes Papert, as reported in Kestenbaum Although autistic children can be highly sensitive, or insensitive, to stimuli, they truly enjoy sensory rewards, such as sounds, music, vibration, and deep.
Main purposes. It is an interactive transitional object directed to enhance social interaction and communication between a child with autism and an adult. The features can be remotely controlled to adjust the. The feedback can thus be either directly caused by the child's action, or it can be controlled remotely by an adult. Children with autism can interact with the prototype in the ways they prefer e. The positive sensorial feedback focuses on the interpersonal communication and on the achievement of their goals during the interaction.
Towards an Experimental Protocol to Evaluate the Wearable Utility This section presents a preliminary hypothesis on a possible experimental protocol usable to evaluate the utility of the proposed wearable. The preliminary ideas proposed here will be refined together with specialists, such as therapists and students who work with autism, as well as together with autistic children's parents. The basic protocol to investigate these aspects could be as follows.
The experiments could have a between-subjects design, with two groups of children with autism in the same range of ASD and age.
The experimental sessions would take place as the normal therapeutic sessions already involving the participants and would be based on the same tasks for both groups. This would allow the use of the device in already experienced therapeutic sessions and environment. The recordings by the pillow would be paral-. The device can be used both to support social interactions and to improve social and basic communication skills through its prolonged use. Future work will further develop the device properties and possibilities of interaction with external devices e. It will also investigate, with structured experiments, the actual impact of the use of the device on the autistic child's social capabilities and on their long term improvement.
References AA. Special issue on neuroscience: The autism enigma. Nature, , Early autism detection: are we ready for routine screening? Pediatrics, 1 , e—7. Adaptive Behavior, 22 5 , — Chevallier, C. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Neural dynamics of autistic behaviors: cognitive, emotional, and timing substrates. Psychological Review, 3 , — Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain.
Nature Neuroscience, 12 8 , —2. Designing for diversity: developing complex adaptive tangible products. Tangible and Embedded Interaction, The challenges of IDC. Communications of the ACM, 48 1 , Collaborative technologies for children with autism. ACM Press. An android for enhancing social skills and emotion recognition in people with autism. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy. Encyclopedia of Psychotherapy pp. Sebastiana Boscarino Dip. In questo Locke e gli altri non si discostavano dalla posizione di Cartesio, che aveva escluso categoricamente l'esistenza di un mondo mentale per gli animali.
Da secoli i biologi si sono occupati invece della sfera mentale degli animali, a partire da Darwin stesso, ma soprattutto con l'avvento dell'etologia, Lorenz e Tinbergen, ma soprattutto per gli aspetti cognitivi meno impegnativi, come le reazioni percettive ed emotive, o il risolvere semplici problemi. Sulla stessa linea Cabanac , che ha approfondito sperimentalmente certe reazioni emotive primordiali, come febbre e tachicardia, riscontrabili in rettili, mammiferi e uccelli, ma non negli anfibi.
Ricerche quindi deviate su aspetti della coscienza molto lontani dal nucleo indicato da Locke, la storia personale, a cui la psicologia moderna ha dedicato un meccanismo ben preciso, la memoria episodica Tulving, Gli animali la posseggono? Su entrambi i punti arriva ben presto la smentita di Clayton e Dickinson , dopo studi sulle ghiandaie californiane, graziosi uccellini, che vivono in foreste sempre verdi dell'America, nutrendosi di due cibi: pinoli o bruchi.
Si pensa invece che dal primo lavoro di Clayton e Dickinson ad oggi, si siano accumulate interessanti nuove evidenze, che anzitutto permettono di smentire Suddendorf e Corballis, gli animali viaggiano abbondantemente nel tempo, all'indietro ma pure in avanti. I loro preferiti sono i maialini dello Yucatan, che si sono dimostrati bravissimi a tenere distinti il what un tipo di oggetto , where il posto e il which il contesto in un ambito sperimentale.
Oltre a queste esperienze dirette, altrettanto interessanti sono i progressi rispetto alle basi neurologiche della memoria episodica. Allen e Fortin hanno ripercorso, nella storia evolutiva, il sorgere nei cervelli delle strutture neurali alla base della memoria episodica, che sono anzitutto l'ippocampo, e poi la regione para ippocampale, e le connessioni di entrambe con la corteccia prefrontale.
Allen T. Cabanac, M. Chalmers, D. Denton, D. Griffin D. Kouwenberg A. Mendl M. Current evidence and implications for welfare, Applied Animal Behaviour Science Suddendorf T. The mental time travel debate: reply to Clayton et al. B Tulving E. Van Schaik C.
Intendo giuochi da scacchiera, giuochi di carte, giuochi di palla, gare sportive, e via discorrendo. Come ho detto: non pensare, ma osserva! Ora passa ai giuochi di carte: qui trovi molte corrispondenze con quelli della prima classe, ma molti tratti comuni sono scomparsi, altri ne sono subentrati. Confronta il giuoco degli scacchi con quello della tria. Pensa allora ai solitari. Veder somiglianze emergere e sparire […]. Murphy Eppure, i fecondi risultati di queste ricerche sono stati scarsamente considerati nel dibattito filosofico sulla definizione di arte.
Tuttavia, Dean adotta una versione della teoria dei prototipi piuttosto datata ed inoltre limitata, se consideriamo le alternative oggi disponibili nel campo delle scienze cognitive cfr. Adajian, T. Trinchero Ricerche filosofiche, Einaudi, Torino, A giugno esistono milioni. Si stima che circa Sono stati effettuati numerosi studi relativi all'utilizzo di Facebook Ellison, Steinfield, Lampe , Caci et al.
Young ha sviluppato l'Internet Addiction Test IAT dimostrando che gli Internet-dipendenti mostrano una maggiore trascuratezza nei confronti delle loro famiglie, del loro lavoro, degli studi, delle relazioni interpersonali, oltre che della cura di se stessi Young I soggetti sperimentali hanno partecipato su base volontaria. Media DS Internet 1,81 0,36 1,85 0,40 2,08 0,99 1,56 0,02 2,44 1,34 1,74 0,34 1,89 0, Tale ri-. Test T di Wilcoxon Internet vs. Facebook F1 F2. Bibliografia Andreassen, C. Development of a facebook addiction scale 1, 2. Psychological reports, 2. Backstrom, L. Four degrees of separation.
Boyd, D. Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 13 1. Caci, B. Facebook as a small world: a topological hypothesis. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 2. Sistemi Intelligenti, 3. The big five personality factors as predictors of facebook usage. Facebook: topology to personality and back — an actor-based simulation.
In European Perspectives on Cognitive Science. New Bulgarian University Press. Cardaci, M.
In Fenomenologia della scoperta, a cura di Maldonato, M,. Bruno Mondadori. Reti sociali, informazioni individuali. Ellison, N. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12 4. Ferraro, G. D'Amico, A. Garcia, D. Personality and Individual Differences, Kuss, D. Excessive online social networking: Can adolescents become addicted to facebook.
Education and Health, 29 4. Skeels, M. When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin. Young K. Internet addiction: symptoms, evaluation and treatment. In Innovations in Clinical Practice, a cura di L. Effect of stimulus type and experimental procedure on a visual discrimination task.
Introduction Diurnal primate species are frequently studied in the context of learning abilities in the visual cognition domain since they most rely on sight to gather information from the environment Fleagle, ; Gilad et al. Virtually all experimental paradigms employed to study visual cognition in humans and non-human species are based on discrimination tasks involving the choice between two or more visual stimuli.
To this purpose, different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation can be used. Specifically, the necessity to carry out in depth analyses of cognitive processes led to the development of increasingly sophisticated methods for data collection. In particular, in the last decades, there was a spread use of computerised procedures in a growing number of animal taxa e.
This trend stressed the necessity to compare data obtained with computerised procedures to those acquired from procedures that require to be administered by a human experimenter. On the one hand, computerised tasks allow to present a high number of trials within a scheduled time slot and also to present stimuli and to register responses very precisely in terms of both accuracy and response time preventing experimenter biases.
On the other hand, this kind of procedures are almost exclusively administered by using images presented on a computer screen. Systematic comparisons of the same subjects tested by using different types of methodological procedures would contribute to clarify how methodological aspects may affect learning behaviour in cognitive tasks. Materials and Methods Subjects were eight adult tufted capuchin monkeys four males and four females. Capuchins were trained to discriminate which stimulus, between two stimuli of the same shape but different size, was the bigger one.
Stimuli consisted of pairs of: a. In each experimental condition, the stimuli could be linear-shaped or circular-shaped. The Food condition included a pair of salted sticks 10 cm and 6 cm in length, respectively , and a pair of circular hosts 6. In the Food and the Object conditions, the apparatus consisted of a metal trolley with a sliding tray which could be moved forward and backward on a support. A human experimenter located the stimuli on the sliding tray, moved them closer to the subject and provided a food reward in case of correct responses.
In the Food condition the reward was the food item selected, whereas in the Object condition the reward was a piece of peanut. In the Image condition, the apparatus consisted of a computerized workstation with a laptop connected to a touch-screen and an automatic food dispenser. A software served to present the stimuli, to record the response behaviour and to control the releasing of a banana-flavoured pellet in case of correct responses.
For the three types of stimuli we compared the mean number of trials to reach the learning criterion and the mean percentage of correct responses to acquisition. Results and discussion The results of Experiment 1 foods vs. Both the different types of stimuli and procedures for stimuli presentation may have played a key role. The results of the second experiment objects indicated that objects discrimination led to intermediate levels of performance compared with foods and images, both in terms of number of trials to acquisition and accuracy at.
Specifically, as previously observed for foods, capuchins needed significantly less trials to reach the learning criterion with objects than images. However, in terms of accuracy at acquisition, objects did not differ from both foods and images. Finally, no clear evidence emerged in favour of the ability of capuchins to immediately generalise the solution of the problem across the three different conditions.
Thus, similarities among conditions used in this study seem to be not sufficient to promote generalization processes, albeit capuchin monkeys are able to transfer their discrimination ability across different conditions in other experimental settings e. Altogether, these results show that capuchin monkeys can learn a visual discrimination task presented in different settings, but the learning time and the accuracy of their responses may vary depending on both the stimulus type and the experimental procedure adopted.
Finally, this study suggests that the manipulation of the stimuli could facilitate the comprehension of their size, as argued for humans Gori et al. Future studies in nonhuman species would need to investigate all these factors and their mutual interactions in order to understand their effects in visual cognition processes. Bayer, K. The touch-screen method as an implement for dog experiments.
Barros, R. Generalized identity matching-to-sample in Cebus apella. Cook, R. Successive two-item same—different discrimination and concept learning by pigeons. Extent and limits of the matching concept in monkeys Cebus apella. Fagot, J. Evidence for large long-term memory capacities in baboons and pigeons and its implications for learning and the evolution of cognition. Fleagle, J. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Gilad, Y. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.
Plos Biol. Gori, M.
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