The Infinium Issue 3

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In intra-individual studies, filtering out these probes is probably not necessary. It is easy to understand why the cross-reactive probes and probes containing SNPs at the targeted CpGs can generate artifactual data, but other probe measurements can also be problematic for more obscure reasons. They have a tendency to provide values close to 0. Of note, type II Infinium probes seem to be less prone to this phenomenon Figure 2.

CpGs with high average signal intensity display lower concordance with BPS data. The absolute difference between the two techniques is proportional to the circle radius blue: type I probes; red: type II probes. The plot was generated using K and matched BPS data from 22 tissues described in [ 9 ] points. They might have to be filtered out before downstream analysis or at least their measurements need to be checked with another approach.

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In general, we would recommend being cautious with any probe displaying extreme values of any parameter, i. The second and key step of microarray data preprocessing consists in removing any source of variation that is not related to biology but rather to technical limitations, such as dye bias or batch effect. This step is called data normalization. Although Infinium HumanMethylation is a two-color channel microarray, the methods developed previously for gene expression arrays cannot be used as such.

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The rationale behind this has already been reviewed elsewhere [ 10 ]. As briefly described later in the text, Infinium HumanMethylation displays specific properties. First, the two color channels are used on the Infinium array to measure the methylation state of a single sample, whereas in gene expression arrays, each color channel is associated with a different sample. Second, normalization methods developed for gene expression arrays frequently assume that the experimental condition alters the expression of only a small number of genes.

Based on this assumption, the sum of the fluorescence across all genes for each microarray experiment should be the same. This hypothesis is not verified in a methylation context, as the global methylation level can vary from one sample to another. Third, the particular design of the K array makes it necessary to perform a normalization between the Infinium I and Infinium II probes.

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For all these reasons, Infinium HumanMethylationspecific normalization methods are required. A lot of methods are already available see Table 1 , and it is not that easy to know which one, or which combination, is the most suitable. In this section, we review the different normalization methods developed for Infinium HumanMethylation, distinguishing within-array and between-array methods, and we try to guide the K users in their choice of a normalization method. Pipeline function available: allows probe filtering detection p-values, SNPs, … and identification of differentially methylated sites.

Proposed normalization methods: dye bias equalization and several background correction methods, including the recently developed Noob method. Pipeline function available: allows probe filtering, quality control, estimation of batch effect and identification of differentially methylated sites. Moreover, the color bias is related to the difference in intensity measurement fidelity between the two dyes. We therefore detail here mainly these methods, before presenting briefly the color bias and background correction methods also available to date.

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As the methylation level distribution is bimodal one peak corresponding to the unmethylated sites and the other to the methylated sites , the PBC proposes to rescale the methylation levels of the Infinium II probes to obtain the same modes for the distribution of methylation values obtained from the Infinium II probes as for the distribution of methylation values obtained from the Infinium I probes which is kept unmodified. To illustrate the effectiveness of this method and of the others presented below, we applied them to two data sets for which we obtained BPS data that we used as reference values.

Roessler and coworkers kindly provided the second data set comprising measurements from 22 tissue samples [ 9 ]. As already shown [ 3 , 19 ], the PBC method results in better agreement between K and other technologies such as BPS, as in the present case , and thus proves effective Figure 3. It is worth noting that this method is sensitive to variations in the shape of the methylation density curves and is therefore less robust when applied to samples that do not display clear methylated or unmethylated peaks. Comparison of the different within-array normalization methods using BPS data as referential data.

Two other proposed methods are derived from quantile normalization. Yet, because Infinium I and Infinium II probes do not interrogate the same CpG population, the two types of probes are not expected to have the same distribution [ 3 ], and classic quantile normalization methods cannot be applied as such.

Subset quantile approaches have thus been proposed. Touleimat and Tost have developed a categorical Subset Quantile Normalization method SQN based on the assumption that CpGs having the same biological properties should have the same distribution [ 14 ]. For this purpose, they separated the target CpGs into different classes based on their location with respect to CpG islands CGIs and then applied quantile normalization between the Infinium I and Infinium II probes, independently for each different class of CpGs.

Of note, this method is applied to all samples simultaneously, thus performing a between-array normalization at the mean time. Instead of classifying the target CpGs on the basis of their location with respect to CGIs, they classified the probes on the basis of the number of CpGs they contain, assuming that probes having the same number of CpGs in their sequences should reside in a similar region CGIs or open sea and thus have the same profile. When applied to the two aforementioned data sets, the SWAN method does not seem to improve the data quality Figure 3.

If one considers only the within-array normalization component of the method, the categorical SQN correction of Touleimat and Tost reduces the difference between methylation measurements obtained with Infinium HumanMethylation and BPS Figure 3. Yet, if the complete method is applied i. Comparison of the different between-array normalization methods using BPS data as referential data. Our comparison with the BPS data for our two test data sets tends to confirm this view, with global improvement of the data quality Figure 3 : for both data sets, the median of the boxplot is lower after BMIQ correction than for the raw data.

A drawback, however, is that some points appear worse after correction Figure 3 : for the HCT data set, the maximum of the boxplot whisker is higher after BMIQ correction than for the raw data. For instance, the popular lumi and methylumi R packages proposed a color bias adjustment based on smooth quantile or shift-and-scaling normalization and on the method proposed in Genome Studio, respectively.

Nevertheless, of potential interest, in the HCT data set, these methods notably the dye bias equalization of the methylumi package decrease the range of differences between the methylation measurements obtained with K and BPS Figure 3 : the maximum of the boxplot whisker is lower after the color bias corrections than for the raw data.

They are based on convolution models and use, most of the time, the out-of-band intensities, i. We would therefore recommend using PBC, which seems to be the only method giving a true global benefit without generating any worse data. Also, for purposes of clarity, we tested here all the methods separately, but we do not want to exclude the possibility of using some of them in combination.

In addition to technical biases linked to the array design itself, other sources of non-biological variations related to external parameters, such as unequal quantities of starting material, differences in labeling or detection efficiencies can lead to misleading results. Between-array normalization methods have been developed to reduce these array-to-array variations by adjusting measurements at a global level. To our knowledge, all between-array normalization methods proposed to date in the different packages for K data processing are derived from normalization methods initially developed for gene expression arrays.

With the lumi package, a smooth quantile normalization can be applied to the intensities or the intensities can be rescaled with a shift and scaling normalization. Other methods take into account the design of the Infinium HumanMethylation array and process separately the signals from type I and type II probes. The explanation is that all these methods—except the shift and scaling normalization of the lumi package which appears as the least bad method —are quantile-derived methods assuming the same global distribution between samples.

Thus, in our opinion, there is to date no between-array normalization method suited to K data that can bring enough benefit to counterbalance the strong impairment of data quality they can cause on some data sets. We think these observations are very informative for the K users. Generally, to evaluate the effectiveness of a normalization method, researchers look at the agreement between technical replicates.

Although this is an important point, it is also crucial to verify that the normalization does not shift the measurements from their true biological values, by double-checking the results obtained using another technology. This is what we did here and why our conclusion could partially contradict the one of others, like Sun and coworkers [ 21 ]. Indeed, Sun and coworkers showed that the variation between technical replicates decreases after performing one of the between-array normalization they evaluated. When looking at our HCT data set, we also found that the between-array normalization methods slightly decrease the variation between technical replicates except the quantile normalization implemented in the IMA package, Figure 5.

Nevertheless, as described earlier in the text, we also showed that the majority of the normalization methods we have tested shifted the measurements from their true biological values, using BPS data as referential data. It therefore led us to conclude that these normalization methods are not suitable for K data. Comparison of the different between-array normalization methods using the variation between technical replicates as criterion. Boxplots show the distribution of the median of the absolute differences between DNA methylation measurements obtained with Infinium HumanMethylation from three replicates of HCT WT cells left panel or three replicates of HCT DKO cells right panel , when data are subjected white or not subjected dark gray to between-array normalization.

For clarity reasons, the boxplots are drawn using whiskers that extend to the most extreme data point, which is no more than 1. Batch effects correspond to non-biological variations existing between batches of samples that, for instance, have not been processed the same day, on the same scanner, or by the same experimenter.

The position of the array on the slide and the slide itself inside a same batch of samples can also generate non-biological variations. This is what we referred as slide effects. Such batch and slide effects can generate artifacts on measurements at the global level that could be partially removed thanks to a good between-array normalization method. Nevertheless, batch effects can generate artifacts that only affect a subset of probes. These artifacts cannot be eliminated by globally normalizing the data. Therefore, an additional normalization or correction step should be applied to reduce as much as possible batch and slide effects.

It is also important to keep in mind that the best way to avoid problems linked to batch and slide effects is to have a good design of the experiment, meaning a good distribution of the samples cases and controls, for example on the slides and processing of all the samples on the same day by the same experimenter using the same scanner.

Of note, some useful tools, such as the bioconductor package OSAT Optimal Sample Assignment Tool , have been developed to facilitate the allocation of samples to different batches [ 24 ]. In conclusion, although we are aware of the importance of between-array normalization for accurate sample comparisons, we do not recommend applying any between-array normalization method to Infinium HumanMethylation data for the time being because technical variations are weaker for Infinium arrays than for gene expression arrays and, mainly because, from our point of view, there is to date no between-array normalization method suitable for K data.

We would welcome, of course, the development of a suitable method bringing a real benefit. After correct preprocessing of the data i. Generally, the first approach consists in a single-probe analysis. Statistical tests such as the t -test or Mann—Whitney test are used, and when the P -values obtained are below a given threshold e. In this way, several researchers have identified numerous DMPs although the absolute difference in methylation of the CpG sites between two groups of samples was small i.

Therefore, very slight observed differences in methylation are more likely due to random technical variations than to true biological differences Figure 6. Some very slight differences in methylation may be true differences, notably when reflecting a difference in cell-type composition of the tissues analyzed [ 25 , 26 ], but the technical variability of Infinium HumanMethylation makes it unsuitable for confident detection of such differences.

Even if the studied data set is large, the technical variability should not be neglected, as the size of the data set will reduce the impact of the technical variability but will not completely eliminate it. Small differences of methylation can be observed by chance due to technical variations. Yet another type of value, the M-value, is often used to express the degree of methylation obtained with Infinium.

It is defined as the log ratio of the methylated signal over the unmethylated signal. The M-value has better statistical properties with a lower heteroscedasticity, meaning that the variance across the methylation range is approximately constant. In addition to the single CpG analysis, a second approach can be used to perform differential methylation analysis to bring further confidence in the results. It consists in looking at regional methylation measurements rather than at single site measurements, and therefore in identifying differentially methylated regions rather than DMPs [ 28 , 29 ].

The principle of this method resides in the fact that probes being close together e. One limitation of this type of approach for analyzing K data is that about one-quarter of the array probes is isolated i. Nevertheless, this approach can be used for the three other quarters of the array probes, particularly in promoter regions and CGIs that are generally well covered by the Infinium probes.

On top of the aforementioned issues, we still wish to add a last key one that is the necessity to verify the reliability of the forecasts. It is important to use at least a negative control, for instance, by mixing up the samples and by performing additional differential methylation analyses using the mixed-up groups of samples. This allows to assess whether the differences observed between the groups of interest are potentially true or if such differences can be obtained by any random sampling. Furthermore, the empirical false-discovery rate for a specific cutoff e. P -value chosen can be estimated more precisely by performing permutation tests, as it has already been proposed in gene expression microarray analysis [ 30 ].

The development of Infinium HumanMethylation arrays is allowing researchers to perform high-throughput DNA methylation profiling. Increased number of data has already been published and many more are to come.

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However, Infinium HumanMethylation analysis and interpretation appear not as easy as initially thought and this, given the various reasons that we have reviewed and discussed here. First, it becomes evident that probe annotation has to be improved, as numerous probes seem to generate values that can be confounded by several parameters and need therefore to be filtered out. Some probes were notably identified as cross-reactive, i. Others contain known SNPs and therefore evaluate more likely the genotype than the methylation level of the targeted CpG site.

Also to be considered is the observation that probes displaying a high average intensity appear less reliable than those displaying lower average intensity. Second, an adequate sample normalization has to be performed to ensure complete and correct preprocessing of the data. Concerning within-array normalization, numerous methods have been proposed, and it is not that easy to decipher which one is the best one. Concerning between-array normalization, however, none of the methods available to date seem suitable to K data.

Third, concerning differential methylation analyses, different approaches can be used. The single-probe approach is mainly based on statistics. Nevertheless, it is important to keep in mind that Infinium HumanMethylation is not suitable for detection of small differences of methylation because of its technical variability in measurements, and therefore, using an absolute methylation difference threshold is strongly recommended.

Mixologists are now using purees to create flavor inspired cocktails all year round. Purees in cocktails add an intense fresh flavor and make any drink an exceptional experience. Just add your favorite spirit to their single-note flavors or to one of their innovative blends to produce fast, simple, and flavorful cocktails that impress anyone. Add ice and shake vigorously for 10 seconds. Strain into a glass over fresh ice. Add a splash of club soda and stir briefly. The Boston Cocktail Summit OCTOBer , The first-ever citywide cocktail event will celebrate the culture of the cocktail with three days of events, parties, trade exhibits, educational seminars, and galas.

Mixology superstars will dazzle with creative and classic cocktails, celebrated Boston chefs will prepare delicious cocktail dinners, and local and international spirits authorities will offer informative and educational seminars. Craft beer and wine events, too!

Apple infused vodka 1 oz. Pisco is fast becoming the latest darling of the bar set. When you taste it you will understand why. A Pisco cocktail can be enjoyed anytime. As one of the newest liqueur brands to hit the spirits world, RumChata achieved a two millionth bottle mark with one million bottles being shipped in the first half of this year.

What brought on this craze? Amazingly, it was word of mouth. In fact we have been told by many of our customers that it is the best tasting cream liqueur…ever. Although RumChata is an obvious special addition to all coffee, tea, cappuccino, and espresso recipes, bartenders have gone beyond the typical to create concoctions with everything from tequila to flavored vodka. The unique flavor goes exceptionally well with everything, including your favorite French toast recipe. You must mix these recipes and visit www.

Shake with ice and strain into a martini glass, sprinkle with cinnamon. Without overwhelming heat, Agave Loco offers sweet Jalapeno, Serrano and Habanero pepper flavors with a great pepper finish. When added to any Bloody Mary mix, Agave Loco Pepper Cured Tequila enhances the flavor of the cocktail and keeps fans coming back for more. The tempting tropical fusion will carry consumers away with the flavors and aromas of an island paradise.

Voli Mango Coconut 6 Blueberries 2 Strawberries 1 oz. Sweet and Sour Lite 1 oz. Garnish with skewered blueberries and strawberry. Garnish with a lime wedge. Amaretto 1 oz. Garnish with lemon half wheel and cherry. The Honey Whisky is aged six years then blended with premium tupelo honey, which is sought after for its superior quality and balanced sweetness. Triple Sec 1 oz. Lemon Lime Soda. Lexington Bourbon Whiskey was inspired by this winning tradition. Patiently aged for years in Kentucky charred white oak barrels, Lexington Bourbon embodies the rich history of traditional whiskey making.

At 86 proof, it combines the highest quality select grains of rye, malted barley and corn with purified water, resulting in a flavor profile that reveals deep aromas of aged oak and a hint of vanilla. The rye provides a perfect level of spice, while the malted barley allows the sweetness of the corn to peak through, creating a sensational taste.

Steadily becoming one of the highest rated bourbons amongst respected industry circuits, Lexington Bourbon is sure to make a serious impression on your palate with every sip. For more information visit www. Your signature style is something that sets you apart from the rest of the pack, and usually reflects your personality.

Perfecting your style should be fun and honing a style when creating new cocktails should be more fun, especially if you are using original flavor combinations and adding new twists to old classics. After all, the stylish mixer is often the cleverest at the party, for keeping the liquids up to snuff is the essence. In general, people with a strong sense of self often have signature styles that others try to emulate.

Known for her incomparable style is our cover girl, Cyndi Lauper. Through her meaningful lyrics and attitude toward tolerance she reminds the world that setting yourself apart places you in a class by yourself and exhibits great courage, resilience and spirit. Cyndi Lauper. With millions of global record sales and countless awards and accolades, her creativity and talent resonates with each project she puts her heart and soul into. Her unwavering advocacy for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT equality began at the start of her career and continues to this day.

Following the tour Lauper founded the True Colors Fund, a non-profit that seeks to inspire and engage everyone, particularly the straight community, to become involved in the advancement of LGBT equality. The fund launched the Give A Damn Campaign, an online public education and awareness initiative. There was a woman of every race and ethnicity in that video.

I wanted every woman who saw it to feel represented. Not just some, but everyone. It served as a wakeup call to me that I needed to do even more. While the intention of that song is certainly healing, its impact was something more than I could have ever hoped for. That, in over 70 countries around the world it is illegal to be gay or transgender?

The list goes on and on of issues that the community faces every day. Until that list is completely wiped away,. The younger generations get it, the majority of them are there already and hopefully that trend will continue as we keep up with our work. We can change things though, but it is going to take a lot of education, especially everyone sharing their personal story with the people who need to hear it the most.

We also have to make sure that all schools are a welcoming environment for all kids, that there are inclusive services that are available for kids who may be at risk of becoming homeless or are homeless, and we need to make sure that there are resources for parents. It is not easy for them either. We need to help them understand what it means to have a gay or transgender child and what can happen if they reject them. That is crucial. We have made a very limited run of the shirts and are already selling out. You can check them out and buy them at wegiveadamn.

Their Rich Dark Chocolate! Nope, never been a bartender, but I have attended many bars Top off with chilled sparkling wine. Garnish with half orange wheel. In every successful civil rights movement in this country the majority has always joined with the minority to advance equality. Whites marched alongside African Americans, men marched alongside women, and now it is time to grow the number of straight people marching alongside gay and transgender people. I believe that most people are fair-minded and once they learn about the inequality faced by gay and transgender people they will want to get involved.

Tell the people in your life why the issues matter to you. If you need some help in this area, visit wegiveadamn. She sums up the importance of equality in this country beautifully. Unfortunately, as a nation we forget that sometimes.

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No one deserves to be treated as less than. If one of us is not equal, then none of us are equal. We have to say enough is enough and let our voices be heard so that we can be the society that we are supposed to be and I know we can be. The first round of promotions got off to a slow start as we tried to explain our goals and engage the industry. Once they understood what we were trying to accomplish, many not only jumped on board but also asked if they could run the program longer than our initial request, which resulted in larger donations.

All together we have had over accounts sign on. We are truly grateful for the support of the community who want to show that they too Give A Damn about equality. It changes from time to time. Visit www. Join the campaign, it is free and we will keep you informed of the latest news and ways that you can make a difference. In the mid-to-late s, American bar tending began to take cues from the past. Applying personal style to cocktails is the next big trend. Do you draw inspiration from your roots? Cocktail Maven Julie Reiner has a style all her own.

She spent most of her childhood in Hawaii before establishing herself in New York, and she is inspired by both locales. After opening several wildly successful cocktail bars in Manhattan and Brooklyn, she paid homage to her Hawaiian roots with Lani Kai,.

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Eager, yet frustrated, Kyle would head off to work each evening with a secret menu and a satchel of contraband: a juice press, an assortment of bitters and a bottle of simple syrup among them. Kyle developed a penchant for unique originals, using fresh juices and quality ingredients, and at any cost. Do you honor history above all else? I also started bringing in homemade syrups with which to create original cocktails: chocolate rose syrup, beef bouillon syrup, herb syrup Julie Reiner celebrates her signature style with a return to her roots.

No matter what your personal style, own it. Be you. Be bold. Add your own flair. Pay homage. Break the rules. Take cues from those around you; Julie brought quality ingredients to a genre born in an era of convenience, and brought it halfway around the globe from where it began. Kyle found his way around the rules; he was too inspired to let rules stand in his way. My style developed by recreating classic cocktails, but with a twist.

Be a trendsetter. Across the world, menus are featuring ingredients produced within 50 miles of the bar or restaurant. Charcuterie is made in-house from meats procured from a co-op or food cooperative the establishment holds a stake in. Herbs are carefully harvested from a garden on the roof of the building. Mixologists, like their chef counterparts, are embracing this trend enthusiastically by buying product locally, growing their own ingredients and creating cocktail menus that acknowledge local farmers. This means local farmers, local talent, local spirit, wine and beer. The recent economy has proven that we need to stop exporting all our dollars and invest in the treasures that we have in our back yard.

Craft distillers are also embracing this approach. Copper Fox Distillery, of Sperryville, Virginia employs the services of their own private grower for Thoroughbred Barley. Templeton Rye Whiskey, based on an old recipe from the Prohibition era, is bottled in small batches and is the kind of rye you would find made in an old farmhouse still. Templeton honors their year old family farming tradition by harvesting a portion of their own raw materials in the rye fields they planted adjacent to the distillery. Back in the days of Prohibition, farmers would supplement their income by making small batch whiskeys, which rarely made their way past the town they were made in, let alone the state.

In each of these approaches, one can see the imparting of a signature upon the flavor profile of the brands- a sense of terroir. In addition to the obvious effects the locavore movement has on quality, the economic impact for the community, and the overall environment, one should also bear in mind some other benefits of this trend. Very importantly, humans tend to eat and drink with the seasons. Almost instinctively, we tend to desire the first heirloom tomatoes of the year in a fresh Bloody Mary or crave a Pumpkin Pie cocktail in the fall. By following the seasons, both sales and guest satisfaction increase.

This also perpetuates a creative cycle that inspires the people passionate about fine food and beverage. The farmer with increased revenue, plants more exotic heirloom varieties. The distiller or mixologist with access to this product then finds ever-increasing ways of expressing this in the glass. Ultimately, this is the very mechanism that drives this trend. Distance, fuel, carbon footprints, resource depletion, costs, quality of product all point to local agriculture as a possible solution.

Environmentally speaking, every little bit helps. Grow some tomatoes and cucumbers and taste the difference for yourself. Stray a few blocks past Delancey Street and you can even risk falling into a Tiki escape. I learned the art of ceramics from a man named Andy Nasisse. Everyday new spirits and products make their way to our bars.

Nowadays, any bartender could spend a lifetime exploring the unlimited variety of a single spirit. The journey here is curious. Fifteen years ago one could hold in a shot glass the number of classic cocktail joints in New York City. After convincing the consumer to love the drinks of Jerry Thomas and training a generation of bartenders to deliver the goods, where is there to grow? At first I was suspicious of so small a niche as absinthe, but Maison Premeire delivered.

What could have been a novelty theme bar was, instead, an impressive cocktail and service program built from an honest investigation of a historically critical libation. Even though products and techniques continue to grow in number and diversity, the reality is the well rounded cocktail bar can only go so far in any one direction.

However, this growth means that there are deeper rabbit holes for bartenders to jump down. Pair this with more informed and inquisitive patrons and you have a bull market for specialization. And as smaller markets begin to become mature cocktail havens, the sway toward specialization is spreading. In Boston six years ago, there were a couple pillars of the cocktail world in No. We are essentially a whiskey bar but with great cocktails. Deadly serious about the details. You, me, and an orange tree.

Oh yes, things are about to get pithy. We are exploring the Western Sea and happen upon a little island. What are we going to do once we hit land? Plant some fruit. Once our tree flowers, our oranges grow oddly green and bitter. Homesick, we return home and leave our failed experiment behind.

But not all is lost for our orange tree. Abandoned oranges, left to dry under hot Caribbean sun, the peels shriveled and the essential oils concentrated. Much to the chagrin of our own wallets, someone else discovered that these peels could serve as the basis for something amazing and exotic. Liquid gold. Naturally, bottle and export to the thirsty European masses, who clamor for anything interesting from across the world.

A continent forever intrigued. Tastes change. As to be expected, the French started to demand something more refined. Almost simultaneously, two iconic products emerged. In , Edouard Cointreau introduced Triple Sec, a drier orange liqueur distilled from bitter and sweet orange peels and neutral alcohol.

In , Alexandre Marnier introduced Grand Marnier, a liqueur made from Cognac brandy, bitter orange peels, and sugar. So, the big question is, why do we care? With the resurgence of classic and well-crafted cocktails, it is no wonder that orange liqueur is once again taking the spotlight. Thoroughly pleasing to near all palates, orange essence is perhaps the most versatile and complimentary flavor to any base spirit.

Orange liqueur, therefore, is a powerhouse behind the stick and a necessary modifier for any serious mixologist or home enthusiast. It serves as a way to balance a cocktail, add complexity and sweetness, without sacrificing integrity. Rumor has it that Cointreau was one of the few treasured bottles to be pulled through floorboards during Prohibition. Therefore, it is possible that our love for orange liqueur was originally born out of scarcity and allure. So, is it a rising trend? Only if you are serious about making great cocktails. And I hope that you are. While the icons will forever hold court in our hearts and cocktails, new orange liqueurs are coming to market everyday.

Not enough options for you? Other mustachioed neo-liqueurists are waiting in the wings to tempt you with their exotic stories, ingredients and historical bents. Keep an eye on proof, spirit base, and sugar level. At the end of the day, this trend simply means greater awareness and appreciation for what is going into our glass. Top with oz. We hat if the Volstead wa to visit very secretive would all be forced keasies if we wanted and mysterious spea d nerve two.

Come so to speak by trying to be all things to be that place. Fine strain over ice in tumbler. Top with Fever Tree Soda, stir gently, garnish with cucumber. Open any old cocktail book and gin references are plentiful but for a significant portion of the latter part of the last century, that was not the case. Just how did we get here? Shop the gin section of your local liquor store and prepare to be overwhelmed.

A few short years ago, there were limited options; twenty years ago, you would have been lucky to have four selections from which to choose. Today, with distilleries popping up from San Francisco to Brooklyn and everywhere in-between it seems that not only is everyone drinking gin, but everyone is trying their hand at making it as well. Why gin? English gin descended somewhat from Genever meaning juniper , a juniper flavored barley wine from Holland.

Granted, we were at the time an unruly and drunken society in need of sobering, but this thirteen-year ban turned an industry and a craft on its head. Unable to buy gin from overseas, Americans became resourceful. During Prohibition, the most popular item in the Sears Roebuck catalog was juniper oil! As a result, gin fell from grace. Today, however, the tide has turned. Hoping to find their own courage, the English began distilling gin, a juniper and botanical flavored grain spirit. Their chosen poison proved to be less than palatable, and thus sugar was added.

In fact, depending upon the date of an old cocktail book, what is called for in a recipe as gin may have actually been its sweeter relative, Old Tom. Ever evolving the formula, Bombay recently launched East, introducing unique flavors like lemongrass and peppercorns to their recipe. As the English became more adept at distilling, new styles began to emerge. London Dry gin arrived on the scene. Named not for its city of origin it need not hail from London , it is a drier style with juniper as the prominent botanical flavor. Tanqueray is the quintessential London Dry, with a heritage dating back to This time-honored classic is perfect to mix in a gin cocktail needing an assertive juniper flavor.

Another classic example of a London Dry is Bombay, with a recipe dating back to and about as original as a modern gin can get. Plymouth gin, another historic style, is made only in Plymouth, England, and dates. Americans, and other New World distillers, are once again resourceful. We enjoy gin, we see the demand for gin, and we realize that gin is fairly inexpensive to produce.

Thus, we set out to do what the English have excelled at for centuries. After all, gin is a spirit based on emulation. The English sought to emulate the Dutch, and made a pretty great product. New World distillers seek to emulate the Old World, while demonstrating their creativity and independence with interesting botanicals, and even terroir-driven gins. Perhaps, American distillers are just trying to find their courage. If you live anywhere outside the United States, you use one phrase for the liquid you get when you grind apples and press them for juice, and another phrase for what you get when you ferment that juice.

Hard ciders have a long and historically significant history in America and the world. It was in the s and s when it peaked in popularity as an enjoyable beverage for early Americans. But as European immigrants brought their honed beer-making skills to America, hard cider took a back seat to beer and was stifled yet again during and after the days of Prohibition. As we fast forward to today, we see that hard ciders and perries cider made from pears are making a strong comeback. In a recent announcement, Dutch brewer Heineken N. Heineken plans to significantly ramp up distribution of Strongbow in the U.

While hard cider sales make up less than 0. Artisan producers will be challenged to stretch the boundaries of cider making and cider taste profiles hoping to mirror the recent growth and successes of the craft beer market. Not unlike wine grapes, apple harvests can yield varieties which are sweet, tart, and even bitter or sour. Under the direction of a skilled cidermaker, the resulting juice is often blended or mixed with other fruits or spices to achieve the desired taste.

Depending on the cider producer, their recipe and this desired outcome, fermentation time can vary from just a few weeks to many months, with longer maturation adding complexity to the final product. More Americans are quenching their thirst with hard cider than in the recent past. While cider sales in the U. It is a once-sleepy alcohol category enjoying a remarkable renaissance driven by both breweries and wineries taking advantage of this fast-growing interest and appeal.

These sales represent a new and viable revenue stream especially for the softening U. But to understand ciders, one must first understand the definition of cider. Add remaining ingredients except garnish into a Boston Shaker with regular ice. Shake and strain into martini glass over Mariko ice sphere. Garnish with green apple slices. Campari 2 oz. Shake and pour over fresh ice in a salt-rimmed glass.

Garnish with fresh blackberries and a lime twist. Pour over ice into glass. Top with ginger beer. Garnish with thyme sprig or strawberry slice. Mezcal Blanco 1 oz. Fresh lime juice 1 oz. Shake and strain into a glass with fresh ice. Garnish with Pasilla Chile salt around the rim. Whether sailing, relaxing, or strolling through the hundreds of charming shops and eateries, this town is the perfect setting.

The Folk Festival caps at 10, and intimately joins music fans with veteran artists who are known to hang out and enjoy the other performances. The festival also provides a platform for up and coming artists hoping to get their big break, just like a young, unknown Joan Baez did years ago. Not unlike almost 50 years ago when Bob Dylan famously traded in his acoustic for an electric guitar during his Folk Festival performance, turning folk and its place in American music on its ear.

Festival Although the festival veered away from its roots, veteran acts introduced their music to a younger audience and contemporary crowds got a taste of authentic folk tradition with highlights like an honorary tribute to the godfather of the genre, Woodie Guthrie. Other various styles of music including the soulful sounds of Alabama Shakes rounded out the more than 50 festival acts on the centuries-old Fort Adams stage.

The music was moving, the beer flowed and despite a few raindrops here and there, Newport shined! Give it a mix! Lime juice 2 oz. Top with club soda and garnish with mint leaves.


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Photo courtesy Newport Festivals Foundation. Major Acts. Small Venue. The small capacity blues bar becomes the main attraction for festival-goers each night after the festivities wind down. With lines stretching well outside the door, the party picks back up with heavy hitters unbelievably taking the small local bar stage with all proceeds benefiting the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation and the Newport Festivals Foundation. In addition to playing opening night at the festival, Deer Tick played every night at the cafe, joined by Sharon Van Etten and festival headliner and genre icon Jackson Browne, among many others.

Along with listening to the bands in the most intimate of settings, Folk Festival fans have the opportunity to rub elbows with other power acts, not necessarily playing but hanging out at the bar. It just so happens that this was the first time in history that the Folk Festival completely sold out all three days as well. McCauley told Billboard. An accredited sommelier and James Beard-award winning writer, MacLean enlightens and entertains with her jaunts from around the globe and the incredible wines at affordable prices she discovered along the way.

Making many stops, MacLean engages people behind the labels and touches upon important cultural and industry discussions from organic farming to the ins and outs of pricing. The cocktail experience is demystified with timeless cocktail recipes as well as straightforward advice on mixing drinks and equipping a home bar. Since no cocktail party is complete without snacks, recipes for fun and easyto-make appetizers are included.

Perfect for holiday entertaining. Beginning with inns and saloons, the book explores the rise of taverns and the breweries, the effects of temperance and Prohibition and attitudes about gender, ethnicity and morality. Also traces development of the megabreweries, dominance of the giants and the emergence of microbreweries. Also a great resource for anyone who wants to start their own micro-distillery.

Imported by Wilson Daniels Ltd. St Helena, CA. Belvedere is a quality choice. Drinking responsibly is too. Photos courtesy Heineken USA. Try to source beer, wine and food locally. B ack in the day when street art and vandalism were synonymous, Futura pioneered graffiti, transitioning this form of expression into a respectable craft with gallery potential. Chill and pour Champagne and Liquid Ice into flute. Drop three blueberries in. Sparkle Donkey Silver 5 oz. COM 71 we must continue to educate society and engage them in being a part of the solution. COM Give it a mix. Plymouth gin, another historic style, is made only in Plymouth, England, and dates Americans, and other New World distillers, are once again resourceful.

Apples are to cider what grapes are to wine.

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