We evaluated changes in the distribution of polar bear maternal dens between and , using satellite telemetry. We evaluated whether hunting, attraction to bowhead whale remains, or changes in sea ice could explain changes in den distribution. We concluded that denning distribution changed in response to reductions in stable old ice, increases in unconsolidated ice, and lengthening of the melt season.
In consort, these changes have likely reduced the availability and quality of pack ice denning habitat. Further declines in sea ice availability are predicted. Therefore, we expect the proportion of polar bears denning in coastal areas will continue to increase, until such time as the autumn ice retreats far enough from shore that it precludes offshore pregnant females from reaching the Alaska coast in advance of denning. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte.
Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Isolated occurrence or concomitant presence of DE with other dental anomalies has been reported. DE commonly affects permanent teeth and is rarely seen in primary dentition. Treatment may be conservative or radical. Serological tests were pi.
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HI tests revealed sero. Post- den emergence behavior of polar bears Ursus maritimus in Northern Alaska. During 40 sessions spanning h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1. The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 1. While outside, adult bears were inactive We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather.
Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas. Activity of Swift Foxes Vulpes velox at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in and to determine role of males in parental care.
Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours.
Females and males spent Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote Canis latrans depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.
Habitat characteristics at den sites of the Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra. The Point Arena mountain beaver Aplodontia rufa nigra is a federally listed endangered species, but has been the subject of few studies. Mountain beavers use burrows that include a single subterranean den. Foremost among the information needs for this subspecies is a description of the above-ground habitat features associated with dens. Polar bears Ursus maritimus give birth during mid-winter in dens of ice and snow.
Denning polar bears subjected to human disturbances may abandon dens before their altricial young can survive the rigors of the Arctic winter. Because the Arctic coastal plain of Alaska is an area of high petroleum potential and contains existing and planned oil field developments, the distribution of polar bear dens on the plain is of interest to land managers.
Such habitats were distributed uniformly and comprised 0. Ground-truth sampling suggested that we had correctly identified Knowledge of the distribution of these habitats will help facilitate informed management of human activities and minimize disruption of polar bears in maternal dens. Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel is a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in high elevation forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.
Denning sites may be a limiting factor for this subspecies in areas where cavity trees are not abundant or where interspecific competition from other tree squirrels occurs. This shortage can result in use of unusual denning sites, such as subterranean dens.
Herein, we report atypical denning habits of radio-collared Carolina Northern Flying Squirrels in southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina from to and Increased knowledge of denning habitats may be beneficial for conservation and habitat management of this subspecies, particularly in sub-optimal or degraded habitats. Dens invaginatus in primary maxillary molar: a rare case report and review of literature. Dens invaginatus is a rare developmental anomaly.
It is unusual to find this anomaly in primary dentition. Diagnosis of this dens invaginatus is important due to possible pulpal involvement. Not only that, simultaneous presence of other dental anomaly may require long-term treatment planning. Dens invaginatus can be detected clinically in the tooth presenting unusual crown morphology or radiographically as radiopacity within tooth. This article describes one of the first case reports of dens invaginatus in primary maxillary second molar in a 5-year-old female patient.
Int J Clin Pediatr Dent ;5 2 Kaum eine Branche hat in den letzten zehn Jahren einen tiefgreifenderen Wandel erfahren als die Energiewirtschaft. Leicht nachzuvollziehen, dass es eine neue Art der Kommunikation braucht. Hibernacula and summer den sites of pine snakes Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey pine barrens. Burger, J. We examined eight summer dens used only in summer and seven hibernacula occupied both in winter and summer of the snake Pituophis melanoleucus in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, comparing above ground characteristics of hibernacula and summer dens with characteristics at nearby random points.
Temperatures at the soil surface and at 10 cm depth were significantly warmer, and there was less leaf cover around the random points compared to the entrances of the hibernacula and summer dens. Hibernacula had significantly more vegetation cover within 5 m, more leaf cover over the burrow entrance, and were closer to trees than were summer dens. Excavation of the hibernacula and summer dens indicated that most hibernacula appeared to be dug by the snakes and had an average of eight side chambers and cm of tunnels, compared to less than one side chamber and cm of tunnels for summer dens.
Pine snakes may select optimum hibernation sites which reduce winter mortality. Typical 2bedroom apartment with entry into den , hallway with Typical 2-bedroom apartment with entry into den , hallway with bathroom and bedrooms right. Entry to kitchen left. Typical 2-bedroom apartment with entry into den , hallway with bathroom and bedrooms left , entry to kitchen right - Techwood Homes, Building No.
Typical 1bedroom apartment, from entry hall, den right bedroom Typical 1-bedroom apartment, from entry hall, den right bedroom left , and kitchen not shown on left. Biomechanics of halo-vest and dens screw fixation for type II odontoid fracture. An in vitro biomechanical study of halo-vest and odontoid screw fixation of Type II dens fracture.
The objective were to determine upper cervical spine instability due to simulated dens fracture and investigate stability provided by the halo-vest and odontoid screw, applied individually and combined. Previous studies have evaluated posterior fixation techniques for stabilizing dens fracture. No previous biomechanical study has investigated the halo-vest and odontoid screw for stabilizing dens fracture. A biofidelic skull-neck-thorax model was used with 5 osteoligamentous whole cervical spine specimens.
Three-dimensional flexibility tests were performed on the specimens while intact, following simulated dens fracture, and following application of the halo-vest alone, odontoid screw alone, and halo-vest and screw combined. Spinal motions with the dens screw alone could not be differentiated from physiologic limits. The present biomechanical data may be. Arctic foxes as ecosystem engineers: increased soil nutrients lead to increased plant productivity on fox dens.
Top predators can provide fundamental ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, and their impact can be even greater in environments with low nutrients and productivity, such as Arctic tundra.
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We estimated the effects of Arctic fox Vulpes lagopus denning on soil nutrient dynamics and vegetation production near Churchill, Manitoba in June and August Inorganic nitrogen levels decreased from June to August on both dens and controls, whereas extractable phosphorous increased. Dens supported 2. By concentrating nutrients on dens Arctic foxes enhance nutrient cycling as an ecosystem service and thus engineer Arctic ecosystems on local scales. The enhanced productivity in patches on the landscape could subsequently affect plant diversity and the dispersion of herbivores on the tundra.
Remote identification of maternal polar bear Ursus maritimus denning habitat on the Colville River Delta, Alaska. High resolution digital aerial photographs 1 foot pixel size of the Colville River Delta, Alaska were examined in 3D, with the use of a digital photogrammetric workstation. Topographic features meeting the criteria required for adequate snow accumulation, and subsequent construction of terrestrial polar bear maternal dens , were identified and digitized into an ArcGIS line shapefile.
Effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy were improved when compared to previous polar bear denning habitat efforts which utilized contact photo prints and a pocket stereoscope in other geographic areas of northern Alaska. Accuracy of photograph interpretation was systematically evaluated visually from the air with the use of a helicopter and physically on the ground. Results show that the mapping efforts were successful in identifying den habitat Knowledge denning habitat can improve and inform decision making by managers and regulators when considering travel and development in the study area.
An understanding of polar bear denning habitat extent and location will be a crucial tool for planning activities within the study area in a way that minimizes conflicts with maternal dens. Clinical and quantitative analysis of patients with crowned dens syndrome. Crowned dens syndrome CDS is a radioclinical entity defined by calcium deposition on the transverse ligament of atlas TLA. Based on novel criteria, calcium deposition on TLA was classified into "Stage" and "Grade", to make a score, which was evaluated semi-quantitatively.
The correlation between calcification score and CRP level or pain score, and the effects of treatments, such as NSAIDs and corticosteroids, were statistically analyzed. Given documented social dominance and intraspecific predation in bear populations, the ideal despotic distribution model and sex hypothesis of sexual segregation predict adult female grizzly bears Ursus arctos will avoid areas occupied by adult males to reduce risk of infanticide.
Under ideal despotic distribution, juveniles should similarly avoid adult males to reduce predation risk. Den -site selection and use is an important component of grizzly bear ecology and may be influenced by multiple factors, including risk from conspecifics. We measured elevation, aspect, slope, and dominant land cover for each den site, and used maximum entropy modeling to determine which variables best predicted den sites.
Juveniles used a broad range of landscape attributes but did not avoid adult male denning areas. Observed spatial segregation by adult females supports the sex hypothesis of sexual segregation and we suggest is a mechanism to reduce risk of infanticide. Den site selection of adult males is likely related to distribution of food resources during spring. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs. Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs Lycaon pictus have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor.
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Lions Panthera leo are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning.
We investigated the relationship between the distribution of wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site.
We compared characteristics of actual and potential random den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions.
The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes. Jackson, Craig R. John; Groom, Rosemary J. Dengue is an acute, emerging, infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that has become a serious global public health problem.
In infected Ae. There were no significant differences in the midgut and salivary gland infection rates of Ae. In summary, our results indicate that Ae. All rights reserved. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Test excavation of floor fill deposits in the first room in Bear Den Cave, Sequoia National Park, produced fossiliferous sediments down to at least 40 cm depth.
The fossil accumulation represents prey recovered from generations of ringtail Bassariscus astutus dung. Microvertebrate remains include salamanders, lizards, snakes, and mammals. Neither taxa live in the Sierra Nevada today. The fossil-rich deposits of Bear Den Cave indicate that future paleoecological studies will be productive in Sequoia National Park. Review of the literature and diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines].
Dens invaginatus is a clinically relevant malformation of teeth resulting from an infolding of enamel and dentine into the dental structure during tooth formation, hence the former denomination " dens in dente". The dens invaginatus shows multiple morphological variations of crown and root formation. This frequently leads to caries, pulpal and periodontal involvement with necrosis and loss of attachment. Therefore, early diagnosis and prevention are of utmost importance.
Due to the complexity of the malformation, treatment options in former days were limited. This article presents a profound review of the literature regarding etiology, epidemiology and histology. It discusses clinical appearance and diagnosis and it provides guidelines for decision-making and treatment of invaginated teeth. Lack of gp expression in hepatocytes attenuates tumor progression in the DEN model.
Chronic liver inflammation is a crucial event in the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma HCC. Thus, in the present study we aimed to investigate the role of gp in hepatocytes for the initiation and progression of HCC. Hence, blocking gp in hepatocytes might be an interesting therapeutic target to inhibit the growth of HCC.
The National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska NPR-A in northeastern Alaska provides winter maternal denning habitat for polar bears Ursus maritimus and also has high potential for recoverable hydrocarbons. Denning polar bears exposed to human activities may abandon their dens before their young are able to survive the severity of Arctic winter weather. To ensure that wintertime petroleum activities do not threaten polar bears, managers need to know the distribution of landscape features in which maternal dens are likely to occur.
Here, we present a map of potential denning habitat within the NPR-A. We used a fine-grain digital elevation model derived from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar IfSAR to generate a map of putative denning habitat. Mapped denning habitat comprised Though mapping denning habitat with IfSAR data was as effective as mapping with the photogrammetric methods used for other regions of the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain, the use of GIS to analyze IfSAR data allowed greater objectivity and flexibility with less manual labor.
Analytical advantages and performance equivalent to that of manual cartographic methods suggest that the use of IfSAR data to identify polar bear maternal denning habitat is a better management tool in the NPR-A and wherever such data may be available.
FDG uptake in the immediate vicinity of the odontoid process, with a crownlike calcification, was identified on the CT scan on the posterior side of the dens , thus confirming the diagnosis of crowned dens syndrome. We monitored 15 radio-collared raccoons Procyon lotor on Davies Island in March - May to determine the extent to which individual tree attributes or spatial configuration of plant associations habitat types across the land-scape influenced den use.
Of verified den sites, were in tree cavities. Raccoon occurrence among 4 cover This small-scale research examined den -making in three different settings in the UK. The research consisted of non-participant, narrative observations of children aged between 3- and 5-years and early years practitioners involved in supporting them in their play. Content analysis revealed common themes: the impact of the environment on the way….
Surgical orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine in the presence of dens invaginatus and follicular cyst. It can cause early pulpal necrosis, abscesses, retention or dislocation of contiguous elements, cysts, and internal resorptions. It normally affects the upper lateral incisors. In the following study the authors will discuss the etiology, the physiopathology, and the surgical-orthodontic management of a rare case of impacted canine associated with dens invaginatus and follicular cyst, with the aim of highlighting the importance of taking any therapeutic decision based on the data available in the literature.
Case Report. The present study describes a combined surgical-orthodontic treatment of an impacted canine associated with a lateral incisor 2. When treating a dens invaginatus there are different therapeutic solutions: they depend on the gravity of the anomaly and on the association with the retention of a permanent tooth. The aesthetic and functional restoration becomes extremely important when performing a surgical-orthodontic repositioning. Dengue virus DENV is a human pathogen and its etiology has been widely established. There are many interactions between DENV and human proteins that have been reported in literature.
However, no publicly accessible resource for efficiently retrieving the information is yet available. In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue—human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called Den Hunt. We retrieved direct interactions of human proteins with dengue viral components, indirect interactions and differentially expressed human genes in dengue infected cell lines and patients.
We have illustrated the importance of Den Hunt by mapping the dengue—human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. We also observed that 7 percent of the dengue virus interacting human proteins are also associated with other infectious and non-infectious diseases. Finally, the understanding that comes from such analyses could be used to design better strategies to counteract the diseases caused by dengue virus.
Knowledge of female behavior while rearing young can have important implications for species conservation. We located dens and analyzed activity defined as movement between consecutive GPS locations for nine female lynx with kittens in the northcentral Rocky Mountains in and We used GPS tracking collars to quantify the percentage of time a female spent In this study, we mined all publicly available dengue-human interactions that have been reported in the literature into a database called Den Hunt.
We have illustrated the importance of Den Hunt by mapping the dengue-human interactions on to the host interactome and observed that the virus targets multiple host functional complexes of important cellular processes such as metabolism, immune system and signaling pathways suggesting a potential role of these interactions in viral pathogenesis. First evidence of gregarious denning in opossums Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae , with notes on their social behaviour.
The Didelphidae are considered solitary opossums with few social interactions, usually limited to mating-related or mother—pouch young interactions. Anecdotal reports suggest that additional interactions occur, including den sharing by a few individuals, usually siblings. Here, we report novel observations that indicate opossums are more social than previously thought.
These include nest sharing by males and females of Marmosa paraguayana, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Marmosops incanus prior to the onset of the breeding season and without signs of sexual activity; this is taken to indicate early pair-bonding matching and cooperative nest building. We also recorded den sharing among recently weaned siblings of Didelphis aurita and Caluromys philander. In addition, we observed 13 individuals of Didelphis albiventris representing three age classes resting without agonistic interactions in a communal den. These are the first reports of gregarious behaviour involving so many individuals, which are either unrelated or represent siblings from at least two litters, already weaned, sharing the same den with three adults.
Sociality in opossums is probably more complex than previously established, and field experimental designs combining the use of artificial nests with camera traps or telemetry may help to gauge the frequency and extent of these phenomena. Collar temperature sensor data reveal long-term patterns in southern Beaufort Sea polar bear den distribution on pack ice and land. In response to a changing climate, many species alter habitat use. To aid in detecting denning behavior, we developed an objective method to identify polar bear denning events using temperature sensor data collected by satellite-linked transmitters deployed on adult females between and We then applied this method to determine whether southern Beaufort Sea polar bears have continued to increase land denning with recent sea-ice loss and examined whether sea-ice conditions affect the distribution of dens between pack-ice and coastal substrates.
Because land use in summer and autumn has also increased, we examined potential associations between summering substrate and denning substrate. Statistical process control methods applied to temperature-sensor data identified denning events with We found an increase in land-based denning during the study period.
The frequency of land denning was directly related to the distance that sea ice retreated from the coast. These results suggest that denning on land may continue to increase with further loss of sea ice. While the effects that den substrate have on nutrition, energetics, and reproduction are unclear, more polar bears denning onshore will likely increase human-bear interactions. Hy DEn relies on custom-built quaternary codes and a private key used in the randomized assignment of code words and the cyclic permutations applied on the encoded message.
Along with its ability to detect and correct errors, Hy DEn equals or outperforms existing cryptographic methods and represents a promising in silico DNA steganographic approach. Check Den , a program to compute quantum molecular properties on spatial grids. Check Den , a program to compute quantum molecular properties on a variety of spatial grids is presented. The program reads as unique input wavefunction files written by standard quantum packages and calculates the electron density rho r , promolecule and density difference function, gradient of rho r , Laplacian of rho r , information entropy, electrostatic potential, kinetic energy densities G r and K r , electron localization function ELF , and localized orbital locator LOL function.
These properties can be calculated on a wide range of one-, two-, and three-dimensional grids that can be processed by widely used graphics programs to render high-resolution images. Check Den offers also other options as extracting separate atom contributions to the property computed, converting grid output data into CUBE and OpenDX volumetric data formats, and perform arithmetic combinations with grid files in all the recognized formats. This paper presents the first system design SensIn Den T for noncontact cardiorespiratory monitoring during dental treatment.
The system is integrated into a dental treatment unit, and combines sensors based on electromagnetic, optical, and mechanical coupling at different sensor locations. The measurement principles and circuits are described and a system overview is presented. Furthermore, a first proof of concept is provided by taking measurements in healthy volunteers under laboratory conditions.
Dens invaginatus is one of the most common anomalies of tooth structure. It is caused by the invagination of the crown surface during odontogenesis that enters the pulp chamber of the affected tooth. Depending on the complexity of invagination, the tooth might present with pulp necrosis, open apex and a complicated root canal system. This case report presents an Oehlers' type 2 dens -invaginatus in a mandibular premolar with chronic apical abscess.
In most cases, dens invaginatus is removed during treatment. However, in this case report, based on cone-beam computed tomography CBCT evaluation, non-surgical treatment and maintenance of the invaginated segment was chosen in order to prevent compromising the tooth structure and its susceptibility to future root fracture. This is a new treatment approach and has not been performed in previous reports. Calcium-enriched mixture CEM cement was used as an apical plug followed by gutta-percha in warm vertical compaction for root canal obturation. The case was followed up for 36 months after treatment.
This report highlights the importance of selecting the appropriate treatment approach based on CBCT evaluation. In this work, we report the synthesis and characterization of Den Timol, a dendrimer-based polymeric timolol analog, as a glaucoma medication. Ex vivo corneal permeation of Den Timol was assessed using the Franz diffusion cell system mounted with freshly extracted rabbit cornea. Den Timol is efficient at crossing the cornea. Compared to the undosed eye, an IOP reduction by an average of 7. Daily dosing of Den Timol for a week did not cause any irritation or toxicity as confirmed by the histological examination of ocular tissues, including the cornea, ciliary body, and retina.
Home range, den selection and habitat use of Carolina northern flying squirrels Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus. Context: Understanding habitat selection is important for determining conservation and management strategies for endangered species. The primary use of nest boxes to monitor CNFS has provided biased information on habitat use for this subspecies, as nest boxes are typically placed in suitable denning habitat.
Aims: We conducted a radio-telemetry study on CNFS to determine home range, den site selection and habitat use at multiple spatial scales. We tracked squirrels to diurnal den sites and during night-time activity. We assessed habitat selection using Euclidean distance-based analysis at the 2nd order and 3rd order scale. We found that squirrels were non-randomly selecting for habitat at both 2nd and 3rd order scales. Conclusions: At both spatial scales, CNFS preferentially selected for montane conifer forests more than expected based on availability on the landscape. Squirrels selected neither for nor against northern hardwood forests, regardless of availability on the landscape.
Additionally, CNFS denned in montane conifer forests more than other habitat types. Management and restoration activities that increase the quality, connectivity and extent of this naturally rare forest type may be. Catalogue of polar bear Ursus maritimus maternal den locations in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions, Alaska, This report presents data on the approximate locations and methods of discovery of polar bear Ursus maritimus maternal dens found in the Beaufort Sea and neighboring regions between and that are archived by the U.
A description of data collection methods, biases associated with collection method, primary time periods, and spatial resolution are provided. Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea and nearby regions den on both the sea ice and on land. Standardized VHF surveys and satellite radio telemetry data provide a general understanding of where polar bears have denned in this region over the past 3 decades.
Den observations made during other research activities and anecdotal reports from other government agencies, coastal residents, and industry personnel also are reported. Data on past polar bear maternal den locations are provided to inform the public and to provide information for natural resource agencies in planning activities to avoid or minimize interference with polar bear maternity dens. Ihre Wirksamkeit wurde in zahlreichen validen, gut kontrollierten Studien belegt.
Transcriptome and key genes expression related to carbon fixation pathways in Chlorella PY- ZU 1 cells and their growth under high concentrations of CO2. The biomass yield of Chlorella PY- ZU 1 drastically increased when cultivated under high CO 2 condition compared with that cultivated under air condition. However, less attention has been given to the microalgae photosynthetic mechanisms response to different CO 2 concentrations.
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The genetic reasons for the higher growth rate, CO 2 fixation rate, and photosynthetic efficiency of microalgal cells under higher CO 2 concentration have not been clearly defined yet. More adenosine triphosphates was saved for carbon fixation-related pathways. The transcript abundance of rubisco the most important enzyme of CO 2 fixation reaction was Carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism are the two most important metabolisms in the photosynthetic cells.
These genes related to the two most metabolisms with significantly differential expressions were beneficial for microalgal growth 2. Reconnaissance study of late quaternary faulting along cerro Go Den fault zone, western Puerto Rico. The Cerro Go Den fault zone is associated with a curvilinear, continuous, and prominent topographic lineament in western Puerto Rico. The fault varies in strike from northwest to west. In its westernmost section, the fault is??? The Quaternary fault of the A??
Previous workers have postulated that the Cerro Go Den fault zone continues southeast from the A?? West of the A?? Using both , scale air photographs taken in and , scale photographs taken by the U. Department of Agriculture in , we iDentified geomorphic features suggestive of Quaternary fault movement in the A??
Many of these features suggest right-lateral displacement. Mapping of Paleogene bedrock units in the uplifted La CaDena range adjacent to the Cerro Go Den fault zone reveals the main tectonic events that have culminated in late Quaternary normal-oblique displacement across the Cerro Go Den fault. Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the La CaDena range exhibit large folds with wavelengths of several kms.
The orientation of folds and analysis of fault striations within the folds indicate that the folds formed by northeast-southwest shorTening in present-day geographic coordinates. The age of Deformation is well constrained as late Eocene-early Oligocene by an angular unconformity separating folDed, Deep. The Devils Den area is named for a large undercut cliff Dale, , p. This undercut cliff forms a broad natural cave immediately west of and below Forest Service Road 10, at the head of Mt.
Tabor Brook. The pathologic changes - for instance transversal push to the ileosacral joint - mostly appear at the side of the longer leg with a scoliosis of the spinal column with increased pressure loads on the concave side of the scoliosis in the intervertebral disks and with typical blockings in different vertebral segments. Adequate diagnosis includes anamnesis and extensive clinical examination to recognize functional deficits instead of only imaging diagnostics. Useful therapies are - besides analgetic therapies, like manual therapy, matrix rhythm therapy, water-filtered infrared A wIRA , ear acupuncture, magnetic field resonance therapy, micro current therapy, injection therapy - primarily the therapeutic preventive procedures stretching of shortened musculature and partial compensation of leg length differences.
From an economical point of view static disorders cause immense indirect and direct disease costs, whereas the described adequate therapies are effective as well as economical. A holistic therapy concept with matrix rhythm therapy, hyperthermia, oxygen and anti-acidification - therapy of musculo-sceletal disorders Bernhard Dickreiter, MD, Nordrach : The costs for the treatment of back pain burden the health insurance companies by diagnostic and therapy costs as well as the companies by sick-times increasingly in the past years.
From the point of view of Dr. Dickreiter back school concepts of the past years have not shown the desired effects. Promising new aspects of handling of this clinical picture arise from the current results of the cellbiological basic researches and the new "matrix therapy concept" derived from it: The cause of the musculo-sceletal complaints in the sense of a myo-fascial, myo-ischemic-acidotic and myo-tendinitic pain syndrome is seen in the hardening of the musculature with an energy crisis at a cellular level.
Within the new therapy concept there is not an abundance of treatments in the center of attention as before, but a modular concept in line with effectiveness, which affects the cellbiological processes especially at the extracellular matrix level. Essential parts of the concept are the matrix rhythm therapy as depth effective micro extension method, the local warming by water-filtered infrared A wIRA or the infrared whole body hyperthermia, the physical activity for the local improvement of oxygen supply, the oxygen therapy including hyperbaric oxygen therapy HBO and the orthomolecular substitution and "healthy" nutrition.
Special emphasis has to be laid on a sufficient therapy on time among others protective, anticipating analgesia to avoid the development of a pain memory with chronification of the pain and becoming independent from causes. Further pain therapeutic, neurosurgical procedures are the therapeutic regional anesthesia, computed tomography controlled procedures, the percutaneous laser disk decompression, denervational procedures, the endoscopic sequestrectomy, the vertebroplasty, open operative procedures, the microsurgical decompression as well as implant procedures as the minimal-invasive cervical and lumbar spondylodesis.
Today, outpatient procedures can be carried out in neurosurgical clinics in the context of a modern integrated care program. Back school for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention - lifestyle change, physiotherapy - in the age of integrated ambulatory care Monika Kremer, Frankfurt am Main : Modern therapy strategies prefer - as far as possible - a conservative instead of an operative procedure, an active instead of a passive, a multimodal instead of a monotherapeutic procedure.
Activities of motion and training therapy e. The working place conditions are taken into account particularly with an increasing integration of ergonomics training programs. The concept "preventive back school" covers the arrangement and application of effective everyday strategies to avoid great strain on the back to prevent the development of functional and degenerative diseases especially in the area of the spinal column including muscular dysbalances.
An everyday behavior suitable for the back e. The MRI exhibits high sensitivity and specificity and is therefore superior to other radiological methods.
Lumbaler Bandscheibenvorfall - Management, klinische Aspekte und aktuelle Empfehlungen
Elimination of the infection, pain reduction and stabilisation of the spine are the main objectives of any treatment. A standardised antibiotic therapy for spondylodiscitis has not been clearly defined. Pathogen detection is important, with focused antibiotic therapy. In the case of antibiotic-resistant infections with neurological deficiencies, it is recommended to perform a surgical procedure, with careful debridement and instrumentation as well as i.