I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting. Novena to the Immaculate Conception 8th december. Novena prayer… Mary, You who appeared to Bernadette in the hollow of the rock, in the cold and depths of winter, You brought the warmth of a presence, the friendship of a smile, the light and beauty of grace. In the hollow of our often obscure lives, in the hollow of this world where Evil is powerful, bring hope, restore confidence.
Give us the courage of conversion, the humility of penance and the perseverance of prayer. You guided Bernadette to the spring. Guide us to Him who is the source of eternal life, the One who gave us the Holy Spirit, so that we dare to say: Our Father who art in Heaven…. Hail Mary Ave Maria. Augustine, Florida. Spanish explorations extended as far as Santa Fe, New Mexico, established in A wave of explorations to the New World continued. Samuel de Champlain explored the St. Christianity continued to thrive in the New World as our young Nation developed.
Four of the original 13 English colonies were specifically chartered for religious freedom, as a refuge from religious persecution in England at the time. The settlers soon enacted the Toleration Act of Maryland and founded St. Mary's Chapel in St. Mary's City, Maryland. William Penn and the Quakers settled in in Pennsylvania. The Mennonites also moved to Pennsylvania in at the invitation of William Penn. The universal toleration offered in Pennsylvania continued to attract groups such as the Amish, Moravian Pietists, and Presbyterians.
The period from through the eighteenth century was known as the Age of Enlightenment in Europe. The time had come when men would set aside religious views and look to reason and social experience to guide society. It was the loss of Christian unity that led to the secularization of Western culture.
Whereas Christendom provided one message to European society, the pluralism of religions provided different answers to questions about life and led to skepticism and conflict rather than unanimous thought. Discoveries in science had much to do with the Age of Enlightenment. Copernicus proposed the sun is the center of the solar system and the earth revolved around the sun. Galileo Galilei , the first to use a telescope, confirmed that Copernicus was right and was condemned by the Catholic Church.
Scientists such as Isaac Newton in physics and Robert Boyle in chemistry were pioneers and gave birth to technology, the application of science to practical problems, which led to the Industrial Revolution.
Progress based on science and technology became a major goal of Western Society. Mankind was left without its mooring, and philosophers set out in different directions to provide meaning for humanity. The critical Rationalism of Rene Descartes applied to philosophy the mathematical method so effective in science, that everything was questionable until it could be proved beyond all doubt. Blaise Pascal took a different stance and presented Pascal's Wager: it is better to live a good life, for if there is a God, you will end up with Him in Heaven; but if you have lived a bad life and there is a God, you are doomed!
John Locke applied reason to confirm revelation. The political philosopher Baron de Montesquieu of France proposed that the best form of government would incorporate a separation of powers into executive, legislative, and judicial branches and would be based on the natural law. David Hume proposed a science of man, and is considered a pioneer in the social sciences. But Jean-Jacques Rousseau , considered the father of Romanticism, took an opposite approach and spoke of the noble savage, that man was happy only in his original native state, before government, laws, and politics chained mankind.
It was the German philosopher Immanuel Kant that defined the era: "Have courage to use your own reason - that is the motto of Enlightenment. Unfortunately, the Age of Enlightenment ignored love, emotion, spirituality and concern for one's fellow man. It forgot that man is wounded by original and personal sin, and his reason is colored by desire and selfishness. In fact, the Age of Enlightenment brought the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror , Naziism, Communism, and the twentieth century, with its two World Wars, the bloodiest century in history. Intellectual dryness and doctrinal religions prevalent during the Enlightenment Era led to a spiritual revival throughout Western Christian civilization, as seen with Pietism in Germany, Methodism in England and America, and the Great Awakening in the United States.
Philipp Jakob Spener of Germany wrote Pia Desideria in and spoke of a theology of the heart , placing emphasis on inner devotion and Christian living, and inspired the Pietist movement. Pietism especially influenced Nikolaus von Zinzendorf and the Moravian Church. John Wesley and his brother Charles provided light for Christianity during the Enlightenment.
John Wesley, noted for his moving sermons, and his brother Charles, a poetic genius and hymn writer, began the Methodist movement in England, and set forth an evangelical revival throughout the British Isles, North America, and the world. The two brothers were raised in the Anglican Church. Because of their strict method of living, they were soon called the Methodists. John Wesley experienced a heartwarming conversion experience at Aldersgate Street in London in He preached in the English countryside to the poor, and sparked a religious revival throughout England.
He assured the people that all could be saved by experiencing God and opening their hearts to his grace. George Whitefield made seven trips to America beginning in and was one of the most powerful evangelists ever. He, along with others, kindled a spiritual revival throughout the thirteen colonies known as the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was the first national experience in America and did much to unite the American colonies. Revival during the Enlightenment Era fulfilled the human need for spiritual experience through Jesus Christ.
The independence movement in the American colonies sparked an outcry for freedom of religion, such that Christianity flourished in the newly-formed United States of America. Every taxable resident was required to support the state established Church, no matter what their faith! This caused dissension in the Colonies such as in Maryland and Virginia, where Catholics in Maryland and Presbyterians and Baptists in Virginia objected to the unfair Anglican clergy tax.
Of those states with established Churches, Maryland became the first state to disestablish church and state following the Declaration of Independence. The Bill of Rights allowed the free exercise of religion and proliferation of Christian denominations during rapid westward expansion in America. Constitution and cousin of Charles Carroll, the only Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, became the first Catholic Bishop of Baltimore, a diocese which served the entire United States.
Two days after Thomas Jefferson wrote his highly quoted but out-of-context expression "wall of separation between Church and State" to the Danbury Baptists, he appeared on January 3, in the House of Representatives to hear the Baptist preacher John Leland lead an evangelical service on public property.
Separation of Church and State did not preclude a vibrant public square. Recognizing the need to instill morals and values in our children, Bible reading and prayer continued in our public schools for years! Conversions by Evangelical Protestants and other Christian faiths provided the moral fabric for the new American nation after the Revolutionary War. The Methodist movement proved most successful in North America.
Original French Cast (1972)
Methodist circuit-riders were effective missionaries in spreading the Christian faith from the South to settlers in the mid-West. It was left to the unlikely figure of President Abraham Lincoln to recognize the Christian culture of our Nation. In his Second Inaugural Address on March 4, , he remarked near the close of the Civil War: "Both read the same Bible and pray to the same God, and each invokes His aid against the other. He appealed for "malice toward none, with charity for all … to bind the nation's wounds. An conservative Supreme Court that respected the free exercise of religion and our Christian heritage declared in Church of the Holy Trinity v.
United States that "This is a Christian Nation. The American Declaration of Independence of July 4, read all men are created equal, but slavery persisted. How could the Revolutionary War be fought for freedom without granting freedom to all? The American Civil War reflected the Christian heritage of our Nation, for the moral issue of slavery troubled the hearts of Americans from our very beginning.
The non-violent religious movement of the s and s emerged as the civil rights movement in the USA, which finally afforded racial equality for African-Americans, one hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation! The crusade arose within Negro Churches, the center of their life. African-Americans had begun to receive recognition in the fields of art, music, and sports. The arrest in Montgomery, Alabama of Rosa Parks , who was detained on December 1, for refusing to move to the back of the bus for a white person, sparked the drive for civil rights.
Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. The boycott lasted days until a Supreme Court decision ended segregation on city buses. Reverend King then organized 60 pastors into the Southern Christian Leadership Conference to foster civil rights. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas distinguished between just and unjust laws. Non-violent civil disobedience , advocated by John Locke, Henry David Thoreau, and Mahatma Gandhi, was employed by civil rights leaders against oppressive and unjust civil laws.
In general, one is obligated to obey civil laws that are just Matthew , Romans , but first one must obey God rather than man Acts in the event of unjust laws, such as Pharaoh's daughter v. King Nebuchadnezzar Daniel ; the Maji v.
Important Art by Leonardo da Vinci
King Herod Matthew ; and Peter and the Apostles v. Law itself is not meant for the righteous I Timothy The early Christians refused to obey the Romans and suffered martyrdom rather than worship the Emperor. President John F. Kennedy announced on nationwide television on June 11, that he would submit Civil Rights legislation the following week.
Augustine that an unjust law is no law at all. He urged non-violent protest to turn the tide in favor of racial equality. The March on Washington, D. Martin Luther King Jr. Twentieth-century writers during the World Wars such as T. Eliot, Flannery O'Connor, Thomas Merton, and Dorothy Day catalogued the spiritual bankruptcy of the twentieth century and called for spiritual renewal.
John XXIII was welcomed with open arms by all of Christianity, for the Pope called not only for an intense spiritual cultivation of the modern world, but also sought Christian unity. His opening speech convening the Second Vatican Council on October 11, referred to Jesus in the Gospel of John : "The Catholic Church, therefore, considers it her duty to work actively so that there may be fulfilled the great mystery of that unity, which Jesus Christ invoked with fervent prayer from His heavenly Father on the eve of His sacrifice. The Second Vatican Council literally "reset the course" for the Catholic Church, a Church which had been described by some as a fortress Church embattled during the Enlightenment and the Modernist era.
To coin the expression of Hans Urs von Balthazar in , the time had come to raze the bastions of the Church. It was time for the aggiornamento of Pope John XXIII, the "opening of the window" of the Church to the outside world, "a translation of the Christian message into an intellectual language understandable by the modern world. The spirit of ecumenism and the change of heart towards all Christian brethren was truly a gift of the Holy Spirit. Lumen Gentium declared "the one Church of Jesus Christ subsists in the Catholic Church, although many elements of sanctification and truth exist outside its visible structure, elements which impel toward catholic unity.
The role of the laity to order temporal affairs to the plan of God was emphasized. Alan Schreck of Franciscan University offered 3 keys to Gaudium et Spes: a the root of the world's problems is found in the human heart. Vatican II led to the creation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church , first published in and updated in A playwright, actor, and poet, he was born May 18, in Wadowice, Poland.
In he enrolled in the school of drama at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, where he played goalie on the college soccer team. He entered an underground seminary in during the Nazi Regime, and was ordained a priest in after Poland fell under Communism. Oppression by the Nazis and Communists forged his dedication to freedom and human rights. He earned a doctorate in theology in and a doctorate in philosopy in His first book was Love and Responsibility , on love and sexual morality, published in His highly successful play on love, The Jeweler's Shop , was published in and subsequently translated into 22 languages, and was made into a movie in Karol Wojtyla became Bishop of Krakow, Poland in He then became Archbishop of Krakow in and Cardinal in Following the day papacy of John Paul I, the Conclave of Cardinals elected the bright, personable, and vigorous Wojtyla the th Pope on October 16, The man lived his philosophy, that man is a relational being.
The world was his parish, as the loving and outgoing Pope made an unprecedented papal trips abroad. During his three pilgrimages to Poland, his repeated call for freedom and spiritual renewal was the turning-point that ultimately led to the non-violent collapse of Communism, symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, The world was moved when he forgave and visited the man who seriously wounded him in St. Peter's Square on May 13, Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral on May 29, He became a symbol of hope to the young with his inauguration of International World Youth Day in As expressed in his book Crossing the Threshold of Hope , his belief in Jesus Christ as the hope for man in the Third Millennium was an inspiration for all.
On January 13, , he opposed the imminent pre-emptive strike against Iraq, stating war "is always a defeat for humanity. His first encyclical, The Redeemer of Man , called the Church a "community of disciples" who follow Jesus Christ, "the center of the universe and of history.
HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CHRISTIANITY
He commemorated Saints Cyril and Methodius in The Apostles to the Slavs in to encourage his fellow countryman during communist oppression. The Pope called for social justice in three encyclicals, On Human Work , On Social Concerns , and On the One Hundredth Year of Rerum Novarum , in which he emphasized the dignity of the individual, in the face of man being unjustly treated as a unit of production in a socialistic utilitarian world. He renewed commitment to the missionary role of the Church in Mission of the Redeemer in He appreciated man's thirst for truth, as noted in his encyclical The Splendor of Truth , published in One of his favorite Scriptural quotes was John You will know the truth, and the truth will set you free.
Perhaps his most important was the widely read encyclical The Gospel of Life , published in , in which he defended the sanctity of life and described the culture of death - the evil of abortion and euthanasia. In addition to pointing out those areas of study necessary for a true consensus of faith, he addressed the common bonds of unity in faith among all Christians: Jesus Christ our Savior, Son of God the Father, who sent the Holy Spirit; Baptism; the New Testament of the Bible; and prayer, especially the Lord's Prayer.
He emphasized the relation of Faith and Reason in an encyclical of the same name in His fourteenth and final encyclical On The Eucharist in its Relationship to the Church was released in His weekly general audiences in St. Peter's Square led to his book on the Theology of the Body in He established Divine Mercy Sunday, which recognized the devotion of St. Pope John Paul II was truly the moral and spiritual leader of the entire world, as one can appreciate by the worldwide outpouring of love on his death April 2, John Paul II will be remembered for his emphasis on Christ and man, that the Gospel provides direction and supports the dignity of the human person.
For "the truth is that only in the mystery of Christ the Incarnate Word does the mystery of man take on light. Four Courts Press, Dublin, Ireland, Concise History of the Catholic Church. Image Books, Doubleday, New York, Western Civilization , Sixth Combined Edition. Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, California, Jesus, the Apostles, and the Early Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Vatican City, Biblical Exegesis and the Formation of Christian Culture. Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome, Ignatius of Antioch and St. Clement of Rome. Butler's Lives of the Saints. HarperCollins, San Francisco, Justin Martyr.
The First and Second Apologies. Cistercian Publications, St. Joseph's Abbey, Spencer, Massachusetts, Mary and the Fathers of the Church. Ignatius Press, San Francisco, , , HarperSanFrancisco, The Writings of the New Testament. Compact History of the Catholic Church. Revised Edition, St. Anthony Messenger Press, Cincinnati, Ohio, The Making of Europe. Blackwell, Oxford, The Lord's Sermon on the Mount. Written City of God , Image Doubleday, New York, John Knox Press, Louisville, Kentucky, The Orthodox Church.
Penguin, London, England, A History of Medieval Spain. Madden, Editor: Crusades, the Illustrated History. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Summa Theologica. Translation by the English Dominican Province, Reprinted by Christian Classics of Allen, Texas, The Divine Comedy , original publication, Ravenna, Italy, The Shape of Catholic Theology. Order of St. Benedict, Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota, pages , Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Our Lady of Guadalupe and St. Juan Diego - The Historical Evidence. Reprint: Bibliolife, Charleston, South Carolina, The Norton Shakespeare , Oxford Edition. WW Norton and Company, London, The Cross in the Sand. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Of Plymouth Plantation , Dover Publications, Mineola, New York. Of Mourt's Relation. London, Saints and Strangers. Time-Life Books, New York, Mary's Chapel. Church and State in America. Cambridge University Press, New York, Making America , Fourth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin, Boston, The Nature of Revival. George Whitefield: God's Anointed Servant. Crossway Books, Wheaton, Illinois, Wesley and the People Called Methodists. Abingdon Press, Nashville, Tennessee, Oxford History of the American People. Oxford University Press, New York, Thomas Nelson, Nashville, and We Still Hold These Truths. Intercollegiate Studies Institute, Wilmington, Delaware, America's God. Oxford University Press, Church and State in Early America. Profiles in Courage. Harper and Brothers, New York, Harper, San Francisco, , Parting the Waters - America in the King Years Civil Rights Speech, June 11, Courtesy of the John F.
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We always seek to use your data responsibly. Having to do with the 12 apostles or their teachings. A Catholic manual of doctrine in the form of questions and answers. Unity and cooperation across faith or doctrinal boundaries based on shared spiritual experiences.
The name of the ancient Greek underworld and the god of that underworld. In modern Christianity, the term hades refers to the abode of the dead, also known as Sheol , or hell, where the dead await judgment. It seems your browser is out of date. Please update your browser to view this webpage properly. Click here for more information. Home page. Webstore Canada. Webstore USA. Picture Gallery. Audio Library. Amazing Discoveries TV. Amazing Discoveries Germany. International webstore. Many believe it is the Pope and his successors. Is this true? Publish date: May 28, Was Peter the First Pope?
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There are many priests and faithful believers in Roman Catholicism who serve God to the best of their ability and are seen by God as His children. The information contained herein is directed only towards the Roman Catholic religio-political system that has reigned in varying degrees of power for nearly two millennia.
Under the influence of its successive popes, bishops, and cardinals, this system has established an increasing number of doctrines and statements that clearly go against Scripture. It is our sincere desire to lay the clear Word of God before you, the truth-seeking reader, so you may decide for yourself what is truth and what is error. If you find herein anything contrary to the Word of God, you need not accept it.
But if you desire to seek for Truth as for hidden treasure, and find herein something of that quality, we encourage you to make all haste to accept that Truth which is revealed to you by the Holy Spirit. Science Deceptions. Media Deceptions. Spiritual Deceptions. A Basis for Conflict. Is there evidence for Creation science? How does it compare to evolution?
The following articles give insight in to these questions and more. Creation and Evolution: Is Compromise Possible? Flood Chronology. Evidence in Stone. Can we understand the age of the earth by the rocks? What theory does the evidence support? Soft Rock Evidence for Rapid Washout.
The Fossil Record. What does the fossil record show us? Is it all random or a defined science that we can understand? Where does evolution fit? Uncover mysteries in the history of the Earth. Genes of Genesis. As we study the genome, the molecule, and the atom, we see a vast network of intricate systems beyond our understanding. Were these systems really formed by chance? Is the Gastraea Hypothesis Viable? Creation to Restoration. How did this world change from the perfection depicted in Genesis to a world full of thorns, thistles, parasites, and death?
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