He lists the recipes according to the seasons and the products meat, fish, vegetables etc , the utensils necessary for their preparation as well as all the specific terms in the kitchen. The explanations are detailed and precise, so that any type of reader can follow without difficulty. Among other things, you can learn the recipe for beef tongue, turbot with capers or caramel cream ink.
Quelques uns portent la signature "Nox", sans doute le pseudonime de l'artiste. Important set of original models of postcards made with watercolor on strong paper. Some bear the signature "Nox", probably the pseudonym of the artist. They mostly represent country landscapes, villages, churches, houses under the snow, lakes, rivers, bridges and sometimes some villagers. The collection also includes flowers, cats, and a series on Venice. Rare testimony of this art today disappeared. SL, L. De format divers la plupart par mm. Mostly by mm.
He then produced an extremely important iconography for the history of Egypt and the whole Middle East. His works became famous because of the tourists who brought home his photos as souvenirs. Gherardi dated , and 26 are unsigned. All these prints on albumen paper are laminated on sheets of strong cardboard. With captions in the photo or handwritten. Also include: 1 large panorama. The album features views of Jerusalem, collective prayer scenes, animated street scenes, Bethlehem, Nazareth, Jaffa, Syria, portraits of locals in costumes, crafts, Bedouins, some snapshots of Malta in including a spectacular panoramic photo of the harbor of one meter wide.
Scarce iconography of the Middle East at the end of the 19th century. Provenance: Library of the Captain Louis Lacroix , naval historian and author of many books devoted mainly to the era of tall ships. Full list of photos on request. Nova typis transacta navigatio Novi orbis Indiae Occidentalis La planche de Kilian montre un portrait complet de Colomb sous un globe ou une carte circulaire, avec l'inscription "Almirante de nauios par las Indias". Engraved emblematic title, 19 folding, woodcut diagrams in text.
Plate of Columbus with a map of the world, signed by Wolfgang Kilian. First Edition, second issue of this famous relation of the Benedictine missionaries who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage to the Americas. Although laced with miraculous accounts, beginning with the mass celebrated by St. Brendan on the back of a whale pl. A specimen of music is given on pp. The author accuses the Protestant de Brys' accounts of being filled with lies, and dwells on the barbaric cruelties of the natives in support of the notion that Satan ruled the native American religions.
Only the first engraving is signed, by Wolfgang Kilian , Augsburg master-engraver, but the others are comparable in style and were probably also executed by him. Kilian's plate shows a full length portrait of Columbus under a globe or circular map, with the inscription Almirante de nauios par las Indias. Original edition. He was corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of Paris. Venice, Gioliti, Re-used vellum. First edition of a letter written by Gasparo Coelho, dated 13 February, Coelho was Vice-provincial of the Jesuit mission in Japan, based in Nagasaki.
Streit describes another edition printed by the same publisher in the same year, but with the following title: Lettera annale scritta di novo dal Giapone, delle cose iui successe lanno MDLXXXII. The present edition is not recorded in Streit. A French edition, translated by Michel Coyssard, was published in Paris in , and a German translation was published in Dilingen in Sans lieu, Contemporary half vellum.
Remarkable set of original drawings by the naval painter Antoine Roux , the most famous of the dynasty. He was famous for its ships portraits: 11 of them in the present set, most of them belonged to the French Navy. Those pencil drawings are followed by some wash drawings depicting Mediterranean landscapes and harbors Toulons Baye. Exceptional work. Et de Tulard et Garnier.
Engraved frontispieces, engraved plates and tables. Original pink boards, spines gold-stamped. By a Field Officer on the Staff. Illustrated with a Plan of the Operations. London, Printed for John Joseph Stockdale, Sabin, ; Alberich, Contemp cardboard binding. Auchmuty was born in New York, from a family of loyalists, was the son of the Rector of Trinity Church. This attack is part of a series of British incursions in South America in early Nineteenth century. Auchmuty's initial mission was to retake Buenos Aires, which had been briefly under British control.
Held in check in his mission, he decides to attack near Montevideo, a city much less fortified than Buenos Aires. The book contains the narrative of the operations and the text of Auchmuty general order of declaring the victory. An appendix gives Auchmutys version of the events, with the names of the British employed in the attack and those who were killed, the catches made at Montevideo and the related proceedings in Parliament.
The engraved plan placed as a frontispiece shows the geographical area, with the delimitation of the movements of British troops. Par ceux de la Co[m]pagnie du nom de Iesus, depuis lan Lyons, Benoist Rigaud, Cordier Japonica, DAcosta's work is divided in four parts containing about forty letters of Eastern missionaries written between and , mostly concerning Japan.
Other letters discuss in detail the religion and government of Japan, as well as the missionaries' way of instructing and converting the Japanese. Historia naturale, e morale delle Indie; scritta dal R. Novamente tradotta della lingua Spagnola nella Italiana da Gio. Paolo Galucci Salodiano Academico Veneto. Petite mouillure d'angle interne sur les tous premiers ff.
Il sagit du premier travail important sur les Indes occidentales : le Nouveau Monde. JCB I, p. Antique full vellum, ink title. Acosta was one of the first Europeans to provide a detailed image of the physical and human geography of Latin America; his studies of the Indian civilizations of the New World were a major source of information for several centuries.
He may, indeed, be called the first of the true Americanists. Relation dun voyage dexploration au nord-est de la colonie du Cap de Bonne Esperance, entrepris dans les mois de mars, avril et mai Paris, Arthus Bertrand, First edition of this account of a journey undertaken north-east of the colony of the Cape. The work is illustrated with a fold. Thomas Arbousset converted into contact with a blind neighbor to whom he read the Bible, missionary accounts and stories of persecution suffered by their Huguenot ancestors.
It was during these readings that he decided to become a missionary. The Society of Evangelical Missions sent him to Lesotho where he stayed for twenty-seven years. Following his journey in , he published, in Paris in , this poignant account of what he discovered in these "wild and unknown lands", as he defines them himself. Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Exemplaire de l'imprimeur cachet imprimeur rouge sur la page de garde. Beatrice Banning Ayers - married General Patton in She was bilingual French and translated many manuals of the French army into English.
She traveled in the United States during the Second World War by collecting money during mandatory collections. After the death of her husband in , Mrs. Patton became an energetic and very persuasive speaker. She also had a good pen, and published 3 books including this book on the legends of Hawaii based on a rich bibliography. Amsterdam: Jodocus Hondius, Contempoary vellum. First edition due to Hondius. Copy from the collection of three generations of French cartographers. The book contains 4 maps of the world and 15 relating to the Americas. Histoire de la Premiere Descouverte et Conqueste des Canaries.
Faite des l'an per Messire Jean de Bethencourt. Paris, Michel Soly, Le tout receuilly de divers. Borba de Moraes I, p. Jean de Bethencourt's portrait by Balthasar Moncornet. Original velum. Fine copy of this scarce Americana, complete with the 2 parts and portrait, only edition of the very first French publication dealing with the history of maritime explorations. The texts of the first part were compiled by Pierre Bergeron: it's a very complete history of world exploration at the age of discovery, concentrated on French' voyages, including Jacques Cartier du Mont, Lescarbot, Poutrincourt, Champlain With an amazing portrait.
Toneladas de dibujos para colorear y pintar!
A Paris, Chez H. Delatour, Title in red and black. Contemporary full calf. First edition of this important treatise with a detailled list of the all day and night signals used in Navy. Fresh copy in a fine contemporary binding. Polak - Scott - Brunet VI, First edition of this important work which lists in detail all the night and day signals used in the navy.
Before publishing it, Bigot de Morogues used his manuscript for a few years to instruct the naval guards of Brest. He then went to the navy in , served on the "Bourbon", and became captain in In , he commands the "Magnifique", forming the rear guard of the squadron of the marshal of Confians destined for a landing in Scotland, and supports alone, November 20, day of the battle of Quiberon, the shock of three English ships. His solid knowledge of both the artillery and the navy has made him think several times about the ministry of the navy; but this nomination never succeeds.
Appointed Inspector of Marine Artillery in , he ended his life on his land. His abilities enabled him to compose practical works of clear design and exposition, which for a long time were authoritative; he is also at the origin of the Academy of Marine formed definitively in , and of which he was the first director. The work is divided in two parts: the first deals with naval evolutions and the second general signals and orders by day, by night, by fog that a naval army must know and execute.
Impressed by the formalism of European naval tactics, the work is characteristic of the technical fights of the time. As a result of a desire for prudence, we wanted to avoid random overflow maneuvers. Attempts to concentrate on the opposing fleet are becoming increasingly rare, and rigidity of the line and discipline of fire is imposed. The battles can be summed up in endless evolutions to take advantage of the wind, followed by a barren cannonade between two parallel lines. This formalism reigns especially in France since the treaty of of Father Hoste, but also in Spain and, to a lesser extent, in England.
It leads to a strategic deviation, the "non-battle" which contributes to developing the passivity of the officers. One of the rare copies printed on large paper, very fresh. Ecrit en Anglais par M. Faux-titre, Titre , xvi pp. Salissures marginales aux premiers et derniers feuillets. EO anglaise, , Londres. Ils rejoignent Tahiti le 26 octobre Ils rejoignent Tofoe, puis, durant quarante-huit jours, ils font route vers Timor. Contemp sheep. First French edition of Bligh's own account of the mutiny on the Bounty, the most notorious incident in maritime history.
This publication predates Bligh's full account of the voyage by two years. Bligh was anxious to have an account of the mutiny itself available to safeguard his own reputation and in order to present copies to the Lords of the Admiralty before the court-martial of the mutineers, to absolve him from blame. Le bateau prit des passagers jusquau Portugal, fit escale en Afrique pour atteindre Valparaiso le 19 octobre Contemporary cloth binding. Spirited narrative by Gaston Boite, French emigrant to Chile in the beginning of the 20th century.
The journey from France to South America still was an adventure, for the crossing and the installation and this log gives a vivid picture of it. A fascinating story by Gaston Boite, a French emigrant who left La Rochelle for Chile at the beginning of the 20th century. At the beginning of the century, traveling to Chile was still truly adventurous both in crossing and settling in the country, and this newspaper gives a vision that is both lively, colorful and detailed. The first part is devoted to the journey: Gaston Boite retraces the stops by focusing on different atmospheres, depicts the landscapes and living conditions on board, reports the flow of passengers and goods, in a painting where the scenes are mixed more or less incredible on board and in the ports, including scenes of sale on the sly, and more precise elements on the prices of the various goods and the nationalities and social backgrounds of the passengers, all forming a precious testimony on these crossings at the beginning of the century.
La table en annonce 35 cartes et plans. Charming little maritime atlas fully engraved, giving the coast of France and many fortified ports. Allegorical title designed by Monnet engraved by Legrand. The table announces 35 cards and plans. Beautiful copy bound in red morocco. Par M. Bossu, Capitaine dans les troupes de la Marine. Half marbled sheep. Second edition of primary interest for Louisiana, Alabama, and Illinois. Bossu, a captain in the French Navy, was the first to write about Louisiana in detail and based on personal experience.
The work is actually a collection of 21 letters he wrote during his first two voyages to the country, in and Sabin I find no record of the first edition. Bossu arrived in New Orleans a few years after its founding, and only eighty years after La Salle came down the Mississippi. This collection of letters, revealing many vivid personal and secondhand recollections, gives a fascinating portrait of life and travels in that vast area.
Paris, Presentation copy. First edition of this founding text of the prehistoric science, due to Jacques Boucher de Perthes , pronounced during the session of June 7th, of the Imperial Society of emulation. The work is illustrated with two plates representing tools: "Probably out of axes and other tools of antediluvian flints" and a geological section: "reduced cut of the Menchecourt ground near Abbeville" lithographed in the text. With his theory of the existence of an antediluvian man, the author attracts the wrath of the scientific community.
It was not until and the discoveries of Henry Testot Ferry that scientists began to realize the importance of Boucher de Pertheswork, unfortunately very shortly before his death. Nice copy in its publisher cover. Provenance: Mr Cornuau, prefect of the Somme handwriting of the author. Published at a few copies. Rare on the market. Elle est due au navigateur Edmond Bigot de la Touanne, au naturaliste Lesson. Ferguson II, Paquet, fat spines gilt-lettered, blind-stamped anchor tools.
Provenance: Lieutenant Commander H. Paquet binding. First edition of this nicely illustrated work on the French circumnavigation under command of Baron De Bougainville, son of the greatexplorer Louis de Bougainville. The lithographed views were made by Bichebois,Sabatier, and Bayot after designs by E.
The fine colour-printed engraved plates by H.
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- Reti Vendita Di Successo (Italian Edition).
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Bessa, show plants and animals, including a curious case of Siamese twins, theAustralian kangaroo, two beautiful plates of the Australian parrot, and a finecolour-plate with butterflies. The double-page maps and plates were all engravedby Amboise Tardieu, mostly after designs by E. Berlin, Paris, Ch. Jombert, Bel exemplaire, frais. Rare treaty on the construction of dikes by Mr. Bourdet - , French engineer and hydraulician of the Royal Academy of Architecture of Paris, who practiced especially in Germany.
The book is dedicated to Count Othon of Podexils - , Prussian ambassador. From time immemorial, man has sought to retain water, divert it, or protect itself from it, whether it is to sail, to increase agricultural surfaces or to build, to use the driving force of water. This work deals with the issues of interest of dykes, reasons of their construction, repairs in case of breakage, disadvantages and benefits for humans other than saving lives, all these topics are detailed in 19 chapters with the support of 9 plates of diagrams of a great precision.
Provenance: Bramshill ex-libris emblazoned on the back of the 1st dish. Nice copy, fresh. Avec introduction et notes. Cependant, peu de journaux de corsaires sont connus. Il dresse des cartes des rades quil visite. Their "catches" bring considerable sums of money to the treasure of the crown, and the names of several French corsairs remain famous. However, few privateers' journals are known. Lawrence in Canada on behalf of of the Company of New France.
Thus begins his long career at sea of forty-eight years. Recognized as an excellent pilot, he is the privileged witness of the whole maritime history of the time of Louis XIV. He remains, with Duguay Trouin, the most prolific corsaire, having left memories written with care and meticulousness. Here is an overview of his feats of arms as captain corsair: In , Jean Doublet takes command of a frigate corsair from Granville, the "Jeune Homme" barrels, 16 guns and 25 men , then the ton corsair frigate of Saint-Malo, the "Comte de Revel", with which he captured an English coastguard of barrels and 40 guns.
In he was captured by the British in the Channel and remained a prisoner for three and a half months in Plymouth. In , he commanded the St. He draws maps of the places he visits. On April 22, , he returned to Port-Louis with a booty of , piastres of gold and silver! Jean Doublet then retired in Honfleur, occupying his last years in the drafting of his journal. Like Duguay Trouin, he writes his memoirs for his family and his friends who want to know his sea adventures. The corsair's diary is accompanied by an introduction, a family tree, a series of pieces and documents and a table of names and vessels cited.
L'Egypte et la Syrie ou moeurs, usages, costumes et monumens des Egyptiens, des Arabes et des Syriens. Paris, Nepveu, Breton a produit des travaux similaires sur la Chine et la Russie. Superbe exemplaire. Blackmer ; Brunet I; Atabey First edition, beautifully bound and in period colors with heightened gold, of this book dedicated to Egypt and the Middle East. A major actor in court reporting in France, co-founder and manager of the Gazette des Tribunaux, he knows almost all the languages of Europe English, German, Spanish, Flemish, Dutch, Italian.
He was thus the ideal man to carry out the work entrusted to him by the publisher Nepveu, a bookseller passionate about travel. Breton has produced similar works on China and Russia. He yielded to Breton not only information, but also unpublished drawings he had himself made during his journey and that Breton adds those of Luigi Mayer published in England.
In his preface, Breton praises the success of the French in Egypt "where the French name has left such beautiful memories. The iconography consists of 84 plates with an important ethnographic part: inhabitants of all social categories, scenes of life, crafts, objects, furniture, weapons, musical instruments and views of monuments, cities and landscapes of the Holy Land and from Egypt. The double page plates are mostly reduced versions of Mayer's Egypt.
The set is in period colors with especially fresh. Superb copy. Paris, Durand, First Edition of this important work by Charles de Brosses , considered as one of the major works dealing with the first voyages in the Pacific, intended to stimulate French exploration and colonization of the South Seas. This publication is the major work of Brosses, French magistrate, historian, linguist and writer.
In the eighteenth century, "Terres Australes" does not refer only to the glacial continents of the Arctic and Antarctic, but refers to a larger and more indefinite region of the southern hemisphere from the Cape of Good- Hope to the Strait of Magellan via the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific, three distinct regions that the author names respectively: Australasia, Polynesia and Magellania this last name based on the belief in existence from a continent beyond the tip of South America. The book contains the story of all journeys to the south, starting with the second Vespucci expedition from to , including trips to Magellan, Drake, Schouten, Tasman The text was later used as base for Callander's highly influential "Terra Australis Cognita" of in this form it had much to do with British plans for colonial expansion through transportation.
Brosses suggests that France should colonize Australia thus virtually predicting its ultimate destiny! The text is illustrated with 7 maps by Robert de Vaugondy, which gives the geographical representation of the mid-eighteenth century world. The first represent the whole of the southern hemisphere with Australia in center.
Broughton arriva en Inde en , comme Cadet de lEtablissement du Bengale.
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Bel exemplaire, coloris frais. Original card-board bindings. First French edition. Broughton first arrived in India in as a cadet on the Bengal establishment. Following the siege of Seringapatam in , in which he was actively engaged, he was appointed commandant of the cadet corps. At the time he wrote the present work he was military resident with the Mahrattas.
His book is dedicated to the Marquis of Wellesley, "the acute detector of Mahratta wiles, the firm repeller of their insolent pretensions, and the formidable barrier to their ambitious projects; their vigorous opponent in time of war, and their generous pacificator in the hour of victory. Abbey, Travel, ; Tooley, ; Colas, Paris, Imprimerie Royale, Faux-titre, Titre , pp.
Dans cet ouvrage technique, il aborde les questions du lestage et donne la comparaison du poids de la charge et du poids de la coque. L'illustration se compose de 6 planches : 1. Plan du lest de fer d'un vaisseau de 74 canons.
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Premier plan de futailles d'un vaisseau de 74 canons. Second plan de futailles d'un vaisseau de 74 canons. Plan de la Coupe Verticale-longitudunale d'un Vaisseau de 74 Canons. Full calf binding with the guilted arms of France. First and only edition of this scarce treatise by Burgues de Missiessy At the beginning of his brilliant carrier as a sea officer he was Vice Amiral in the French Navy in , he served under Admiral d'Estaing during his campaigns in the American Revolutionary War.
He also was Directeur of the French shipbuilding school. The present book was printed by order of the Governement. Superb copy of this rare work, printed on a special heavy velum paper with the binging of the king Louis the XVIth. Jomard, membre de linstitut. T, T et 1 portrait frontispice de l'auteur , XII, pp. Catalogue ; , ,  pp. Gay, Publisher covers. Original edition of this scarce account.
Rene Caillie was presented with the Legion of Honor as the first European to return alive from Timbuktu. Then he went to the mysterious city, saw something of its real character, and crossed the Sahara to Morocco, reaching the west coast of Fez. For this journey he was rewarded by the Geographical Society of Paris" Baker. Fx-titre, frontispice, titre , pp. Provenance : Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont-Courtenay , prince de Bauffremont et du Saint-Empire, marquis de Bauffremont et de Listenois, comte de l'Empire , pair de France , premier duc de Bauffremont , chevalier de lordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis.
Contemporary half-sheep. Armorial ex-libris. First edition of this beautiful work richly illustrated with detailed hand-colored full-page engravings depicting scenes, Ottomans costumes, portraits, weapons, tools, musical instruments etc. Castellan gives an elaborate account of the history, emperors, people, religion, arts and professions, richly illustrated.
The French publisher Nepveu published a series of books with similar descriptions of different countries and regions of the world. Fine copy of a prestigious provenance. Paris, Le Rouge, Millard, Second edition in French. In this set of drawings made on site, Chambers aims to stop the "extravagant productions A Chapter is devoted to the distribution of Chinese gardens.
A first edition containing only 19 p. Vial du Clairbois. A Brest, Chez R. Il en prend la direction sur ordre du roi Gustave III qui l'anoblit en Il construira au total 24 vaisseaux de ligne. French edition translated from the Swedish, of one of the most famous naval architecture treatises produced in the 18th century. Copy with 80 pages of notes and handwritten addendum diagrams in English.
In the 18th century, naval architecture is the equivalent of what will be the 20th aerospace industry. However, in it remains an empirical art based on the knowledge and the eye of some exceptional master carpenters: most military and merchant ships are built without a specific plan, based on simple sketches and arsenal models.
Duhamel Du Monceau's work "Elements darchitecture navale" published in , is a revolution. It addresses shipbuilding for the first time in a scientific way and accessible to all. From then, the civil and military shipyards adopt a rational work based on the physical and mathematical sciences and perfectly established plans.
This work by Sweden Frederick Henry of Chapman, appeared for the first time in Translated into several languages, he will not know an edition in English until Smith, Cambridge. This treatise is the work of a sailor who knew perfectly the construction of the vessels.
At the age of 15, he left for Stockholm to learn the art of shipbuilding. With a partner he opened a shipyard in Gothenburg from This did not prevent him from traveling a lot and even being briefly arrested in , when he visited an English shipyard without authorization. In he took the mathematics classes of English Thomas Simpson He will thus use Simpson's method numerical calculation of an integral to determine mathematically the different characteristics of a ship volumes, surfaces, center of gravity He was then relieving the Swedish fleet, which had fallen somewhat into decay.
He built a total of 24 ships. Appointed Vice Admiral in , he ceased his activity in , when he was 72 years old. The work is divided into IX chapters dealing with every aspect of the construction: displacement, stability, center of gravity, resistance, sails, proportions of buildings and rigging, and construction practice. It is illustrated with 8 out-of-text tables and 11 out-of-text plates, including 3 folding cutaway schematics. Copy used by a British construction site: it is riddled with forty sheets of manuscripts in ink of additions and notes, diagrams, tables of calculation as well as annotations in the margins, all written in English.
Thus, while an English edition was available from , some British architects continued to use the present copy and supplemented it with large manuscript additions. Il sinstalle en Angleterre et se marie. Dirk Van der Cruysse: "Chardin le Persan". First edition of of the first volume of Chardin's manuscript.
Born in Paris in a Huguenot Protestant family, Jean Chardin undertook his travels to Persia because of his father's position as a jeweller and shareholder in the French East India Company. Soon after his arrival in Persia, he received a commission to create jewellery for Shah Abbas II, who died in and was succeeded by Shah Safi. After witnessing the latter's coronation, Chardin went on India and finally returned to Paris in In , he published an account of the coronation and in the same year set off for Persia again, arriving in Isfahan in and remaining there for several years, before once more visiting India and returning home in With the persecution of the Huguenots in France, he moved to England in This first edition deals with the period , which appeared in and was followed by several counterfeit editions.
The complete set of his works was published only in in Paris, but was incomplete of several passages cut by the editor who found them anti-papists! Chardin enjoys the reputation of being one of the best-informed European observers of Safavid Persia. The plates in Chardin's work are said to be after the artist Guillaume Grelot; they include illustrations of Tiflis, Erivan, Kashan, Kom and a large folding map of the Black Sea.
A valuable work, highly praised by Montesquieu, Rousseau etc. Scarce original edition of this treaty by naval Lieutenant Chopart, which was animated by the desire to disseminate to all officers of the Navy knowledge inherent in the maneuvers of the Fleet, deficiencies considered disastrous by Chopart since it existed at the time only a manual on board the ships, the "Tactic", intended for the captain alone.
Provenance: Jacques Lapierre, navy officer handwritten dedication by the author. A Dunkerque, le 22 septembre These plan was made by this officer when English and Dutch fleets attacked the city in They were repelled by Jean Bart in a battle which is considered as the last victory of the famous sailor. Some marks of folding, and the title on the verso of the document show it was either classify with military papers, or send to the authorities. Drawn by a professionnel on the first day of the attack, it shows many accurate details, offers the position of both fleets, with the name and place of both ships and batteries.
Up on the right, a table gives the explanation for the depicted elements: kind of ships, batteries, fortifications. The attack was repelled. Rare and precious historical document, depicting the last victory of the famous French corsair. Frankfurt, Johann Peter Zubrodt, Choulant-Frank, pp. Ancient vellum. First edition of the first illustrated work on Chinese medicine published in Europe. These Latin translations of a late medieval version of the Mo cheh Instructions relating to the pulse and other short texts were the work of the Polish Jesuit Michael Boym Pour moi, Notre-Dame de Paris incarne quelque chose de plus.
C'est aussi vrai que la gare de Perpignan est le centre du Monde, selon Dali. Vous ne comptez donc pour rien les protestants, les juifs, les musulmans Veuillez remplir tous les champs obligatoires avant de soumettre votre commentaire. Voir les conditions d'utilisation. Connectez-vous Abonnez-vous. Thorleifson C'est aussi vrai que la gare de Perpignan est le centre du Monde, selon Dali.
Signaler un contenu abusif. Some are embarking on political careers, running in local or legislative elections. Access to political power is a source of both direct enrichment access to public procurement and political benefits: notably parliamentary immunity, diplomatic passports, access to the highest state institutions and access to public contracts. Hide Footnote These national political networks are essential guarantees of influence as well as protection of trafficking activities.
They are coupled with political support at the highest level in the sub-region. Traffickers are also connected to the state administrations through their investments in the legal economy transport, construction and real estate sectors , aiming to diversify their activities and launder their money. Crisis Group interview, security officer, Niamey, December This politico-economic influence lets traffickers progressively impose themselves as indispensable political actors at different levels of a state open to such relations.
Hide Footnote The new element from the s is the presence of major drug traffickers among the Tuareg and Arab tribes on which the state relies. By allowing these actors to form armed militias in , the state intended to find local supporters to fight the rebellion of Ibrahim ag Bahanga. Hide Footnote For their part, the militia leaders were primarily interested in regaining control of the trafficking routes. At the same time, drug traffickers also made connections to rebel groups.
In , as a new Tuareg rebellion was emerging, the main rebel movement, the Democratic Alliance for Change ADC , solicited the few active trafficking networks in the Kidal region to participate in the war effort. Hide Footnote The latter were pressed to choose a camp, which helped militarise the networks, in particular to deal with the increasingly frequent interception of convoys. In northern Mali, trafficking, community conflicts and state interests intertwined in the mids. But with the crisis, these links took on a new dimension. Trafficking networks, organised partly on a community basis, infiltrated the rebellion more thoroughly than previous insurrections.
The traffickers used their links with armed groups to continue or even develop their activities. The rebellion does not come down to the involvement of drug traffickers, however. In early , the central state and its representatives precipitously evacuated the north of the country while a flexible coalition of armed groups seized the area. The separatist MNLA was gradually supplanted by jihadist groups. The allegiances varied. At Kidal, from late , many traffickers supported or even joined the MNLA, as they had supported the rebel movement of Ibrahim ag Bahanga in In addition, several tribes in the region changed sides to join the separatist movement, and the traffickers from these communities were required to support it.
Imrad Tuareg and Berabiche Arab paramilitary groups, some of whom had integrated into the Malian armed forces, remained generally loyal to the state. Threatened by the emergence of the separatist groups, they fought the rebellion at early but ended up withdrawing, like the state. The Nigerien authorities welcomed these elements, considered as loyalists and that included Malian military personnel, after having officially disarmed them at the Niger-Mali border, then confined them in the outskirts of Niamey.
Crisis Group Whatsapp interview, Niger army officer, 28 July Hide Footnote For their part, the Lamhar Arab traffickers, who had seen their influence with the Malian presidency decrease after the legislative elections, opportunely drew closer to the MNLA at the end of , then allied with the MUJWA in Gao in the first months of Alliance choices sometimes caused division among drug traffickers and communities.
Or should they lean toward the rebels, who may sustainably control the northern routes? To cope with the uncertainties associated with the crisis, families or groups sometimes assigned different members to retain ties with both of the opposing camps. But drug traffickers and the state did not completely split up. Hide Footnote They have maintained relations with the Malian authorities, while their minimal use of banks has protected them somewhat from political or fiscal pressure. Hide Footnote Only the drug traffickers from Kidal may have broken all connection with the authorities.
With the gradual return of the state to the north, the drug trafficking networks resumed playing power games around appointments to key positions in the customs service, national police and army, confirming that they wish to maintain links with the state. One of them was recently killed in Timbuktu in a settling of scores.
Hide Footnote Up until , the links were limited, and jihadists such as the Algerian Mokhtar Belmokhtar, who has held high positions in AQIM in northern Mali, was probably never involved in drug trafficking, contrary to the received wisdom. Hide Footnote If links exist, they have to be the subject of a more detailed analysis. In , traffickers and jihadists learned to put up with each other, understanding that conflict would not serve their immediate interests, and even that cooperation could be beneficial.
This rapprochement of circumstance is a priori unnatural from the point of view of religious dogma. Several elements suggest that jihadists are disapproving of or even hostile toward drug traffickers. Hide Footnote While they occupied the main northern cities in , the jihadists reportedly burned cargoes of cigarettes and hashish in Gao and In-Khalil. Hide Footnote But beyond one-off condemnations, none of the three jihadist movements present in the area — AQIM, Ansar Dine and the MUJWA — displayed opposition to drug trafficking, and none seem to have waged an active and sustained fight against it, either before or after Paradoxically, the launch of Operation Serval in early may have favoured a rapprochement between some jihadist groups and certain traffickers.
The military pressure exerted against the jihadists pushed them to seek the support of the traffickers. Solidarity seemingly arose as soon as Operation Serval was triggered: some traffickers who shared a tribal affiliation with AQIM and Ansar Dine fighters reportedly offered logistical support to help them escape the French strikes. Hide Footnote In Kidal, the hostility that Ansar Dine showed toward certain traffickers in declined in , when the movement went into hiding.
Hide Footnote In addition, the drying-up of ransom money encouraged jihadist groups to show greater tolerance of trafficking. Letting some of the fighters pursue their trafficking activities made it possible not to pay them. Finally, the local roots of jihadist groups and the growing influence within them of Arab-Tuareg leaders from northern Mali — particularly in the Group to Support Islam and Muslims GSIM , a coalition of jihadist groups based in northern Mali formed in March — seem to influence the way in which these groups position themselves with respect to drug trafficking.
This is hardly surprising in a region where the fluidity of allegiances leads individuals to switch from the separatist cause to jihad and then to the drug trade or in the opposite direction. There are no clearly defined boundaries between these different activities. Drug trafficking is probably one of the main sources of income for the armed groups who are members of the CMA and the Platform coalition.
Those who have significant financial resources, particularly traffickers, are expected to make important contributions. Hide Footnote It is an activity that is not only sought after but also dangerous to leave to the adversary. Several politico-military groups have therefore developed links with drug traffickers both to benefit from the dividends of drugs and to deprive their rivals of them. In addition to their financial contributions, traffickers provide material support to the military operations, supplying or lending fuel, ammunition and, especially, vehicles.
Hide Footnote They provide it all the more willingly that they have a personal interest, whose nature varies. But traffickers are also a constraint for the armed groups, because their interests do not always coincide. They may be reluctant to contribute to or provide assistance for a specific operation. From the third month, these operators decided not to honour their commitment any longer after observing that the checkpoint established at Ber allowed the group to collect enough revenue.
When they succeed, they can provide more resources to their movement but they are also tempted to put their own commercial interests first. Hide Footnote Some even desert the battlefield to take refuge in Algeria or Mauritania. Hide Footnote Just before fighting the Platform coalition in , the CMA had to remobilise traffickers who had disengaged from the movement by pointing out that in the event of defeat they would all lose access to the city of Kidal — where some of their families live.
Finally, rivalry between traffickers can undermine the internal cohesion of armed movements. Hide Footnote In March , the convoy of a major trafficker affiliated with the MNLA was intercepted by another actor affiliated with the same group. Hide Footnote Tensions may also arise within a tribe. In late , two networks of traffickers from an Ifoghat faction of Tamesna east of the Kidal region , affiliated with the same movement, came into conflict over a drug shipment. In northern Mali, armed groups have not been built around the interests of drug traffickers, but trafficking is one of the main resources that enables them to achieve their political goals or to defend themselves against armed rivals.
In conflict situations, relations with the drug traffickers are therefore essential for the armed groups. On the other hand, as the political situation stabilises in northern Mali, these links could wither away. Most of the international actors involved in Mali know that trafficking finances most of the armed groups. Some also believe that rivalries between traffickers lie behind many of the military clashes in the north of the country. The reality is more nuanced. Hide Footnote The competition for control of trafficking explains certain episodes of violence but is not the only reason for clashes between armed groups.
It comes on top of other factors relating to diverging political and often community interests. Some of the clashes that occurred between and were aimed at control of trading hubs such as In-Khalil, Tabankort, Ber and Lerneb, which reportedly have also served as temporary warehouses for the drug trade. It is therefore a natural demarcation between the CMA and the Platform coalition and the tribes that compose them.
This split was mainly due to community and commercial rivalries within the Berabiche community. Hide Footnote These battles reinforced the idea that armed conflict was mainly motivated by drug trafficking interests. In addition, rumour has attributed to the military leaders of some of the main armed movements or their relatives a leading role in drug trafficking.
The son-in-law of the leader of a major politico-military movement in northern Mali was recently arrested in Niger for hashish trafficking. A few weeks later, in June , the inter-Malian peace agreement was signed, containing a provision to make this city the capital of a new region. The leading traffickers may be influential in the armed groups who signed the peace agreement, but they rarely hold high-ranking positions.
During phases of conflict between armed groups, many traffickers arrange to maintain contacts in each camp. Thus, between and , when tensions were high between the CMA and the Platform coalition — and especially between Ifogha and Imrad — traffickers linked to each camp agreed to jointly ensure the security of drug convoys. Crisis Group interview, leader of the Platform coalition, Bamako, March The vast majority of clashes between traffickers are not publicised and have no impact on the balance of power between armed groups.
Crisis Group interview, economic operator of the Kidal region, Niamey, May Another case indicates that mediators who are close to the state can also play this role. In August , after Berabiche traffickers intercepted a convoy escorted by members of the Ifogha community in Mauritanian territory, a Berabiche officer of Malian state security negotiated with both parties for restitution. Hide Footnote They only lead to conflict between armed groups when certain factors come together, such as the presence among the traffickers of a senior leader of an armed group, extreme tension between the armed groups or issues related to their control of strategic axes.
Hide Footnote But local mediation processes, initiated by the actors of the conflict, have sought ways to regulate the tensions between traffickers. Trafficking was the subject of discussions behind the scenes of the negotiations in Ouagadougou in June and Algiers in Shortly after the meeting in Ouagadougou, the Malian state lifted the arrest warrants issued against several figures of the rebellion, some of whom were designated as drug traffickers, as part of confidence-building measures intended to make negotiations easier.
Hide Footnote Diplomats in Algiers have been reluctant to openly address a subject taboo because of its high-level political implications. Hide Footnote It was up to the main traffickers or their relatives, members of official delegations, to ensure that their interests were not threatened and that those of their rivals were not favoured.
This has made a connection possible, albeit discreet and limited, between the inter-Malian political process supervised from Bamako and local initiatives that can be complementary. Representatives of armed groups who signed the peace agreement have sought to isolate the clashes between traffickers so that they no longer involve either the CMA or the Platform coalition.
Much of the discussions bore on issues of justice and reparation after the CMA strongly condemned attacks on civilians in Kidal by a GATIA military leader in the spring of For its part, the Qadis Commission did not respond to complaints filed by traffickers whose cargo had been intercepted. There is no guarantee, however, that this local conflict management mechanism would survive renewed tensions between the CMA and the Platform coalition, or intense clashes between traffickers, especially since many trafficking networks are beyond the control of CMA and Platform coalition representatives.
Nevertheless, at this stage it is the only means accepted by the signatory groups for reducing the violence associated with drug trafficking. Measures to fight drug trafficking in Mali remain limited in scope and effect.
Most national and international public actors recognise the need to combat organised crime, but many of them abdicate responsibility for doing so, on the grounds that it is not within their competence. At its inception, the OCS had representatives in Timbuktu, Gao and Kidal, but suffered from a lack of resources that prevented it from carrying out large-scale operations.
It recently reappointed several agents to the north, but the bulk of its staff and operations are now concentrated in the south. The OCS has made most of its seizures in the south and particularly in Bamako. A certain number of seizures can also be credited to the Malian customs particularly in the Kayes region, in the south west of the country , mainly of Indian hemp produced in Ghana or Nigeria and destined for Senegal, as well as cocaine.
Hide Footnote The last major cocaine seizure in the south took place in at Nara Koulikoro region , close to the border with Mauritania; the confiscated drugs then went missing. For example, a Nigerien police operation last June led to the incineration of 2. This operation, however, may be simply the result of a settling of scores between Nigerien trafficking networks.
If the fight against drugs became an instrument of rivalries between trafficking networks, it could increase the violence associated with trafficking. Crisis Group interviews and email correspondence, Nigerien army officer, official of an international agency combating organised crime, Bamako, April and June These rumours persist though the authorities deny any such connections.
In the north of the country, seizures are rare and the fight against drugs is often the subject of local political manipulation. In , Colonel Gamou, then commander of army operations and strongman of the Imrad community, on which the Malian presidency relied, carried out a major cocaine seizure in Kidal.
It led to the arrest of several traffickers from Ifogha and Kounta communities, who were then rivals of the Imrad community and of the Tilemsi Arabs, who were supported by the state. Crisis Group interviews and email correspondence, Kidal elected representative, member of an armed group, Bamako, March and July Hide Footnote Since , no major drug seizure has taken place in the north, other than a few seizures of tramadol, a potent analgesic, partly intended for local consumption. Hide Footnote No major seizure of hashish has reportedly been carried out in northern Mali since the end of the s, or possibly even before.
State defence and security services officials will be ineffective as long as they are not fully redeployed to the north, the balance of power remains with trafficking groups that have enough political influence to hinder investigations. Hide Footnote Several cases of pressure on state agents in Gao and Timbuktu, particularly between and , have been reported. No seizures have taken place there recently despite the gradual deployment of close to security and defence personnel since Most international actors in the Sahel make fighting organised crime a priority.
Hide Footnote For its part, the G5-Sahel, a joint initiative of five countries in the region Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania and Niger , has in its mandate fighting cross-border organised crime, of which drug trafficking is an essential component. Yet there is a significant gap between strategic ambitions and operational reality.
Hide Footnote In Mali, it ranks well below implementation of the peace agreement, anti-terrorist operations and trying to stop clandestine migration. Hide Footnote Its activities mainly concern strategic advice, training and coordination between security actors. As such, it can play a useful role in general reorganisation of internal security services driven by the Ministry of Security. But in the field, its action, mainly concentrated in Bamako, has up to now done little to curb drug trafficking in the north of the country, where Malian forces are redeployed very weakly.
Hide Footnote These links, often suggested but hard to bring to light, make police interventions particularly delicate. Hide Footnote Most international actors say they do not know who to depend on within the Malian state apparatus to act against drug trafficking. Hide Footnote Without more willingness on the part of governments to fight drug trafficking, it will remain unsuccessful. Hide Footnote In Mali, Barkhane operations targeting the logistics flows of jihadist groups sometimes enable incidental interception of drug shipments.
Hide Footnote In northern Niger, Barkhane has already intercepted shipments of hashish during operations that did not have fighting trafficking as a goal.