Genetics, Biofuels and Local Farming Systems: 7 (Sustainable Agriculture Reviews)

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Mycorrhizal Mediation of Soil. Nancy Collins Johnson. Advances in Plant Biopesticides. Dwijendra Singh. Sustainable Agriculture towards Food Security. Arulbalachandran Dhanarajan. Abiotic Stress Management for Resilient Agriculture. Ratna Kumar Pasala. Rice Production Worldwide.

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Bhagirath S. Breeding Oilseed Crops for Sustainable Production. Surinder Kumar Gupta. Crop Production and Global Environmental Issues. Khalid Rehman Hakeem. Plant, Soil and Microbes. Dietrich Werner. Industrial Crops. David A. Chittaranjan Kole. Soil Nitrogen Uses and Environmental Impacts. Rattan Lal.

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Dwight Tomes. Microbial Strategies for Crop Improvement. Mohammad Saghir Khan. Phytoremediation Potential of Bioenergy Plants. Kuldeep Bauddh.

Microorganisms for Green Revolution. Deepak G. Ashwani Kumar. Peter N. Agro-Environmental Sustainability. Jay Shankar Singh. Interactions in Soil: Promoting Plant Growth. John Dighton. Agricultural Sustainability. Gurbir S. One-Woman Farm. Jenna Woginrich.

Organic farming

Thermophilic Fungi. Raj Kumar Salar. A Shepherd's Watch. David Kennard. Achieving sustainable cultivation of maize Volume 1. Dr Dave Watson. Farming Meat Goats. Barbara Vincent. Chainsaw Operator's Manual. Beef Cattle Production and Trade. Lewis Kahn. Mycorrhiza - Function, Diversity, State of the Art. Ajit Varma. Oil Crops.

Sustainable Agriculture: Definitions and Terms. Related Terms

Johann Vollmann. Alison Gillespie. Nutrient Use Efficiency: from Basics to Advances. Amitava Rakshit. Harold Gardner. Mycoremediation and Environmental Sustainability. Ram Prasad. Genetic Diversity and Erosion in Plants. Various Authors. Physical Control Methods in Plant Protection. Charles Vincent. Achieving sustainable cultivation of grain legumes Volume 1. Dr Shoba Sivasankar. Harish Chandra Prasad Singh. Herbicide-Resistant Crops. Stephen O. Broadening the Genetic Base of Grain Cereals.

Mohar Singh. Identification and Control of Common Weeds: Volume 1.

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Zhenghao Xu. Biotechnological Approaches to Barley Improvement. Jochen Kumlehn. Genomics and Breeding for Climate-Resilient Crops. Sajad Majeed Zargar.

Sustainable Agriculture Volume 2. Eric Lichtfouse. Zapotec Science.

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Roberto J. Soil Biological Communities and Ecosystem Resilience. Mauro Gamboni. Agriculture Growth in India. Ravinder Choudhary. Mycorrhiza - Nutrient Uptake, Biocontrol, Ecorestoration. Agriculturally Important Microorganisms. Harikesh Bahadur Singh. Farm Office Handbook, The. When farming is productive, poverty is reduced. When farming is unproductive and is buffeted by environmental stresses, poverty is intensified. Therefore, improvements in the productivity of farms and food processing constitute one of the most important pathways to eradicate extreme poverty, including hunger in rural areas as well as in cities where abundant affordable food increases the purchasing power and health status among the urban poor.

In many countries, smallholder farmers are predominantly women who may face discrimination e. The economic potential of agriculture goes of course beyond poverty eradication. The experience of many upper-middle-income countries demonstrates that a well-developed agriculture sector, including food processing, can support prosperous rural areas and high living standards.

So it would be a mistake for countries to base their growth strategies solely on urban areas. It is difficult to predict demand for food since projections depend on dietary choices — such as the role of meat products in the diet — as well as on demographic trends and demand for biofuels. Current UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates suggest that the global net food supply might need to rise by 60 percent by , though with healthy dietary changes the overall increase of necessary grain production could be less. Many developing countries might have to double net food production over this period.

In many regions, however, food losses in the value chain and at the end-consumer can be significantly reduced. Yet, substantial increases in food production will surely be needed with an emphasis on non-grain products, and such increases must be achieved without significantly expanding agricultural land or water use, thereby destroying or degrading ecosystems see also Goal 9. Increased food production must also anticipate the threats of unavoidable climate change and enable farmers to adapt to the increasing frequency and severity of natural disasters.

These productivity gains will require unprecedented investments in increased crop yields and animal productivity; more resource-efficient production systems and value chains including expanded and improved irrigation; improved resilience to climate change; and drastically reduced post-harvest losses. Major productivity gains will be essential to improve the economic potential of agriculture and keep food prices within reach for the poor. These improvements will only be possible if all farmers — particularly smallholder farmers and women — have access to land, high-quality inputs, and technical advice.

Farming must become an attractive business and job opportunity for everyone involved. Putting these pieces together shows that sustainable increases in agricultural productivity are a central challenge for every region of the world. Making agriculture sustainable and resilient and achieving the needed increases in food production are vital to achieving all other SDGs.

Adopting best management practices that stay within planetary boundaries is as equally vital for poor smallholder farmers as for large agricultural business in high-income countries. Such best practices will help protect the environment, reduce hunger, raise rural prosperity, and end extreme poverty. Farming systems and choices farmers make — including with regards to crop varieties, land use, soil nutrient management, biodiversity conservation, water use, harvesting methods, and food processing and marketing — are highly varied and depend on local conditions.

Every region and locality requires its own diagnostics and approaches, though it can draw upon lessons from other regions and a toolkit of advanced agricultural principles and technologies. As in other SDGs, technology will play a vital role in enabling agriculture to become more productive and sustainable. Genetic improvement, soil mapping, precision dosing of fertilizers, agricultural advisory systems, weather forecasting, machinery, and reduced post-harvest food losses are all areas where technologies, including ICT, can play an important role.

To ensure rural prosperity and productive agriculture, countries will need to ensure universal access to basic infrastructure in rural areas, including a safe water supply, universal access to sanitation and an end to open defecation, modern energy services including electricity and clean cooking fuels , modern transport, and connectivity to mobile telecommunications and broadband. In many areas, modern technologies offer opportunities for leapfrogging to cleaner and more efficient energy, transport, and water infrastructure. Improved transport, storage, logistics, and communications can help to reduce food losses and improve rural-urban linkages that are vital for reducing poverty and promoting economic development.

Ongoing climate change will underscore the importance of adaptation to ensure resilient agriculture and infrastructure. Infrastructure built today must be designed to withstand much higher temperatures, more frequent extreme precipitation, and high variability in water supply, which affects power infrastructure in particular. To minimize agricultural productivity losses resulting from climate change, particularly in low-latitude regions, governments and businesses must invest in research and development of new drought and heat resistant crops, improved water management infrastructure, and new farming techniques.

This goal covers a broad but deeply interconnected set of challenges pertaining to sustainable agriculture and sustainable development. By focusing squarely on agriculture, the goal goes significantly beyond MDG 1, which only focused on hunger. The goal adopts an integrated approach to rural development by including a broad range of key infrastructure services that underpin agriculture and value chains — the economic bedrock of rural development in developed and developing countries alike- and that promote human well-being.

Key transformations we include under this goal are increasing the efficiency of agricultural inputs in both industrial and smallholder-scale enterprises, increasing the coverage of crop insurance schemes, and restoring agricultural ecosystems while halting land degradation and conversion of natural ecosystems for agriculture. On the infrastructure side we expand the focus to mobile broadband, a key enabling technology for economic and social development. By combining key environmental challenges, relating to conversion of forests and wetlands to agricultural land, the degradation of agricultural land, and integrated water resources management with agriculture, this innovative goal will promote integrated and sustainable rural development.

The goal is based on the experience that only integrated approaches to sustainable agriculture and food production can be successful, in developed and developing countries alike. Why is there no stand-alone goal on infrastructure? Access to infrastructure is essential for ending extreme poverty in all its forms and promoting sustainable development. This division is motivated by the fact that infrastructure technologies, delivery models, and responsible actors vary significantly between urban and rural areas.

How do the proposed goals deal with water supply and water resources management? Providing access to safe water and sanitation, ensuring sound management of freshwater resources, and preventing water pollution are inter-related priority challenges of sustainable development that must be met for other goals and targets to be achieved. All three must become central components of the SDGs:. The question of how to deal with water challenges in the proposed SDGs has been intensely discussed in the Leadership Council. Some have argued for a stand-alone water goal partly to draw attention to the importance of water management.

Overall, though, we believe that our proposals provide a sound basis for managing the various water challenges within the framework of ten SDGs, particularly if suitable indicators track the sustainable use of water resources, access to water supply, and water quality. Why do some goals focus on outcomes whereas others focus on outputs or means? Where possible, the SDGs should focus on outcomes, such as ending extreme poverty.

Yet, the distinction between outcomes, outputs, and inputs needs to be handled pragmatically, and the design of goals and targets should be — we believe — guided by approaches that are best suited to mobilize action and ensure accountability.

Genetics, Biofuels and Local Farming System by Eric Lichtfouse

For example, ensuring universal access to healthcare or high-quality early childhood development ECD are important commitments for every government. Goals and targets that focus on these outputs will ensure operational focus and accountability. In some instances it also makes sense to target inputs. For example, official development assistance ODA is critical for ensuring many SDGs and needs to be mobilized in every high-income country. Mobilizing resources for sustainable development is difficult, so subsuming ODA as an implicit input into every SDG would make it harder for government leaders, citizens, and civil society organizations to argue for increased ODA.

It would also weaken accountability for rich countries. Similar considerations apply, for example, to the proposed target on integrated reporting by governments and businesses on their contributions to the SDGs. We hope that in most cases these standards will indeed be percent or 0 percent, respectively, but there may be areas where it is technically impossible to achieve percent access or 0 percent deprivation.