Time That Was

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Macroplastic items such as line and string are more likely to cause entanglement due to their shape Fig. Our findings suggest that man-made entanglement from fishing related gear has significantly increased in recent decades Fig. The North Sea has large seabird and seal populations, as well as cetaceans, that are likely to have encountered plastic items and are at increasingly higher risk of entanglement 29 , As the global population continues to increase, plastic waste will continue to grow The realisation that plastics are ubiquitous, and that the consequent health impacts are yet to be fully understood, has increased the awareness surrounding plastics.

Plastics are likely to be used as an indicator of marine health in environmental monitoring to drive policy e. However, progression to reduce the inputs of plastic into the ocean is required 7 , 33 , There is a need for re-education, continued research and awareness campaigns, in order to drive action from the individual as well as large-scale decisions on waste-management and product design 4 , 33 , 34 , The use of ships-of-opportunity is an efficient both in cost and time way of covering vast areas, and should be utilised further to develop standardised and consistent strategies for monitoring plastic debris in the oceans 7.

The dataset presented here is an important historical record for the continued monitoring of plastics in the ocean, and confirms the importance of actions to reduce and improve plastic waste. The observations presented within this manuscript are recorded within a digital database that dates back to , they are descriptive comments with information recorded on the location, date and time that the CPR was towed. To extract observations of entanglement on the CPR via man-made items, the following words were used for a text search within the fault comments of the CPR database; plastic, net, line, rope, bag, fishing, twine, polyprop, monofilament, nylon, string.


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For regional analyses the location of the end of the CPR tow was used to divide the dataset by region see Supplementary Fig. The software package Matlab was used to process, carry out statistical analyses, and visualise the data presented. The Fathom toolbox 19 was also used within Matlab to carry out a similarity percentage SIMPER analysis, to investigate the contribution of different litter types to the change in macroplastic entanglements.

Although the CPR is most commonly towed up to nautical miles per tow, occasionally shorter tows are completed, which could introduce a sampling bias if the data were normalised to number of items per distance covered, as this change in sampling effort and potential increase in entanglement sighting may not be accounted for. Supplementary Fig. In order to account for potential bias due to sampling effort, the counts of entanglements that have been recorded have been normalised for the number of CPR tows completed each year.

All data used within this publication can be accessed via www. The software package Matlab was used for data analysis and production of figures, these codes are available on reasonable request from the lead author via email at claost mba. Journal peer review information: Nature Communications thanks the anonymous reviewers for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Peer reviewer reports are available. Ryan, P. Marine litter keeps increasing. Nature , 23 Hoornweg, D. Worm, B. Plastic as a Persistent Marine Pollutant.

Bergmann, M. Sea change for plastic pollution.


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Nature , Shomura, R. Proceedings of the workshop on the fate and impact of marine debris. Niaounakis, M. Law, K. Plastics in the marine environment. Wright, S. Plastic and human health: a micro issue?


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Duncan, E. A global review of marine turtle entanglement in anthropogenic debris: a baseline for further action. Species Res. Ainley, D. The incidence of plastic in the diets of antarctic seabirds. In Proc. Departmentof Commerce. NOM Technical Memorandum. Schuyler, Q. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

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Rochman et al. The ecological impacts of marine debris: unraveling the demonstrated evidence from what is perceived. Ecology 97 , — Cedervall, T. Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish. Thompson, R. Lost at sea: where is all the plastic? Science , — Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic Subtropical gyre.

Plastic debris in the open ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 17—19 Richardson, A. Using continuous plankton recorder data. Jones, D. Fathom Toolbox for Matlab: software for multivariate ecological and oceanographic data analysis. Maes, T. Microplastics baseline surveys at the water surface and in sediments of the North-East Atlantic. Harper, P. Plastic pellets in New Zealand storm-killed prions Pachyptila spp. Notornis 34 , 65—70 Wilcox, C.

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Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. Natl Acad. USA , — Balazs, G. Impact of ocean debris on marine turtles: entanglement and ingestion. Shomura, H. Yoshida — Washington, DC: Natl Mrosovsky, N. Leatherback turtles: the menace of plastic.

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Jacobsen, M. An impeded herring gull. Auk 64 , Tekman, M. Deep-Sea Res. Part I: Oceanogr.

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Werner, S. Harm caused by Marine Litter. Jambeck, J. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Gago, J. Microplastics in seawater: recommendations from the marine strategy framework directive implementation process. Plastics, the environment and human health: current consensus and future trends. B , — Koelmans, A. New directions in plastic debris.

The Beginning of Time - Origin of the Universe - Was there ever nothing?

Download references. We thank the people and funding agencies responsible for the maintenance and collection of data for their invaluable work and contributions. Bette Davis? Leonora Corbett?

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Kenneth Tynan? Dear Quote Investigator : I love the following catty quotation that was said by one Hollywood actor or actress about another performer who had allegedly slept her way to success:. Quote Investigator : This wordplay joke is based on a comical modification of a traditional expression of enthusiasm: A good time was had by all. The jest is often attributed to the famous film star Bette Davis and sometimes to the influential English theatre critic Kenneth Tynan. But neither is credited in the earliest instance of this quip located by QI which was published in a book by the prominent gossip columnist Earl Wilson.

The actress who delivered the barb appeared in multiple films in the s and s but is not well known today. The target of her ire was unidentified [EWLC]:. The tallish, beautiful actress, Leonora Corbett, can also claw with her painted lips.

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