Structured data Items portrayed in this file depicts P Category : Vila Alva. Namespaces File Discussion. Views View Edit History. This page was last edited on 17 May , at Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Add the rosemary, thyme, bay leaves, and peppercorns and cover the top of the pan first with cling film and then with foil. Place in the oven for 10 hours. After 10 hours, remove the pan from the oven and carefully remove the cover. Add the pars- ley and infuse for 20 minutes at room temperature as the liq- uid begins to cool.
Carefully re- move the beef and reserve to the side in a storage container. Strain the liquid through a mesh strainer and pour the liquid over the beef, discard the vegetables and aromatics. Cover the con- tainer and refrigerate for at least 12 hours before using. For the savoury parsley porridge: g unsalted butter 85g garlic, minced lOg lemon juice 50g Dijon mustard 40g Ground almonds 15g table salt g curly leaf parsley 1 20g chicken bouillon 60g porridge oats, sieved to remove any powder Salt and freshly-ground pepper Melt 50g of the unsalted but- ter in a pan, add the garlic and saute until pale gold and fra- grant.
Add the lemon juice to the pan, then transfer the mixture to a mixer with the paddle attach- ment along with the mustard, ground almonds, salt and the remaining g unsalted butter. Chop the parsley and sprinkle on top of the butter mixture and run the paddle on medium speed for five minutes. Remove the butter from the mixer and roll tightly in cling film. Refrigerate or freeze until needed. At the time of service, heat the chicken bouillon in a sauce pan and add the oats.
Simmer until the oats have absorbed the liquid and are cooked but still retain texture this should not take more than two minutes, overcooking the oats will make them starchy. Add in g of the reserved parsley butter from above and stir to incorporate this into the oats. Season with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Serving tradional French food for lunch or dinner.
The bar is open from noon until late. Closed on Sunday. The Don Toro Steakhouse in the centre of Lagos, opposite the Cultural Centre, has the fin- est prime Argentinian, Irish and Brazilian angus steaks cooked to your taste, as well as homemade, gourmet burgers. Served with a choice of sauces, the food is very affordable and Jose and his inter- national staff also offer delicious fish grills, and a selection of veg- etarian dishes. Whilst the exte- rior is colourful, contemporary and welcoming the interior has a more subdued romantic atmos- phere.
You can choose to eat in- side or under the stars on their terrace, and to accompany your meal they have a selection of wines stored in wood barrels and produced from a variety of Por- tuguese grapes. As well as offer- ing traditional cod and chips they also have Haddock, Scampi, Doner Kebabs, Pies, Sausages and much more. Y ou can eat in the restaurant or order a takeaway, and there is a delivery service to Almancil, Quinta do Lago and V ale do Lobo areas as well.
At head individually with foil and thetop of each head of garlic slice place in the oven for 3 5 minutes, across exposing just the top of Remove and allow the garlic to each clove, leaving the root intact qqoI completely. Squeeze each on the other side to keep the roasted clove out of its skin and cloves together. Rub the exposed keep intact. At the time for the surface with olive oil and sprin- service re- warm the cloves either kle liberally with salt.
For the dish: Pre-heat an oven to 80C. Re- sistency, seasoning at the end move any solidified fat from the with salt. Remove the trussing top of the chilled braising liquid, from the beef and slice, across the Transfer the liquid and the meat grain with a sharp knife, into six back to the braising pan. Cover pieces the grain of the meat with foil and place in the oven for should be running in the shorter one hour to return to tempera- direction ofeach medallion of beef ture.
Remove the cover and gen- to optimise the tenderness. Di- tly remove the beef, covering in vide the beef among six warm foilandreservinginawarmplace. Check the sauce for sea- S train the liquid into a pot, bring soning and spoon over the beef, to a simmer and begin to reduce. Garnish the beef with the roasted Continue reducing the braising garlic and divide the porridge be- liquid in the pot to a sauce con- tween the plates. The editor reserves the right to edit letters or refuse publication. Send your let- ters, which must include your name and full postal address even if you wish to remain anonymous on the page , and be no more than words, to The Portugal News, Apartado 13, Lagoa.
E-mail address: letters the-news. They came to our rescue from the entire Algarve - Aljezur to Tavira -last Friday when we found ourselves in the middle of a large fire. The fire started about 3pm and they had it under control by night time which was nothing short of amaz- ing. At one time there were about five aircraft in attendance piloted by the most skilled men you could imagine.
Our grateful thanks go to all of them who put their lives at risk to keep us safe. I must also add that they stayed with us for another 24 hours in case the fire broke out again, which was very reassuring. Well done to everyone in- volved including the washing ma- chine mechanic who actually stopped our house being burned down. SIR, I am writing this letter in order to point out that one should not give much credit to the study conducted by the University of Salamanca.
The Portuguese are a quiet nation. They do not make much fuss about things. But they have strong feelings. Up till now we have put up with this infa- mous campaign in the media - both Portuguese and Spanish - in order to lead public opinion into thinking that the Iberian federa- tion is a good thing. But we are not sleeping. Portugal is a much older country than Spain. Sebastian had died without descendants.
Portugal has no problems with its identity. Sometimes we express different thoughts from what we really think just because we are angry at the moment. Iberia does not exist and never will. Portugal and Spain are two different coun- tries on the Iberian peninsula. That is all. One does not want to disturb this peaceful country or does one? As for Saramago he is a writer. Some people like the way he writes and some people do not, as [with] everything in life. And just to conclude must I re- mind the author of the article that Belgium and Holland, Austria and Switzerland have also joined forces in order to host football cups?
Did Austria overpower Switzerland? As I recall it was an Austrian city - Vienna - that hosted the final. There is one well docu- mented case where they closed the premises down. This despite the fact that the food was already labelled with the contents in Portuguese and that nearly all the customers are Eng- lish speaking expatriates. The net result was the store was closed down for a period re- sulting in loss of income for the owner and the resulting stress caused the owner to be hospital- ised. Then there is the famous case of central Carvoeiro which was, in effect, closed down for a long period whilst it was redevel- oped.
This was done without any thought for the many peo- ple who rely on the tourist in- dustry for their livelihood. There were cases where the re- sult of this action caused some people to be in dire financial straights. Many of these bureaucrats do not seem to understand that without wealth being created, they will not have jobs them- selves. Anyone in business in Portugal will tell you about the needless red tape which pre- vents them from operating effi- ciently. It is significant that many international companies transferred their headquarters to Spain when the Euro was intro- duced.
Without an efficient private economy Portugal is never going to become a truly egalitarian wealthy society which the poli- ticians say is their aim. What is going to happen when the EU funds which are still flowing into the country, dry up? I dread to think. The tourism department is spending millions on advertising the Al- garve as a quality destination for holidays -5,6 and even 7 star ho- tels are being built. There are pro- posals for an airport to be built near Boliquieme for the rich and famous to land their private jets. Eortunes are spent on roads and shopping centres. Blue flag beaches, etc So why is it that between Boliquieme and Guia shopping on the EN , which is probably one of the busiest stretches of road on the Algarve is littered with prostitutes?
It is absolutely dis- gusting that they parade their bodies without knickers for the world to see. They are engaged in sex just metres from the road side. Is this really what families with young children want to re- member the Algarve for? Quality tourism, what a joke. We are at the gate. You are in the post office. They are in the classrooms.
As you can see, verb "estar" is followed by the preposition "em" - to be at! Os mens oculos de sol ficaram carro. Eles empregaram-se fabrica de ceramica local ha cerca de dez ou quinze anos. Ele tropeqou cadeira e caiu chao. Nos estivemos a falar assunto durante algum tempo, mas ainda nao chegamos a nenhuma conclusao ou acordo. As crianqas estao a estudar Matematica quarto de estudo. Quern e que esteve a mexer minhas gavetas? O casal hesitou bastante escolha entre o carro cinzento e o carro branco.
O rapaz desceu do autocarro paragem que fica perto do jardim municipal. Ela depositou as suas economias banco. Inverno, quando o lago gela, muitas pessoas vao la patinar. As que tern mais pratica deslizam graciosamente gelo. A famflia entrou restaurante, sentou-se a uma mesa e fez o pedido ao empregado. A avioneta despenhou-se mar e nao montanhas, como primeiro noticiaram. Tenho a certeza de que ninguem acreditou nem tuas palavras nem tua inocencia. A cidade e litoral ou interior do pafs? If these are some of Gods creatures then I figure he must have cobbled them together on his day off after overdoing the communion wine.
There are bald ones, hairy ones, furry ones, Ras- tafarian ones and my favourite are the little Afro things, but you must wait until this variety moves before you can work out where to insert the food. Occasionally they bunch to- gether on street corners and bark aimlessly for anhourortwo. Due to tourism they are probably the best fed animals in Portugal and restaurants have no problem with left over food. Sitting outside a bar I watch in amazement as one of these things lollops by.
Half its body is patterned similar to a skewbald pony, but the rest is a muddy brown. My point was missed, why pay all this money to the authorities? Seriously though, our car does not pollute the atmosphere and has passed with flying colours past IPO tests, the last being only three months ago. I would point out that an old car, which is kept in good order, is making use of an already avail- able resource, in contrast, it re- quires a tremendous amount of energy pollutant to manufac- ture a new vehicle.
Good quality Portuguese me- chanics are inexpensive here, and we have a regular garage we visit, and in my experience they are al- ways scrupulous and fair, a posi- tive comparison to the U. The testament to the good work of Portuguese mechanics is the number of old well-maintained cars which are prevalent on our roads.
If, however, a car is mainly a status symbol, none of the above will apply. The IMF based its findings on impressive results released the same day by the Office of National Statistics showing that the Portuguese economy had grown by 0. Effectively, these figures mean that the term 'recession' no longer applies when referring to the Portuguese economy.
The national economy has reported growth for the first time in a year, bamboo- zling analysts who had pre- dicted negative growth of around 0. In technical terms, Portu- gal is no longer in reces- sion. An economy falls into recession whenever nega- tive growth is reported for two consecutive quarters, but with the national economy growing 0. Strictly speaking, Portu- gal will not be in recession for the remainder of In a worst case scenario, nega- tive economic growth over the two remaining quarters will only be confirmed next January.
The growth of the Portu- guese economy was also shared by European finan- cial superpowers Germany and France, who also re- ported a rise of 0. All three properties are lo- eated in the Western Algarve, whieh is famed for being more rural and down-to-earth than its glitzier eentral eounterpart. Set in a private eondominium with swimming pool it is loeated just a few minutes walk from Lagos town eentre and its beaeh. Designed to a very high standard with quality finishings the apartment eomprises a fully fitted kitehen, air eondi- tioning, eleetrie shutters and huge baleony with great sea views.
It also eomes with a double garage and very eapaeious extra storage. The next property is loeated in Burgau and ean be deseribed as little pieee of paradise by the sea referenee number M- It is a delightful townhouse, loeated just 50 meters from the beaeh front and overlooks the eharming village of Burgau. Loeated a mere 50 meters from the Parque da Floresta Golf Resort, Floresta Golf Views is a small and very pri- vate eondominium, eomprising seven, three-bedroom units.
The building is set in lovely gardens and with a magnifleent pool 1 5metres x Smetres. Eaeh unit has a fully equipped kitehen, two desig- nated parking spaees and sev- eral other appealing features, sueh as the magnifieent views over the eountryside and the greens of the golf eourse. Furthermore, the renowned Salema beaeh is just a eouple of minutes drive away. Floresta Golf Views is the ideal plaee for those wishing to enj oy a leisure holiday with the best the Algarve ean offer.
A show villa is now available for visits. Joao Nunes Cool in summer, warm in Winter and dry all year round, a wooden building from Danecasa not only looks good inside and out, it provides an extremely comfortable and healthy living environment and can counter Winter allergies. Beautiful pano- ramic views. Excellent investment. Guaranteed letting potential. MB Opportunity near the golf!!! Four bedroom villa near amenities. Great letting potential. V 3 bedroom villa inside the golf course. Near all amenities. Top quality finishes. Completely refurbished. Fitted kitchen. Electric shutters.
Natural stone bathrooms. Lots of extras. A Excellent investment opportunity!!! Top floor two bed apartment with sq. Furnished and equipped. Private parking and storage. Beautiful panoramic view. Construction area of 46,70 square metres. I Communal sw. I Construction area of approx. Heated sw. Plot area: 3. Cost of use of pool per year only euros. Very private, in the middle of 18,m2 plot of land. OOOmts running ''01 www. Realistically priced. Very good Investment.
Comfortable lounge, din- ing area.
Aldeia da Roupa Branca () - IMDb
Fully equipped. Garage, mature garden, swimming pool with sun terrace. Ready for you to move in! Heated private sw. Fully furnished and decorated. For on A-Z of the services we offer and to find out oil about us go to www. Contact me Today! Vilomoura: bedroom, 2 bathroom ground-floor apartment with views to the Millennium goif. Equipped kitchen, fuiiy furnished. Swimming-pooi and garden. Parking and storage in the garage. Vilomoura: bedroom, 2 bathroom top-floor apartment in a small complex with garden and swimming-pool.
Hispania. Volume 77, Number 1, March 1994
Open views. Equipped kitchen. Partially furnished. Fully furnished. Close to supermarket, bars and restaurants. Full warranty included. Some assembly requried. Delivery is available at an extra charge on this combo deal. USAmobiles and Canada.
- Notizie da Bruxelles. Logiche e problemi della costruzione giornalistica dellUnione europea (Sociologia) (Italian Edition);
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- Social Mix and the City: Challenging the Mixed Communities Consensus in Housing and Urban Planning Policies.
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Priees do not inelude IVA. The Business Plan ineludes free minutes. You ean keep your home phone number and then eaneel your PT line rental there is a small one-time eharge to transfer your number. We also offer fully mobile internet. Terms and eonditions apply.
I Your frames need a brief and inexpensive maintenance every six months to keep them working smoothly I As Speed Frame is no longer in business in Portugal, service is not available from them, but we can perform most repair and maintenance tasks, and we can obtain many original parts, if needed i' If you need to replace a window or door, we can obtain units of a matching design to keep all your doors and windows in the same style For maintenance, repairs or new units, call us for quick and efficient service at reasonable prices PVCtoi recto We double the glazing - Not the price Tel: i pvcdirecto gmail.
Are you an ex Speed Frame client? See page 2 for our exact print run this week. Buy some tubers from your greengrocer to plant 15cm apart. The tubers should do well in most soils, although they prefer moisture-retentive, sandy soil. They need to be staked and earthed up as they grow, and allow them to continue grow- ing through the summer. Water them in dry weather and re- move flowers to improve the crop. A month after flowering or when the frost has killed off the tops they should be cut right down and dug up as required, through winter.
Make sure you dig them all up, though, or they will return with a vengeance. Professionalism and craftsmanship guaranteed. Hicks planted 20 acres with 65 different species, and the magnificent result has just opened to the public. A few years ago designers went through a wild phase when we saw an abundance of grasses and other meadow plantings at the big horticultural shows, but in recent years there has been a return to more formal planting.
Hicks wants to buck the trend. He say s that even if you have the tiniest urban garden, you can cre- ate a wildflower area which will attract butterflies, bees and a host of other beneficial insects. Like you would if you were sowing lawn seed, you rake the ground and level it off. The smaller weeds which butter- flies like, such as thymes and poppies, will have difficulty competing. Not everyone in Portugal will have a dry, sunny area to grow nectar-rich flowers, but you can buy packets of seeds for shady areas as well as annual mixes.
Birds and vertebrates will visit, and if you leave dead logs or a pile of leaves in the corner, creatures will live there. You can buy wild flow- ers in plugs or small pots, which you plant in your grass and let them grow. Y our garden is a space which can be used as a piece of theatre or art. Isthere anything else that can be doneto help him? Re- cent studies have shown that children with hayfever are far more likely to drop exam grades from their mocks to their GCSEs, which are held during the summer. Beyond this, your doctor could prescribe a steroid nasal spray if you haven't tried an over-the-counter one first , as well as eye drops.
This is usu- ally enough to control things. This means the ben- efit of the treatment could last beyond the three years it's given. Keeping a close eye on your toddler on busy summer days at parks, zoos, and beaches can be stressful, particularly if they're wanderers with little sense of danger. Your child wears a bright, watch-style bracelet and you wear a small receiver around your neck.
You can set the alarm distance from one to 20 metres and if your little one breaks the boundary, the safety monitor will beep and flash. Your kid can also press an alarm button on their bracelet if they need you a fun part for most two-year-olds. While it's not a catch-all that allows you to doze off on your sunbed, the Mummy Stay Close system could give you the peace of mind to enjoy a day out - and teach your tod- dler about staying safe.
As part of planned measures aimed at preventing youth crime, pupils and their families will be required to sign behaviour con- tracts before the start of the school term. The contracts, known as Home School Agreements HS As , will set out parents' re- sponsibilities to make sure their ' children follow the school disci- pline code and do their work. Under Government propos- als aimed at strengthening the contracts, 'good' parents will be able to complain to headteachers and the local education authority about those who do not ensure their children behave.
HSAs are already in wide- spread use, but the new meas- ures, which will form part of a Bill to be published later this year, mean parents will have to prom- ise to support school discipline when choosing where to send their child. It's not hard to see that it could be a very popular move. Plans to raise the UK school-leaving age are causing anger and resentment among some teenagers who believe they will be confined to a classroom studying subjects they are not interested in, new research suggests.
Under new legisla- tion, the school-leav- '' ing age would be raised to 17 by , and 18 by They're teenagers - they have to be angry about something. Three ways to Get them to sort through the toy cupboard - they'll find, and play, with toys they'd for- gotten they had. Challenge older children to write you a secret message backwards, without looking in the mi rror. Plan well in advance by getting your child to decorate an old shoe box, and when you come across a good entertain- ment ideaor game, write it on a piece of paper and put it in the box.
Then, when the kids are bored, get them to pick an idea from the box and do it. If you're flying with a baby, try to feed during landing and take-off to avoid their ears popping, or let them suck a dummy. The competition involves schools sending photos or a video of their own Boogie For Your Bones dance that uses some of the steps shown on the website. Six primary schools will win an action-packed day on the Bone Factor Tour, including a dance lesson from Revel Horwood.
The initiative is part of the charity's Bones4Life pro- gramme, which encourages pri- mary school children to learn how to look after their bones. Why Wax? Is it all pain with no gain? There are many advantages asso- ciated with waxing. Firstly, if you stick to a waxing regime, you will find that the hair re-growth will become less and less, the hairs will become finer and lighter in colour. So if you have strong, dense and dark hair then waxing is ideal. Because waxing pulls hairs from the root it also means that the hair grows back with a ta- pered tip, not a blunt tip which is what you get if you shave.
The tapered tip means that you get less irritation and no stubble when the hairs grow back. The not so nice bits! Waxing causes the hair to grow back finer, which means that they may not be as strong, this can re- sult in in-growing hairs as they are unable to break through the skins surface. You can reduce the amount of in-growing hairs by exfoliating every days, this will help to rid the skin of dead skin cells and will help to lift the hairs.
Waxing is obviously a slightly more painful method of hair re- moval. This however does get better the more you have it done. I advise no waxing around the time of your period as you may be more sensitive. Although wax- ing is completely safe throughout pregnancy you may also feel more sensitive during this time. What area's can be waxed? Cleanliness and hygiene: This is so important for safe wax- ing.
Make sure that your thera- pistis wearing a clean uniform and that the waxing area is clean, neat and tidy. If the therapist is lazy about her work space she might be just as careless when it comes to waxing. Type of wax: One of the safest methods of wax is the ap- plicator method. This method uses an applicator which is at- tached to a tube of wax, a new applicator is used for each and every client thereby reducing any chance of cross infection to an absolute minimum.
Hot wax is less frequently used but is certainly better when it comes to doing intimate wax- ing. Technique: It may be hard to recognise a good waxing tech- nique but here is a top tip. Wax needs to be applied in the same direction as the hair growth and then pulled off against the hair growth direction. If a therapist applies wax in all one direction to an area such as the top lip, bikini line or under arm you may not be in safe hands.
These areas should be waxed in small sections as the hair usually grows in many dif- ferent directions. When it comes to waxing the world is your oyster. You can have almost anywhere waxed: legs, arms, under arm, bikini line, lip, chin, eyebrows. Are there any real dangers when it comes to waxing? W axing is a very safe and effec- tive treatment providing that you have a well trained and knowl- edgeable therapist.
In order to make sure that you feel confident with your thera- pist, follow the recommenda- tions below.
Dinis, Júlio 1839-1871
The only areas that you would What do I do if I get a reaction? It may be that you are aller- gic to the wax, or one of the other products used. You could have had a little bit or sensitisation prior to the waxing. If you have very dry or slightly sun burned skin you could get additional red- ness and irritation.
Bruising is not common, but can occur through incorrect waxing technique or if the skin is very thin or damaged. Waxing is a highly effective method or hair removal and like any treatment is completely de- pendant upon the individual. Please seek more personalised advice from your skin or beauty therapist regarding waxing. Skin Care Centre, Lagos. With tangerine lips, aqua blue eyes and hot pink nails every- where you look, it seems the fu- ture's bright in beauty.
High summer is the perfect time to pack a punch with eye-pop- ping colours before we all return to dark smoky eyes and berry lips for winter. This season's Eighties-inspired catwalk trends and celebrities li ke Sophie Ellis-Bextor and Rihanna have put bold colours back on the beauty map. Forget fluoro and think acid pastels like sky blue, sherbet lemon and flamingo pink to put you in the holiday mood.
But to avoid looking like an over-experimental teenager, choose your candy colours care- fully. Always go for a matte look with brights and avoid gloss. Don't stay in the beauty shade this summer, reach for those sunny rainbow brights. Lips For a pout with look-at-me appeal, keep the rest of your face natural and let your lips scream colour.
Avoid gim- micky shades like lavender and blue, and stick to warm tones that will comple- ment golden summer skin. Start by draw- ing the lip line, then blend in- wards with the brush. Add col- our and lastly a touch of clear gloss to soften. Look for solid, opaque colours with intense build-up and top off lashes with a colour mas- cara if you dare. If you're thinking of dabbling in punchy purple, make-up artist Jemma Kidd advises: "Purples suit most eye colours, however if you have dark circles under the eyes make sure they are well con- cealed as purple eye shadows will accentuate them.
Nails in rainbow shades are the instant way to give your look a high summer lift, but if you're going bold, avoid the matchy-matchy look of teaming up your nail shade with your clothes and accessories. Then choose your favourite bright colour and apply two coats for an eye-pop- ping finish. Clothes collections for ages 0- 1 0 years.
Petit Bateau underwear also available. Greeting cards Tel. We take a look at what the benefits - and pitfalls - are of being a mum at 19 and Spacious rooms all with bath ensuite, satellite t. Amenities include: swimming pool, putting green, Physiotherapist, hairdresser plus much more. A happy and relaxed environment with caring staff. But mums these days no longer fit into any particular mould. Mums who are older have or- gans and tissues which are older, which means that they run a greater risk of spontaneous bleeding, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy when the baby devel- ops outside the womb , thyroid and high blood pressure prob- lems, as well as diabetes.
Mums over 35 have the high- est rates of stillbirths and deaths in the first week of life, according to the ONS, as the risk of chro- mosomal abnormalities in the baby increases with the age of the mother. Zurich Andreas J. And oddly, according to research from University College, Lon- don, older mums tend to produce left-handed children. And ultimately, you should have fun - this is one of the best times of your life, so you should enjoy it.
Kerry Katona gave birth at 20 to Molly Marie. Charlotte Church was 22 when she had her first child Ruby. Joanna Lumley was also 21 when she gave birth to her son James. MariellaLrostrup gave birth to Molly Mae and Danny at 4 1 and Cherie Blair had her fourth child, Leo, at Kate Hodal www.
And, according to the ONS, babies bom to teenage mums are also more likely to die before their first month of life, with women under 20 having a significantly higher rate of neo-natal death. U Centro Mobility ioi. Europa, R. Joaquim Agostinho Fernandes, Lt. Do you want to have peace of mind? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and Mindfulness Training will be able to help! Tel: www. Joaquim Tello - Lagos Tel: info centrodelinguas. Free international calls Tel: Mob: nick algarvecomputersolutions. We can answer calls in your name. Nobody will know they are not talking directiy to you or your staff.
We speak English, German or Portuguese, take messages and then let you know by email, text, fax or forward the call to your mobile. For details call or email us at sales lingua franca. Odiaxere Tel: Tel: designertextiles sapo. Tel: dtcinteriors mail. Tel: iberelite sapo. Tel: Fax www. Tel: Mob: inalves mail. Jose C. Teatro medieval. Madrid: Castalia, Lapuz-Moraes, Humberto.
Martins, Firmino. Folklore do Concelho de Vinhais. Lisboa: Imprensa da Universidade, Imprensa Nacional, Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, Ocidente 51 1.
Comedias : Soldadesca , Tinelaria , Himenea. Pereira, Benjamim Enes. Rebello, Luiz Francisco. Ribas, Tomaz. Gil Vicente e o Fim do Teatro Medieval. Stathatos, Constantine C. A Gil Vicente Bibliography London: Grant and Cutler, Luso-Brazilias Review Trapero, Maximiano. Pervivencia del antiguo teatro medieval castellano. Young, Karl. The Drama of the Medieval Church. London: Oxford University Press, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
This study questions various dominant critical stances informed by his theoretical approach through the examination of Girardian premises in light of two challenging narratives. Instead of employing the theory to read the texts, the authors use the texts to read the gaps and dislocations inherent in the theory. The findings suggest that rather than propagating an androcentric, triangular configuration of desire, Cervantes's construction of gender leads toward the re-construction of existing critical paradigms. Thus, although grounded in the analysis of Early Modern Peninsular literature, this article holds implications for the consideration of desire in other historical periods and literary traditions as well.
The current study diverges from this critical tradition in that it resists the unquestioning acceptance of a paradigm of human behavior based on rivalry and violence. Such a model seems not to consider Cervantes's vision of humanity's capacity for generating more pacific rituals or strategies for interaction.
The triangular love relationship, in which a woman of great beauty is besought by at least two inopportunate suitors, is a persistent narrative plot paradigm in Golden Age fiction. Within humanists' obsessive search for identity and knowledge, the conflict reflects the more profound spiritual contradiction man feels between an actual sense of fragmentation and mortality and an imagined unified self.
Woman's place within the neoplatonic epistemology is to act as the cipher of the hero's desire.
She is the goddess who will fulfill his destiny. The bonds of reciprocated love will produce the blissful state of wholeness. Yet if she refuses this representation, bestowing her favors instead on the rival, the closing of her eyes dooms the ill-starred lover to loss of the self, epitomized by the eclipse of the sun or a chaos of cosmic and catastrophic proportions.
In Cervantes's work, the second female type abounds. She either refuses the seductive advances of one or both of her suitors on her own volition, as do Preciosa,  Costanza and Marcela, or is made to assume the role of the femme fatale , as do Camila and Luscinda, one which Dulcinea exemplifies ad absurdum. Deceit , Desire and the Novel has been influential in providing a psychological motivation for the triangular amorous relationship in Cervantes's work with Girard's by now well-known metaphysics of desire.
If in the neoplatonic philosophy the suffering subject may obtain eternal bliss by virtue of his union with the superior goddess, the embodiment of the absolute, in his metaphysics, the object is false, and contains no inherent value. The figure of the rival model emerges to guarantee, through his mediating desire, the separation of the subject from the object of desire and to prevent thus the discovery of the object's mundane reality. In a later work, Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World , Girard further defines the role of woman in the mimetic process.
Bereft of innocence, the coquette's deceitful posture is to foster desire. She only pretends to desire herself in order to make herself desirable to others. Her goal is to put into play the mimetic process The fraudulent pose of the coquette achieves its desired effect by drawing all other desires to it.
In her illuminating re-reading of the above work, in The Enigma of Woman , Sarah Kofman exposes the ideological bases of Girard's representation of woman. For Girard, self-sufficiency in women is unavoidably deceitful, having little or nothing at all to do with a regression toward an earlier fantasy that Freud has posited Moi Her work invites scrutiny of Girard's monistic representation of desire which subsumes woman's desire under the rubric of mimeticism and the challenge to seek the specificity of sexual difference and female subjectivity.
Particularly emblematic of the narcissistic woman is Costanza. Her great beauty has won her a reputation which extends beyond the boundaries of her own village. During what was intended to be a brief rest in the village, the friends overhear two mule boys praise the  beauty of Costanza, the kitchen maid at the local inn. His desire becomes more intensely grounded each time he overhears Don Pedro's serenades and the conversations of the guests and the villagers expounding on the nature of his impossible love and Costanza's beauty and cruel indifference.
Anticipating her presence by initial identification with her suitors, the reader assumes the role of accomplices in her fetishization. Carriazo, however, still harbors his original roguish inclinations. In their examination of the presence of pastoral romance and picaresque elements in the text, Joaquin Casalduero and Robert Johnston affirm that the moral dilemmas and values of the two genres converge and mutually reinforce each other.
The disguises, changes of identity, and sojourn, inherent to both the pastoral and the picaresque, enable the young men to return to a natural state where they may acquire self knowledge. Similarly, Carriazo struggles between his desire for freedom and the strong social bonds imposed by his noble origins. The recombining of literary models clearly aligns the respective conflicts and protagonists.
Thus, Costanza emerges as the figure of spiritual redemption the return of both protagonists to an original or improved social position and the restoration of social values. Costanza is the chaste goddess Diana. Yet other critics do not perceive a pristine opposition between or harmonic blending of good and evil in the conflict and resolution of this tale. The studies of Jennifer Lowe, R M. Price, and Javier Hairier show that not only is each particular genre parodied by its particular reintegration of conventional material, but also by the juxtaposition of conventions pertaining to disparate and shifting generic discourses and styles.
The use of paretic or ironic juxtaposition is eminent in the configuration of plots, characters, and discourse of the text. The plot types pertaining to the picaresque narrative and romance are ironically linked. The tale of love, which is joined to a larger comedy of loss and restoration, does not flow smoothly, but is cut up into various scenes and organized within but not among them. The reader is unable to follow the main characters of romance in a linear fashion. Their destiny shifts out of focus and a series of uneven Events associated with the picaresque genre and the comic mode in general come to the fore.
As characters cross from one genre to another within the tale, the perception of the divine radiance of Costanza's beauty becomes increasingly blurred as demonstrated by Carriazo, an intergeneric character. He performs the role of protagonist within the picaresque narrative of the novela , but he is also co-protagonist in the lost child found. As the motif develops, Carriazo is discovered to be Costanza's half-brother, and is eventually eliminated as a potential rival. Nonetheless, the initial overt motivation in the text for his withdrawal from the mimetic chain stems from his roguish inclinations.
His yearning for freedom, enemy to love's bonds, outweighs the pull of erotic desire. His running commentary on the material inconveniences of love and his generally misogynistic perspective shatters the fetishistic mirror of Costanza's sacred mystery, erected in the world view of romance. The building up of the object and the destructive despair the rivals should experiment in attempting its acquisition is blocked as the circulation of desire between the rival suitors is thus diffused.
The role of mimetic rival is ultimately transferred to Don Pedro, the mayor's son. This country boy, who sings verses of love in the platonic tradition, is a weaker presence in the tale. He is an unlikely figure as a rival, for he is incapable of inspiring fear, hatred or veneration. He represents a parody of the rival figure in pastoral romance.
Since neither Carriazo nor Don Pedro undertakes any active measures to appropriate or seduce the desired object, the suspicions of the jealous lover reveal themselves rapidly as illusions that no longer pose an actual threat of loss, disorder or destruction -either to the protagonist or to the engaged reader. The ironic use of the narrative conventions that prescribe Costanza's preordained course within the romance sequence further weakens it.
The ironies emerging from such implausibilities impel the reader to reject the prophetic role that Costanza is to play  in the drama of redemption of romance. According to R. Price, such coincidences and improbable accidents exceed the level of satisfaction that the reader should gain upon witnessing the narrative knots unravel. The reader ultimately comes to view the unraveling of the love story as one involving unforseen or chance Events, and the ability of each character to govern adequately his or her own destiny or be guided appropriately by others Costanza's limited social graces, evidenced in her abrupt and at times surly speech, clash with the high style that her suitors use to court and represent her Lowe Indeed, as Barrenechea has noted, Costanza remains an empty character that the reader only knows or comes to understand through other characters An understanding of the subjective motivations of these characters should lead to the reader's dissociation from their subjective position.
The final discovery of the tale, told in part by the innkeeper and in part by Costanza's father, provides a description of Costanza's earlier years that signals an economy of desire which circulates between mother and child and that absorbs within it a primary narcissism. The great refusal woman is said to embody in the classic narrative of romance veils what Kristeva calls the hypothetical or intersubjective space of the mother's body in and after childbirth, a space that exists but cannot exist between the baby and the mother.
Costanza experiences the mother phantasmatically as she clings to this marginal space of the inn, even while separating from it. For Costanza, still cloistered in the transitional object of the maternal body, linked to the inn, the place of her birth, the Mother is the figure for the drama of separation narcissism , from which the subject and language emerge. The maternal semiotic persists in the silence that pervades the narration of Costanza's story, miraculously marking Costanza's birth and functioning as a means of resistance to the violence of the original rape.
Costanza further evokes the eclipsed figure of her lost mother in her re-presentation of her: in her persistent absences, her withdrawals, her positioning beyond representation, a positioning which baffles her suitor's continued attempts to name and represent her. The climax is reached only when Costanza leaves the inn, weeping uncontrollably, and clings to her surrogate mother, the innkeeper's wife, who links Costanza to her mother.
Instead, this narrative logic is decentered. But it also signals the repression and loss of an earlier, more primitive yet equally imperant desire. Her conflict is parallel to that of her half brother. Costanza and Carriazo both fluctuate between the past and the present the M other and the Father. As Cascardi convincingly demonstrates, Cervantes takes a progressive step in his treatment of romance because he is able to subordinate his characters to the moral demands of society while sublimating the rituals of mimetic violence and rivalry that are traditionally used in the dramatic works of the period as a means of achieving this cohesion Nevertheless, Cervantes's treatment of romance is even more radical.
Costanza best illustrates this point. Simultaneously she yearns for the Law and yearns to transgress or retract it. The innkeeper's wife therefore accompanies her to the mayor's house. Similarly, Carriazo gives in to the demands of his social rank and status. Ultimately, narcissism is ever latent in the human psyche, not as the mimetic form defined by Girard, but as the. Cervantes's exploration of humanity's efforts to find psychic, spiritual, and social unity reveals his understanding of its impossibility. With the technique of genre crossing and the heterogeneity that it engenders, Cervantes sketches in the closural patterns of romance and the ideology it perpetuates -unity, sameness mimesis , autonomy, and order- while forever alerting the reader to their illusiveness.
By means of the heterogeneity of the text, the reader's potential tendency to perceive Costanza exclusively as object of male desire is neutralized. Costanza is also the subject of desire. She is a pivotal character, figuring the ideology of romance in which Girard's mimetic model of desire is entrenched, but also the point of its disruption and undoing. The consideration of Cervantes's multifaceted Persiles also yields insights into dislocations of mimetic desire. The text traces the progress of two royal lovers who embark upon a pilgrimage to Rome -not only to fulfill a holy vow, but also to prevent Sigismunda's marriage to Persiles' older brother.
Pretending to be brother and sister, the pair adopt the names Periandro and Auristela. Throughout the course of their adventures, complicated by a series of disasters including devastating shipwrecks, cataclysmic fires and ritual sacrifices , they encounter many other pilgrims and adventurers, each of whom recounts his or her own story.
These tales most often revolve around love and its complications. Although replete with conventional triangular configurations of desire, the Persiles nevertheless resists an unquestioning imposition of the Girardian model. As Ruth El Saffar has noted, the protagonists' attempt to escape the confines of triangular desire represents the initial catalyst for the journey that forms the core of the work. The Persiles furthers this exploration of other forms of desire. Beyond these insights, however, the Persiles challenges various assumptions underlying the theoretical construct of mimetic desire not only in this isolated episode from the third book, but rather throughout the entire work.
Thus, these inversions allow for the exploration of the inherent power disparity that otherwise would remain concealed. The gender asymmetry of mimetic desire is explored in both Books I and II, when Rosamunda and Cenotia actively pursue the object of their desire, Antonio,  the young barbarian. Significantly, the hunter becomes the hunted. In Cervantes' text, on the other hand, it is a male, Antonio, who embodies the narcissistic coquette, furthering the reversal of the paradigm.
He actually attempts to kill his admirer, but instead strikes the slanderer Clodio in the tongue, silencing him permanently. These passages serve to challenge the Girardean association of narcissistic desire with woman. Moreover, Antonio's exaggerated behavior and his father's strong reproach question the validity of the narcissistic posture itself. The second book contains another intriguing deviation from triangular desire within Periandro's narration: a quadrangular model of desire.
Although Periandro's lengthy account of his heroic adventures and the critical commentary it elicits from his listeners have received a great deal of scholarly attention, most has focused upon the textual incorporation of neo-Aristotelian literary principles to the exclusion of other concerns. Periandro and Auristela, forewarned by a sailor, flee from the captain of their ship who planned to kill Periandro in order to possess Auristela.
As they escape this potential triangular conflict, they become entwined in the amorous complications  facing two couples. Carino and Solercio, both fishermen, are betrothed to the women chosen for them by their families, Selviana and Leoncia. El Saffar has observed that:. In all of Cervantes' stories of love fulfilled in marriage, the resolution comes about through the introduction of a fourth figure who had formerly been neglected by the characters who saw themselves locked into the endless frustration of the triangle It is no accident, as the reader might have already noticed, that the shadowy fourth figure in Cervantes' stories is always the undesired, undesirable female.
Beyond In the present case, however, the situation contradicts this characterization. In addition, Carino's desire for Leoncia challenges the specular equation of attractiveness with desirability. Auristela, once informed by Periandro of the lovers' twisted fates, approaches the women saying:.
This brief episode lends itself to a critical exploration of the representation of desire. The conflict here arises not from mimetic rivalry but from compliance with a societal system that permits parents to dictate the text of their children's lives. Even though Auristela supposedly voices their position, their desires are always mediated through an Other.
Yet, if woman has no position from which to speak, what enables Auristela to bring about the resolution of the dilemma? As she assures Leoncia and Selviana, she is confident that the others involved will accept her intervention and heed her wishes. Implicitly, this interlude explores gender asymmetry and its relation to power.
Whereas the two women from the same class as their potential mates do not have the power or authority to express their desires, Auristela recognized as belonging to a superior echelon -may speak authoritatively. Nonetheless, her intervention does not alter the subordinate position occupied by the women; rather, it accentuates their subalternity by replicating their objectification within masculinist discourse.
Revealingly, immediately following the weddings, corsairs kidnap all three women. Although Carino, Solercio and Periandro set forth to rescue them, only Auristela is ever heard from again. Throughout the text, the protagonists have been involved in numerous triangular relationships including the rivalry between Arnaldo and Periandro for Auristela as well as that between Sinforosa and Auristela over Periandro. Again, one must note that the genesis of their voyage stems from a triangle in which Persiles' older brother, Magsimino, is betrothed to Sigismunda.
She ardently pursues Periandro,  resorting to magic to eliminate her female rival. The spell she commissions completely destroys her victim's beauty. Auristela's consequent unattractive state dissuades her faint-hearted suitors, among them the Duke, but does not diminish Periandro's love, proof of his devotion Her representation in this episode functions, as does Leoncia's, to undermine Girard's representation of the narcissistic woman whose purpose is to incite desire through her physical beauty. Her hideous appearance frees her from becoming the object of purely specular desire and precludes her from participating in the mimetic dynamic of rivalry.
But Auristela ultimately chooses Periandro over God, redirecting her desire from the spiritual to the physical. Their union and the recovery of their original identities as Sigismunda and Persiles coincide with the death of Magsimino, the resolution of the last remaining rivalry. The complete elimination of the rival signals transcendence beyond the triangular mode. Although Girard developed his theory of mimetic desire in part through his reading of a Cervantine text, his system does not account for the untold variety of relationships between self and other found in Cervantes' opus.
Of these strategies, we have outlined three. One exposes the means by which the model of mimetic desire rearticulates androcentric paradigms by masking or repressing female subjectivity. Another explores dislocations of the triangular model of desire in a text, thereby transforming the configuration.
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