He displayed an influential theological and philosophical position between enlightenment, German idealism, and romanticism. The historical-critical edition of Schleiermacher's complete works, his unpublished writings and correspondence, published since , has been divided into the following five sections: I. Writings and Drafts II. Lectures III. Sermons IV. Translations V. Correspondence and Biographical Documents The first editorial section, Writings and Drafts, includes all of Schleiermacher's writings which were printed during his lifetime except those which belong to the editorial sections III and IV.
It also includes manuscripts either relating to these printed works or to drafts which do not belong to other editorial sections. In , the final two text volumes vols. In , the index volume will be published. The second editorial section, Lectures, contains all the material regarding Schleiermacher's extentsive lecturing both in Theological and Philosophical Faculties. Additional material is also drawn from notes made in his lecture by his students.
The Berlin Research Centre has been carrying out the editorial work on this section since The third section, Sermons, includes all of Schleiermacher's published sermons authorised by himself, as well as his own handwritten drafts and records by listeners where the original text has not been preserved.
The Kiel Research Centre is working on this section since This edition of Schleiermacher's sermons will consist of a total of 12 volumes of approximately pages each. Section V. The work on this section started in in the Schleiermacher Research Center Berlin. Oggi ne sono stati evidenziati gli apporti originali nella concezione dell'ermeneutica. Im philosophisch-theologischen Werk Schleiermachers nehmen die Arbeiten zu ethischen Fragen einen bedeutsamen Platz ein - gleichwohl ist zu seinen Lebzeiten nie ein systematischer Gesamtentwurf zur Ethik im Druck erschienen.
Sokrates v. Es handelt sich um eine literarische Gestaltung der Verteidigungsrede, die Platons Lehrer Sokrates vor dem athenischen Volksgericht hielt, als er im Jahr v. Die Apologie besteht somit aus drei aneinandergereihten Reden, die der Angeklagte nach dieser Darstellung am selben Tag in verschiedenen Phasen des Gerichtsverfahrens hielt.
Xenophon v. Schleiermacher, Friedrich Ernest Daniel, was born on November 21, , in Breslau in the Prussian Silesia as the grandson of Daniel Schleiermacher, a pastor at one time associated with the Zionites, and the son of Gottlieb Schleiermacher, a Reformed Church chaplain in the Prussian army. Schleiermacher started his formal education in a Moravian school at Niesky in Upper Lusatia, and at Barby near Magdeburg. However, pietistic Moravian theology failed to satisfy his increasing doubts, and his father reluctantly gave him permission to enter the University of Halle.
Schleiermacher was the most influential thinker of 19th-century Protestantism. In philosophy, however, he was overshadowed by G.
Schleiermacher was an idealist, holding that human knowledge was at best a mere approximation to reality and that man arrives at this knowledge by a conflict the Dialektik. All German idealism was somehow saddled with the a priori conviction that reality was either very difficult to reach or totally unreachable in itself.
1. The years of political and intellectual formation
He believed that all morality is an attempt to unite man's physical nature with his mind. He became one of the early Berlin romantics and associated particularly with Friedrich von Schlegel. Schleiermacher labored with this a priori in his attempt to establish his religious beliefs on a solid foundation. In this he was a child of the Enlightenment and a victim of the romantic illusion that in the final analysis it was only the ego or the individual who counted. This illusion cohered with his Protestant persuasion that the individual conscience was the ultimate criterion of what was correct in belief and good in morality.
The proofs are not concealed in some flash drive buried underground. I don't have compromising videos hidden in a garage in some inaccessible mountain village.
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Nor do I possess copies of secret service documents. The proofs are irrefutable because they are partial, recorded with my eyes, recounted with words, and tempered with emotions that have echoed off iron and wood. I see, hear, look, talk, and in this way I testify, an ugly word that can still be useful when it whispers, "It's not true," in the ear of those who listen to the rhyming lullabies of power. The truth is partial; after all, if it could be reduced to an objective formula, it would be chemistry. And so I tell. About these truths.
Saviano began "with a story imitating Tommaso Landolfi and sent it to Goffredo Fofi, who made it clear that, although he wrote well for his age, he was writing 'crap. It is a journey into the business and criminal world of the Camorra and of the places where the organization was born and lives:  the region of Campania , the city of Naples, the towns of Casal di Principe , San Cipriano d'Aversa, and the territory around Aversa known as the agro aversano.
Having grown up there, the author introduces the reader to a reality that is unknown to outsiders. The book talks about criminal bosses' sumptuous villas copied from Hollywood films; rural lands filled with the toxic waste of half of Europe; a population that not only cohabitates with this organized crime but even protects it and approves of its actions.
Therefore, the author writes about a System this is the real name used to refer to the Camorra  that attracts new recruits before adolescence, making them believe that theirs is the only possible life choice; about baby-bosses who are convinced that the only way to die like a real man is to be killed; and about a criminal phenomenon influenced by media spectacle, in which bosses base their clothes and movements on film stars. As of August , the book had sold 2. In the rest of the world, about 2 million copies of Gomorrah were sold. A film of the same name, Gomorrah , directed by Matteo Garrone , was also based on the book; it won the prestigious Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival in The series, composed of twelve episodes, aired on the channel Sky Atlantica starting on May 6, , and was then broadcast on Rai 3 on Saturdays in the late evening in January and February After the first season's success, production for the second season was announced; filming began in April In , filming, under the same directors and producers, of the adaptation of ZeroZeroZero , another novel by Saviano published in Italian in , began.
Annalisa Durante, killed by crossfire in the Forcella neighborhood of Naples on March 27, , at fourteen years old. Fourteen years old. Repeating it is like rubbing a sponge of ice-cold water along your back. Here the prevailing attitude is "It's not my problem. A loud and piercing cry hurled at bulletproof glass in hopes of making it shatter. The structure of the fictionalized essay or the novel-essay or the investigative novel or the nonfiction novel is nothing new, and was already used in narratives of denunciation in the nineteenth century.
To give an example from the Neapolitan context, Francesco Mastriani —prolific Neapolitan storyteller of so-called low Romanticism—successfully experimented with the structure in his serial novels. His growing success, his increasingly direct relationship with readers, and the end of Bourbon rule and censorship led him to use a more objective narrative in the style of news reporting that was taken from the environments of sordid characters and criminals the dangerous classes. Specifically, Mastriani methodically described and classified the criminal society of his time, as well as the problems of Naples and the South, giving rise to the Southern Question.
The writer defined these works studies in the same narrative thread that was then in vogue in novels from European metropolises across the Alps and the Channel. Morbid curiosity and a chronic thirst for truth among readers caused such novels to become bestsellers. As Benedetto Croce noted, Mastriani was widely read by the Neapolitan populace outside of the "learned and cultured" circles.
In the second half of the twentieth century, the work of Leonardo Sciascia and Italo Calvino offers examples of contamination and hybridism with the commingling of narrative and nonfiction. Sciascia's literary production represents an emblematic case, above all with The Knight and Death in which allegorical, satirical and non-fiction elements combine in the detective story. Italo Calvino 's La giornata di uno scrutatore The Watcher mixes the critical essay with the short story. The success of his book created numerous problems for Saviano, starting with threatening letters, silent phone calls, and, above all, a sort of environmental isolation.
During a demonstration for legality in Casal di Principe on September 23, , the writer denounced the business of the bosses of the Casalese clan: Francesco Bidognetti, Francesco Schiavone currently in prison , and the two ruling bosses at the time, Antonio Iovine and Michele Zagaria. He addressed them in fiery tones "You are not from this land! Quit being part of this land! Because of the threats and intimidations Saviano endured, the then Minister of the Interior, Giuliano Amato , decided to assign police protection to the writer beginning on October 13, Saviano was returning from Pordenone where he had been promoting Gomorrah.
The letter contained a request to move the trial due to legittima suspicione , or doubt surrounding the impartiality of the judicial body, caused by the alleged influence of Roberto Saviano, Rosaria Capacchione and the district attorneys Federico Cafiero de Raho and Raffaele Cantone on the judges. The bosses, Francesco Bidognetti and Antonio Iovine, and their attorneys, Michele Santonastaso and Carmine D'Aniello, were charged with intimidation for "mafia purposes" of Saviano and Capacchione the case against the alleged threats of the magistrates were taken up in Rome.
Acquittal due to insufficient proof was requested for the other boss, Antonio Iovine. The attorney general for Reggio Calabria, Federico Cafiero de Raho, testified during the trial that Saviano was a "mortal enemy of the clan" and recalled that Saviano was among the few journalists present at all 52 of the prosecutor's closing speeches for the Spartacus Trial. On October 14, , there was news of a possible assassination attempt on Roberto Saviano.
A police inspector of the Anti-Mafia Investigation Department DIA of Milan informed the DDA that the pentito , Carmine Schiavone cousin of boss Francesco Schiavone , aka Sandokan , had informed him of a plan, already in operation, to kill the writer and his bodyguards before Christmas through a spectacular attack on the highway between Rome and Naples  in the style of Capaci.
Yet, when interrogated by magistrates, Carmine Schiavone denied knowing about a plan hatched by the Casalesi to kill Saviano, provoking the writer's immediate response: "It's obvious that he'd say this; if he were to talk [about the plan], it would mean implicitly admitting to still having connections with organized crime". In the end the district attorney heading the investigation requested and obtained dismissal of the case after the news was revealed to be unfounded.
Carmine Schiavone denied knowing anything about the attack but confirmed that Saviano was condemned to death by the Casalese clan. In October , Saviano decided to leave Italy "at least for some time and then we'll see",  also as a result of threats, which were confirmed by reports and statements from informants, revealing the Casalese clan 's plan to eliminate him.
I believe I have the right to a break.
Over the years I have thought that giving in to the temptation to retreat was neither a very good idea nor, above all, an intelligent one. I believed that it was rather stupid—in additional to being improper—to give up, to bend to men who are nothing, people whom you abhor for what they think, for how they act, for how they live, and for their very being. But, in this moment, I don't see any reason why I should insist on living in this way, as a prisoner of myself, of my book, of my success.
Fuck success. I want a life. That's it. I want a house. I want to fall in love, to drink a beer in public, to go to a bookstore and to choose a book by reading the cover. I want to go for a stroll, to sunbathe, to walk under the rain, to meet people without fear and without frightening my mother. I want to be surrounded by my friends, to be able to laugh, and to not have to talk about myself, always about myself as though I were terminally ill and they were struggling with a boring, yet inevitable, visit. Damn it, I'm only twenty-eight years old!
And I still want to write, write, write because it's my passion and my resistance. And in order to write, I need to plunge my hands into reality, to cover myself in it, to smell its odor and its sweat, and to not live quarantined in a hyperbolic chamber inside military barracks—today here, tomorrow two hundred kilometers away, moved like a package without knowing what happened and what can happen. A perennial state of bewilderment and insecurity keeps me from thinking, reflecting, concentrating on what I have to do.
Sometimes I surprise myself thinking these words: I want my life back. I silently repeat them, one by one, to myself. People unfamiliar with Camorra power dynamics often think that killing an innocent person is a naive gesture on the part of the clans because it only legitimizes and amplifies the victim's example and words, a confirmation of the truths he spoke. That's never the way it is. As soon as you die in the land of the Camorra, you're enshrouded in countless suspicions, and innocence is a distant hypothesis, the last one imaginable.
You are guilty until proven innocent. In the land of the Camorra, the theory of modern rights is turned on its head. On October 20, , six international Nobel Prize winners rallied in support of Roberto Saviano,  asking the Italian government to do something to protect him and to defeat the Camorra and emphasizing the fact that organized crime is not merely a problem for police that only concerns the writer, but is a problem for democracy that concerns all free citizens. The appeal of the six Nobel laureates concludes that these citizens cannot tolerate the fact that the events described in Saviano's book are taking place in in Europe, just as they can't tolerate that the price one pays for denouncing these events means losing one's freedom and safety.
After the initiative, various radio stations opened their microphones to debates and comments on the subject.
The program Fahrenheit on Italy's Rai Radio 3 organized a marathon reading of Gomorrah in which celebrities from the world of culture, news, theater, and civil society participated. Numerous Italian cities also offered honorary citizenship to the writer, while many schools subscribed to the appeal. In addition to the signatures of the six prominent figures, normal citizens were able to sign the appeal on a special page created by the newspaper La Repubblica.
More than , signatures were collected. In October , the head of the Rapid Response Team of Naples, Vittorio Pisani, questioned the need for a security detail to protect Roberto Saviano,  maintaining that the death threats had not been confirmed. In the director Pasquale Squitieri also cast doubt on the appropriateness of the security detail.
Giorgio de Chirico’s Writings
According to him, Saviano went to the Cannes Film Festival "probably to put on a bit of a show" and "those who are really targets have body guards, of course, but they are also prohibited from flying on [commercial] planes and frequenting public places because they could put themselves and others in danger. The head of police, Antonio Manganelli replied by reaffirming the need for bodyguards.
The district attorneys Raffaele Cantone and Franco Roberti, both magistrates with years of experience on the front lines fighting against the clans, reiterated Saviano's dangerous situation. The journalist Giuseppe D'Avanzo wrote a piece for La Repubblica requesting the resignation of the head of the Rapid Response Team for his declarations.
Saviano replied in an article for La Repubblica , denouncing the attempt to isolate him and to cause the "disintegration" of the public's solidarity with him, comparing his case with those of Peppino Impastato, Giuseppe Fava, and Giancarlo Siani. Following Pisani's initiatives, Saviano had to " exhibit, as requested, the real cause of the threats. On May 19, , Pisani, testifying during the trial of the Casalesi bosses and their lawyers, who had used an istanza di remissione to threaten Saviano and others in the courtroom, renounced the headline of the interview that he had given to the Corriere della Sera in Saviano should not have bodyguards.
He also clarified the content of the investigation his team had conducted on the threats to Saviano: "We investigated and showed some photos to Saviano, who, however, did not identify them as the people who had threatened him. The decision to assign a security detail was obviously not up to us. Pisani, therefore, explained that he did not say the words pronounced in the article since the Carabinieri Italy's national military police were the ones who had to make the decision concerning Saviano's security detail.
In the internet site Carmilla Online collected signatures in support of the ex-terrorist member of PAC Armed Proletarians for Communism , Cesare Battisti , who had become a writer and was then hiding in France and Brazil. They collected more than 1, signatures from the political-cultural arenas of France and Italy. This petition attracted media attention thanks to the interest of the weekly magazine Panorama. During the demonstration For Truth, for Israel , organized by representative Fiamma Nirenstein of the PdL and held in Rome on October 7, , Saviano participated through a video message, praising the Hebrew state as a place of freedom and civilization.
In his speech, the writer spoke of his Jewish roots and declared that Israel is a "democracy under siege," Tel Aviv is "a hospitable city" "that never sleeps, is full of life and, above all, tolerance, a city that succeeds more than any other in welcoming the gay community" and that "the refugees of Darfur, for example, are welcomed in Israel. These along with other declarations caused controversy and were criticized for having ignored the injustices suffered by the Palestinian population.
Caterina Donattini, an activist working in a Palestinian refugee camp, made similar criticisms, writing in a letter to Saviano that the Israeli-Palestinian question includes aspects of "a colonial project that has many similarities with that of Apartheid South Africa" and "has transformed a country into Swiss cheese. Saviano responded to the objections by saying "In the video reduced to bare bones I never supported the war, never supported Operation Cast Lead, or the Israeli Right, never Netanyahu. I spoke about another Israel, an Israel to which one may turn in order to obtain peace.
Saviano was accused by the granddaughter of Benedetto Croce , Marta Herling, of having written a dishonest article about the Abruzzese philosopher. The writer affirmed that during the earthquake of Casamicciola in which he lost his parents and sister, Croce allegedly followed his dying father's advice and offered , lire a very large sum for the time to whoever helped him out from under the rubble. The testimony taken up by Saviano during the show Vieni via con me Come away with me in , was denied by Herling in a letter published in the Corriere del Mezzogiorno and in two interviews given to TG1, during which she explicitly maintained that the writer invented the episode.
Such a theory, according to the director of the Corriere del Mezzogiorno , Marco Demarco, came from an "anonymous source" reported by Ugo Pirro in the magazine Oggi in Actually, two detailed sources document the episode described by Saviano. Nevertheless, there is also a previous book drawn on by Carlo del Balzo.
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It's called Ricordi. Casamicciola e le sue rovine. Cenni storici — Geografici — Cronologici Memories. Casamicciola and its ruins. The passage taken by del Balzo is the following:. Croce was dug out alive. He is the only survivor of the rich family from Foggia, which has been settled in Naples for a long time. He recounted that his mother and sister were found among the rubble and passed away.
Giorgio de Chirico’s Writings
His father, who was writing with his son at the table when the quake struck, was completely covered by debris except for his head and told him — Offer thousand lire to whoever can save us. The young Croce had a fractured arm and leg. A legal complaint between Roberto Saviano and TG1 resulted from this affair since TG1 had interviewed Marta Herling, who maintained that the writer had "invented" the episode of the , lire, without giving Saviano the right to reply.
Feeling that he had been defamed, Saviano sued the RAI for 4,, euros in damages. In Saviano and the Arnoldo Mondadori Editore publishing house were sentenced for plagiarism on appeal. In September , journalist Michael C. Moynihan wrote an article for The Daily Beast ,  criticizing ZeroZeroZero and accusing Saviano of having used sections of text, including from Wikipedia, without citing his sources.
In an article for the Italian newspaper La Repubblica ,   Saviano demonstrated how the passages from ZeroZeroZero and the presumed sources identified by Moynihan were manipulated in order to appear similar.