Spanish Culture. Spanish Business. Learning Spanish. Spanish Literature. Cura; A parish priest, curate, or rector; member of secular clergy. Cura benificiado; Secular priest subordinate to a bishop. Cura interino; Priest provisional, temporary; pro tempore Curandero; Medical practitioner without official degree.
Curia; A religious court. Custodia; A group of Franciscan conventos, within aprovincia, governed by a custodio Latin, custos. De casa; A phrase descriptive of an inhabitant of the cabecera of a mission - to distinguish him or her from an inhabitant of a visita: Literally, a member of the mission "household". De dicho; Of said. De este lugar; Of this place. De su libertad; Freely. Debia; Peak seasonal demand period in agricultural repartimiento. Declarar; To declare.
Deciembre; December. Decimo; Tenth. Declaracion; Declaration. Decreto; Decree; decision; order. Definidor; A councilor in a religious order. Dentro de; In, within. Denuncia; A judicial claim to land. Accusation or statement of land claim. Dependencia; A settlement subordinate to a cabecera. Depositada; Woman who is removed from her home by authorities and placed in another house when her parents object to her pending marriage.
Depositario; Receiver or trustee. Derecho; Right, justice, law. Derechos; Ecclesiastical or other fees. Derrama; Unofficial local tax levy. Derrotero; Diary or description of a journey of exploration. Desaque; The drainage of the valley of Mexico. Despacho; Office, place of business, despatch, commission or warrant.
Despoblado; Abandoned town site. Desposar; To marry; to be betrothed or married. Dias de la semana; Days of the week. Diezmo; Tithe or, tenth part of agricultural produce collected. Digo; I mean to say used in making correction. Diocesis; Diocese, unit of the Catholic Church presided over by a Bishop.
Directo; Direct. Dirimente; Breaking off, dissolving. Discrete; Assistant elected to council of missions. Dispensa; Dispensation e.
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Dispensar; To dispense, exempt, excuse, dispense with; to excuse, pardon. Dispuestos; Disposed. Dobia; Peak seasonal demand period in agricultural repartimento. Doctrina; Religious doctrine; parish consisting of recently converted Indians but no longer in a strictly missionary status.
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Doctrina Cristiana; Christian doctrine. Doctrinero; Priest in charge of a doctrina. Priest, friar, or catechist, charged with providing Christian training to an indigenous community. Dogal; A short rope used to tie a calf while its mother is being milked. Domingo; Sunday. In California accorded to any Spaniard, officer, or person from an important, respected family. Doneella; Maiden; unmarried woman. Donde; Where. DOS; Two. Dote; Dowry, Usually found in documents as "carta de dote".
Doy fe; I attest, I certify. Ducado; Coin equivalent to maravedies; a ducat. Dudoso; Doubtful. Dula; Plots of land irrigated by a common stream or canal; the number of clock hours required to irrigate a specified tract of land. Duquesa; Duchess in Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries; not equivalent to the title of duchess in the English nobility.
Edad; Age. Ejercito; Army. Ejido; The common lands of an Indian community. Lands held communally by a township, generally used for grazing and wood collecting. Common lands allotted by crown to each settlement. El cura; The parish priest. El reverendo padre; Reverend father.
Elotes; Immature maize ears. Embarcadero; Wharf, pier. Empresario impresario ; Official land developer. En el; In the. En iqualdad; In equality. En la; In the. Entiempo debido; In due time. Enero henero ; January. Note: Months are not capitalized in Spanish documents Encargado; In charge. Encomendero; Holder of an Indian encomienda; also, a commission merchant or factor. Encomienda; A tribute institution used in Spanish America in the sixteenth century.
The Spaniard received Indians as an entrustment encomienda to protect and to Christianize them, but in return he could demand tribute including labor. Also the practice of commission sales in the grain market. Entrada; An expedition organized for trade, raid, exploration or conquest.
Enterrado; Buried. Entierro; Burial; interment, funeral. Entremes; Interlude, a short production of a lighter nature presented between acts of a weightier drama. Escribano; A notary. A secretary or scribe primarily expert in executing documents in correct legal format. Escribano de minas; Notary assigned to a mining region. Escribano de provincia; Notary in the civil chamber of the audiencia. Escribano publico; Public notary or secretary in legal and judicial cases. Escribano mayor; Audiencia notary in charge of registering documents and papers from the minas y registros mines.
Escribano real; A notary who was licensed to practice. Escudero; Squire. Entry level of conquest nobility. In New Spain the term referred to peninsulares, Creoles and those passing as whites. Espediente; File of documents bearing on a case. Espiritu militar; Esprit de corps or martial spirit. Estacas; Pilings for building. A general bolting of animals. Settlement subordinate to a pueblo, usually some distance from the main settlement.
Estante; Someone that has no legal residence in a certain town. Estrecho de sangre; Intimately blood related. Europeo; In theory a European, but on the frontier it meant a Spaniard from the mother country. Ex licentia parochi; By license of the parish priest Latin. Placed in the home of foster parents. Expuesto en casa de; Raised in the house of. Fabrica; Income used for the repair and upkeep of cathedrals.
Factor; One of the three treasury officials of New Spain, a disbursing agent and royal business manager. Faenero; Miner who does piece-work. Fallecio; Died. Familiares; Deputies or police agents of the Inquisition. Fanega; Measurement of grain and seed; usually equal to about two and one-hall bushels, but varied according to locale.
Fanega de sembradura; Area sown with onefanega of maize; about nine acres. Farautes; Interpreters. Farsa; A short comedy skit. Favela; Squatter settlement in Brazil. Febrero; February. Feligres; Parishioner. Feligresia Parish. Feligresia de; Parish of. Fiador; Bondsman; one who put up a bond, usually for the good conduct; of an officeholder. Fiesta; Public celebration; holiday or feast. Fiesta de toros; Bullfight. Fin; End. Firma; Signature. Firmo; I sign. Fiscal; Crown or city attorney. In civil cases he represented the royal interests and in criminal cases was prosecutor.
Fiscal de lo civil; Crown attorney attached to the audiencia. Fisco; Royal treasury; also called camara del rey. Fiesta; Feast. Finca; Land or house property; ranch Flechero; Indian militiaman under Spanish orders. Flota; One of the two fleets that were customarily sent each year from Cadiz or Sanlucar de Barrameda, Spain, to Veracruz, New Spain , carrying Spanish products and passengers, and transporting New World products and passengers back to Spain. Foja hoja ; Leaf of manuscript , page. Folio; Page of a book , notebook or bundle legajo.
Forestero; Stranger. Fraile; Frair, a member of a mendicant order. Fray; Title used before the first name of a frair, from the Medieval Latin for "brother. Fuero; Special laws by which the Church and later, the Army, reserved jurisdiction over all its officers; ecclesiastical and military immunity from civil jurisdiction. Fuero criminal; Right to trail by the military in criminal cases. Fuero militar; Corporate privileges and the right of soldiers to trial by the Military jurisdiction. Fuerza; 1 Setback administered to a person by a judge who found against a particular party or refused to admit an appeal.
Fulano; Such a one; so and so. A derogatory term used in New Spain to describe a native of Spain. Gamuza; A deer hide tanned like a chamois. Ganaderia; Breeding feeding of cattle. Ganado alzado; Half-wild to wild stray cattle. Ganado Mayor; Larger livestock, such as cattle, horses, and mules. Gemelas; Twin girls Gemelos; Twins two boys or a boy and a girl. Genizaro; Localism used in New Mexico to describe an Indian of nomadic tribe capturet or ransomed by New Mexicans and then employed by them or settled in an established community; non-Pueblo Indians peaceably settled under Spanish control.
Gente de razon; "People of Reason"; civilized people, or Spanish settlers; educated or rational persons in distinction to unconquered Indians. Gentil; Heathen Indian. Gobemacion; Area governed by a governor gobemador.
Gobemador; Governor of a region or province, subordinate to a virrey. Gobierno; Government; public administration; district or province under a governor. Goipe de estado; Coup d'etat. Graduado; Brevet. Gran Quivira; Great Quivira. Granaderos; Grenadiers. Grandee; Member of one of the families comprising the official elite of Spanish society Grano; The smallest denomination of Spanish currency. They were ninety-six to a gold peso. One-twelfth of a real. Guacamole; A paste made of the meat of the aguacate avocado , mixed with onion and green pepper.
Guachinango; Term used at Veracruz to describe a person from overseas. Guaracha; Leather sandal. Guarda; Guard, keeper. Guardia; Guard, body of armed guards. Guerra; War Guerrilla; Irregular warfare; "guerrilla" war. Guerrillero; Irregular soldier. Gufa; Letter of safe-conduct proving that the customs and duty are paid at the customhouse. Hija legitima; Legitimate daughter.
Hijo legitimo; Legitimate son. Habiendo corrido; Having taken care of. Habilitado; Paymaster or presidio quartermaster. Hacendado; Owner of a rural estate, or hacienda. Hacienda; 1 A large landed estate. Five sitios of "ganado mayor" a sitio was one square league ; A large rural estate, typically based on a mixture of grain farming and livestock production; usually embracing smaller properties and employing many families in raising crops or livestock.
Haciendo oficio de; Performing the office of. Halach uinic; Ruler of a large state or confederation in pre-Hispanic Yucatan. Hechura; Client or protege. Heredad; Rural property. Hermandad; Sodality. Hermanos camales; Full brothers and sisters identical parentage.
Hermanos naturales; Half brothers and sisters one parent in common. Hermita; Dependent church. Herido de molino; Mill site. Hibueras; The sixteenth-century name of Honduras. Hice los exorcismos; I exorcised. An untitled noble. In theory, a "son of somebody. Hilandero; Spinner of wool. Hondon; Eyelet. Huerta; Small tract of agricultural land near a Spanish settlement used for a garden, orchard, or vineyard purposes. Huipil; Woman's shirt. Humilidad; Humility, modesty; submission. Ilicita; Illicit; unlawful Impedimento; Impediment.
Incontinencia; Incontinence, incontinency; unchastity, lewdness. Indies; The Spanish colonies in America. Indio laborio; Resident Indian estate laborer. In front of the church describes a marriage in compliance with the church. Infacie ecclesiae; Princess. Infanta; Prince. Infante; To infest. Infestar; Impediment. Inpedimento; Inspection. Instruidos; Intendancy; territorial division under the direction of the Intendente.
Intendente de ejercito; Intendant of the army. Intenagacion; Interrogation, inquiry. Intestado; Intestate, without testament. Inventario; Inventory, list. Islas Fortunatas; Colonial name for the Canary Islands. Jaquima; A type of western bridle without a bit. Usually made of braided rawhide. Jomada; Journey. Jomalero; Day laborer. Judaizante; A Jewish convert to Catholicism who continued or was suspected of continuing the covert practice of Judaism.
Jueves; Thursday. Juez de alzadas; Judge in appeal cases. Juez de bienes de difuntos; An oidor who by rotation was in charge of the goods of those who died intestate or with heirs outside the colony. Roughly equivalent to a probate judge. Juez de visita; Official in charge of a visita; a visitador. Juez del campo; Judge of the plains. Juez eclesiastico; Ecclesiastical judge. Juez privativo; Judge having jurisdiction over a case to the exclusion of the judge who woulc normally hear it. Julio July. Junio June. Junta de generates; Council of senior army officers.
Junta de guerra; Council of war. Junta de seguridad y buen orden; Tribunal established to look into suspicious political behavior and unrest. Junta superior de real hacienda; Chief finance committee after the creation of the intendencias. Juramento; Oath. Juridiccion de; Jurisdiction of. Juro; State-financed annuity, whereby an individual or corporation, upon lending the crown a sum of money, received a government bond in return. Juzgado; Courthouse. Juzgado de capellanias; Ecclesiastical court having jurisdiction over chaplaincies and their distribution.
Juzgado de indios; General court with jurisdiction over Indians. La mayor; The eldest sibling with the same given name as her younger sister. La reata; Rope; lariat. La violo; He violated her. Labor; Land measurement of approximately acres. Grain farm. Labrador; White farmer, husbandman usually owned his land. Language spoken by Sephardic Jews.
Lagunilla; Small lake.
Lanzas; Payment made to the crown by Spanish grandees and titled nobles in lieu of providing soldiers for military service. Latifundio; Large landed estate. Legajo; Bundle of loose papers that are usually tied together because they deal with a common subject; most common unit of filed papers in Spanish archives. Legitimate masculine ; lawful Lego; Layman. Lepero; Leper; applied to beggars and vagabonds of cities.
Letrado; Holder of a law degree, who was a professional civil servant. Ley; Law. Liberalito; Term of ridicule applied to anti-clerical party. Libertad; Liberty, freedom. Libre de matrimonio; Free to marry. Libro de marcas; Cattle-brand register. Licencia; Permission, leave, license, liberty.
Licenciado; Licenciate, commonly in law; holding a master's degree. Licentiate; A general title for lawyers and university students given to holders of degrees between the baccalaureate and the doctorate. Licita; Legal; lawful. Lienzo; Colonial Indian painting on cloth. Ligado,-da; Tied, bound.
Sermones nuevo pacto
Limosna; Alms. Limpieza de sangre; Purity of blood. Certification that a person and his ancestry were not contaminated with heretic religion nor the blood of Moors Moriscos , Jews, or Negros; Records showing the purity of ancestry of the person applying for a position. Lunes; Monday. Macana; Sword-like weapon. Macehual; Aztec term for peasant. Madre; Mother. Madre no conocida; Mother unknown.
Madrina; Godmother, matron or maid of honor. Maestre de obras; Municipal official charged with supervising public works. Maiz; Corn; also its grain. Malocas; Indian country. Mandar; To command, order, enact. Mangana; Roping of the forefeet of the animal. Manta; Cotton cloth or mantle.
Maravedi; A fictitious unit of Spanish currency that was used as the standard of value for the coinage. Ancient Spanish coin, to the gold peso. One thirty-fourth of a real. Marco; Mark, or weight of about one-half pound. Marido; Husband. Marinero; A sailor. Marques; Marquis. Marquesado; Marquisate.
Marrano; A slang word used in a derogatory sense for Jew. Martes; Tuesday. Marzo; March. Masa; Corn treated with lime water; ground to coarse flour, and mixed with water to create the dough from which tortillas are made. Matanza; A slaughter of herd animals. Matemos; Maternal, from the maternal line. Matlazahuati; Typhus or yellow fever, the epidemic of Matricula; List of tributaries, persons, etc. Matrimoniales; Of the marriage. Mayeque; Dependent serfs. Mayo or Maio; May. Mayor; Indian chief constable.
Mayordomo; Manager, chief steward, overseer or supervisor of some activity. Mecate; Rope or cord. Media annata; Tax paid by certain officials consisting of half a year's salary and a third of all other financial perquisites from the grant of public office, favor, or concession, whether permanent or temporary. Media plaza; A soldier on half-pay during a probationary period. Medida; Measure. Mejico; Mexico. Prior to Mejico, it referred to "Mexico City". Mendicant; Member of a religious order that originally supported itself by begging.
Menor; Minor. Mercader; Merchant or shopkeeper. Mercader viandante; Traveling merchant. Mercedes de tierras; Royal grant, usually of land or office. Mestizaje; Miscegenation. Person of mixed European and Indian blood. Mil; Thousand. Mil quinientos;The year Militar; A military man. Milpa; Plot of agricultural land or cornfield; often used of those belonging to Indians.
Minero; Miner. Miniestras; Provisions, general ingredients, or greens for a person's daily consumption and subsistence. Ministerio; Ministry, department. Ministro; High-level post. Misa; Mass Liturgical celebration of the Eucharist. Mismo; Same. Mita; See repartimiento. Monastery; In the sixteenth century used generically of any house of religious.
Montanes; A peninsular bom in the mountainous province of Santander in Spain. Monte; Uncleared scrub land used for livestock grazing, usually on a hillside. A card game. Morada; Dwelling. Morador; Dweller, lodger, inhabitant, resident of maculine. Moradora; Resident of feminine. Moreno; Free Negro.
Motu Proprio; Letter or pronouncement of the Pope issued on his own initiative rather than in response to a request. Moza; Younger woman. Mozo; Youth, young man, lad, bachelor; manservant. A younger person with the same name, usually related. Mujer; Woman; wife. Mulato; Person of mixed white and black parentage; a mulatto; Half Spanish, half Negro.
Importantes textos fueron escritos sobre esta materia. Asimismo, incorporaron nuevos cultivos desconocidos para Europa y los diseminaron por todas partes. En metalurgia produjeron obras de arte en diversos metales como cobre y bronce. Balyuzi H. Joseph, G. Polis Revista Latinoamericana.