Welcome to Hyperion Records, an independent British classical label devoted to presenting high-quality recordings of music of all styles and from all periods from the twelfth century to the twenty-first. Hyperion offers both CDs, and downloads in a number of formats. The site is also available in several languages. Please use the dropdown buttons to set your preferred options, or use the checkbox to accept the defaults. Here we find the final versions of the three Petrarch Sonnets and the famous Dante Sonata.
Sposalizio was first written in or , and the manuscript shows at least two levels of revision before the version finally published. The only complete and performable earlier version will appear in Volume 48 of this series, along with the earlier versions of the Dante Sonata. Of course, Salvator Rosa — was primarily a painter, but he was also an actor, a poet, a satirist and a musician.
Nonetheless, the saucy little Canzonetta del Salvator Rosa is not his music, although the text may be by or about him. The original text is laid out above the music:. In adapting the Tre Sonetti di Petrarca for their final piano versions Liszt changed the order from the first publication, reversing the first two, so that Sonetto 47 happily takes up the chord with which the Canzonetta finished. The long introduction to Sonetto is replaced with a passage almost identical to that in the first published vocal setting. A further, much more extensive layer of revision carries the final title and one-movement structure, but a good many final corrections and alterations were made at the proof stage to produce the present work.
Problem bars include: 65 first left-hand group may be incorrect—the second left-hand chord should perhaps have a B flat instead of an A ; second harmony should surely have E sharp—MS has a redundant natural sign ; first left-hand chord should probably have an F sharp instead of an E ; —3 almost certainly B flats and hence E flat major—otherwise the augmented triad is the only such chord in the work in all versions, and it is a chord to which Liszt normally grants particular importance in a musical structure—furthermore, this theme is always extended elsewhere by common triads ; and the right hand should certainly have G sharps on the third crotchet, as in the earlier version—the lack of them in the rewriting, which otherwise preserves exactly the same progression, is clearly a slip of the pen.
All but the first of these problem passages are rendered according to these observations in the present performance. Many commentators have essayed a description of the particular reading of Dante which Liszt has chosen to represent, although he himself gave no specific clues. Clearly, the diabolus in musica tritone—heard at the outset, and at all the important structural junctions—suggests Inferno , and suggestions have been made concerning the Francesca da Rimini episode.
But calling the reprise of what amounts to the second subject 10 bars of ethereal tremolo at bar a representation of Paradiso as some commentators have done is surely wide of the mark, and the piece as a whole is much less celestial or purgatorial than it is relentlessly infernal. Venezia e Napoli is usually waved away as a rather insignificant group of encore pieces, but while they are obviously lighter fare, they merit high praise for their sheer beauty and ingenuity. But why does Lesueur depict it here and how does it relate exactly to the map of Sydney, with all of its strategic implications and scientiic importance?
Firstly, it is unlike the other sections of the drawing, in that the map of the grove represents no known and surveyed locality.
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He believed himself to be in the presence of a high civilisation like that of the ancient Egyptians. Dampier, A new voyage round the world London, he Argonaut Press, , p. Jones, 'Images of natural man', in Bonnemains, Forsyth and Smith, pp. For them, this detail in the watercolour of Sydney 'seems incongruous but is perhaps intended as a reference to the spiritual life of a culture, certainly only imperfectly glimpsed, but that in Sydney had only too clearly been fractured'.
See Hunt and Carter, Notes, p. I disagree with the second term of the contrast they make, in that there is nothing in the watercolour itself to suggest the degradation of Aboriginal life. Psychologically, at least, he required a space in which he observed, collected and analysed material on his own — no longer the trainee, but already the chief scientist. He had a narrative that no-one could contradict; it was uplifting and gave him a role which he was only too content to play, that of interpreter of higher truths, the mediator between higher forms of culture and language.
If the 'sacred grove' is the key to decoding a message in Lesueur's 'New Holland', then it is a message that is truly personal, for there is no overwhelmingly practical reason why this element would feature in a map of Sydney. Indeed, it makes sense of the stutter and, inally, gives us an even stronger sense of why Lesueur was unable to complete his work than simply the inaccuracy of his map. Inaccuracies can be ixed; an overly idiosyncratic and lyrical view of place cannot be so readily transformed.
Indeed, his work had spoken words that he was incapable of expressing in conventional ways. In his 'Nouvelle Hollande', his framing devices had breached the borders of his ostensible subject. However, while he did not ever publish his lyrical tableau, he did not suppress its message.
Leschenault de la Tour, T. Baudin, Capitaine de Vaisseau, du Citn. Horner, he French reconnaissance: West Sooby and P. Monteath, Encountering Terra Australis: Baudin's enlightened views, revealed in the extract of his letter to Governor King quoted above, shaped these encounters. Baudin is far ahead of his times in decrying the seizing by colonial powers of lands rightfully belonging to the colonised, and the failure of the colonisers to provide a society in which its denizens are not forced to turn to a life of crime, but instead are brought to the colonised territory, thus inlicting their diseases and crimes on innocent people.
Douglas, Website biography, https: Jacqueline Bonnemains, formerly Curator of this collection, gives details of the extent and whereabouts of all Petit's work: Louis Freycinet also compiled the third volume: Naturalist and voyager Melbourne, Miegunyah, Une petite ville, trois grands hommes May Moulins, Pottier, , pp. As Bernard Smith states11, Petit was the one portrait and igure painter remaining after the defection of these more senior artists.
It is clear that though Baudin engaged both Petit and Lesueur in the position of 'assistant gunner, 4th class' aide-canonnier de 4e classe12 , the captain almost certainly knew of their artistic skills, as he entrusted to them the illustration of his personal journal. Classics scholar Matthew Dillon has drawn attention to the long tradition of scholarship in Australian art history15 wherein the classical overlay of works depicting Indigenous Australians is extensively examined and discussed.
As Dillon points out, the pioneering spirit in this process was art historian Bernard Smith, who, in his monumental work European vision and the South Paciic analyses the iconography of the peoples of the Paciic and what he sees as the 'double vision' of the artist — that is, the European often classical overlay on the Indigenous subject. As Smith shows, this classical overlay is apparent in the portraits appearing in Britain from the s to the s: Baudin, Mon voyage aux Terres Australes: Journal personnel du commandant Baudin, ed.
Marin Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, , pp. Greek sculpture and terra australis incognita'. I am extremely grateful to Matthew Dillon for making his slides available to me, for drawing my attention to the artwork from Cook's voyages and its extensive treatment by Bernard Smith and to his own discussion of the classical models for much European depiction of Indigenous Australians, as well as for the fruitful general discussions we have had on the classical overlay to be found in these portraits. I also wish to express my gratitude to Grace Moore and Tom Bristow, both of whom kindly read a draft of this chapter on the artwork of the Baudin expedition in its original form and suggested amendments to it.
In his overview Smith draws attention to the classicising tendencies present in the very irst depiction of Australian Aborigines by a European — the engraving 'Two of the natives of New Holland, Advancing to combat' Figure 5. It was irst published in London in and republished with an expanded title in London in Smith points out that in this engraving the Aborigines are depicted as classical heroes, with the foremost igure drawn as the so-called Borghese gladiator Figure 5.
Engraving plate mark In accordance with the theory of the Noble Savage, artists from both these nations imbue their Indigenous subjects with features drawn from classical sources to reinforce the inherent nobility of the individuals depicted. Brian Plomley, for one, reminds us of the classical elements in portraits of Indigenous Tasmanians by artists prior to Baudin's voyage of exploration and the links to the Noble Savage which arise from these elements: As a result, the artist tended to draw the Tasmanians as he thought they should be rather than as the people they were.
For Plomley, the classical overlay present in earlier portraits, which he believes distorts the representation of the subject, is minimal in Petit's portraits: Paper engraving in black ink from one copperplate Are the models classical sculpture as Jones suggests? Or are other models present? Jones, 'In the mirror of contact: Art of the French encounters', in S. Jacqueline Bonnemains speculates that Petit was one of the 'rapins' in David's studio, 'pupils already advanced in the practice of their art but who were still at the copying stage and had not produced any personal work'.
Firstly, his studio ofered shelter from conscription or from the often-savage legal pursuits attendant on failing to enlist, in the case of Petit, at the age of eighteen, in As Bonnemains points out, in this way David was a protector to young men such as Petit. As he describes it, he originally retreats from the group. On seeing the three men approach, the group melts back into the forest. Knowing that they would not be capable of keeping up with the agile Aborigines, the French party content themselves with attracting their attention by waving their handkerchiefs and showing them various articles.
It is then, to the great astonishment of the Frenchmen, that they discover the gender of the Aboriginal group: It thus leads to her portrait by Petit during a subsequent encounter. Bhahba, 'Of memory and man: For a description of this event see E. A naturalist's life in revolution and exploration, Melbourne, Miegunyah, , pp.
A woman of her people she is, but she also seems to have features derived from a tradition with which, I believe, Petit would have been very familiar. Her feet, too, placed in a way reminiscent of dance positions, are rather dainty for a woman who would not wear shoes. Her body-shape recalls a typical European woman of the time.
Hunt and Carter, for example, describe her as 'an ambiguous huntress, arousing but also maternal'. Jennifer generously gave of her time to discuss postcolonial theory and particularly Homi Bhahba's work. Jean-Antoine Houdon, Figure 5. Wikimedia also known as 'Diane de Versailles', Commons. How authentic, then, is the portrait?
It was Petit's outstanding achievement to provide this combination of sensibility and acute observation'. Written documents which complement the portrait are an invaluable resource for 'reading' it. Marin Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, Losche eds , Double Vision: A naturalist's life in revolution and exploration, Melbourne, Miegunyah, Indeed, it was conceived as both a monumental sight and as a place for viewing, and so its place in visual culture, it might be argued, was a very part of the Tower's conception in , long before a committee had even been formed to select a centerpiece for the Exposition Universelle.
Recent innovations in a range of ields, including cultural geography and visual culture, have led scholars to relect on what constitutes an urban icon, to question that which is precisely the 'visual' in urban culture, and to propose that 'the Eifel Tower is actually the original and deining urban icon'. An atlas of the urban icons project', Urban History, As we might expect, and as we know from other studies, such as those by Jonathan Crary and Maurice Samuels3, this line of critical inquiry takes root in the moment of viewing, and in a culture of spectatorship.
Indeed, Vanessa Schwartz and Jeannene Przyblyski contend that 'the very notion of "visual culture" was made possible by many of the changes in image production in the nineteenth century' — the kind of 'imageries', to borrow Philippe Hamon's term, that, they go on to argue, 'forever altered our connection to such fundamentals as materiality, experience, and truth'. Crary, Techniques of the observer: Crary, Suspensions of perception: Samuels, he spectacular past: Przyblyski, 'Visual culture's history: Twenty-irst century interdisciplinarity and its nineteenth-century objects', in V.
Przyblyski, he nineteenth-century visual culture reader London and New York, Routledge, , p. Hamon, Imageries Paris, Corti, , especially pp. Indeed, the Eifel Tower, in conception, design and original purpose, as well as in the context of the Exposition Universelle, assumes a particular power and efectively creates connections in economic and social behaviors.
A complex understanding of this is in evidence in the contracts established by Eifel for both the construction and the subsequent exploitation of the Tower. Focused on French rehabilitation after the humiliations of the s, the Exposition Universelle, and its centerpiece, were designed to show the world that France was still a power to be reckoned with, a force for good and for progress which, in many of the metaphors used to describe the fair, associated national pride with prowess, perfectability with progress, and height with vision and success.
He continued the metaphor, suggesting that, should future generations ever again descend to some valley of error and misery, they remember these accomplishments, and remind their children of them, too, so that future generations would be more determined than ever to climb still higher: As Barthes would much later argue, the Tower enables the viewer to go beyond 'la sensation' to see things 'dans leur structure'. Connected with the panorama, then, this view embraces history and ideology as well, Barthes says, as myth.
Eifel's patriotic speech, beneath a massive tricolor, emblazoned with the letters RF, which had been raised at the Tower's summit, spoke of France as holding still an important place in the world, as still able to succeed where others had failed, and all to the great honor of the nation and the Republic. In fact, just a few days after the lag had been hoisted, Figaro ran a story about some English tourists who had torn strips from the lag 'comme souvenir de leur ascension'. See also the speech by Emile Chautemps: Hennuyer, , pp.
And in , there was some talk in the newspapers about Clarke Reeves and Company building a cylindrical tower for the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition of — a project that had set the world talking about the ambition of the project.
Eifel had his own 14 G. Masson, , p. Others uses are mentioned, too.
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Eifel was especially interested in the observation of objects dropped from the Tower. Finally, the usefulness of the Tower as a transmission point should not be overlooked, nor its part in radio, largely at Eifel's instigation. In short, the Tower became a symbol which, through its circulation in popular and scientiic culture — from picture postcards to construction pictures, and from the Guide bleu to the British Medical Journal — was then iconised to 'difuse its meaning and to structure a collective representation of place'.
Eifel, Travaux scientiiques, p. Monnet, 'he geopolitics of visibility: Urban icons in contemporary Mexico City', in P. Schwartz eds , Atlas of urban icons: Studies in urban visual history, Multimedia companion to special issue of Urban History, Victor Hugo explained the role of the Eifel Tower as a part of a broad social and cultural framework from the outset — invested with symbolic transformative powers: In his preface to Monod's oicial report, he writes of the Exposition Universelle of that: Lockroy, 'Preface', in E.
Monod, L'Exposition Universelle de , vol. Loyrette, 'La Tour Eifel', in P. Levin, 'he Eifel Tower revisited', he French Review, Lockroy concludes his preface by saying that [u]ne Exposition universelle est une totalisation: Visual representations of the Eifel Tower under construction similarly emphasise this phenomenon.
Tools are raised in efort, people are looking or pointing upwards, and cranes, pulleys and cables are hoisting the Tower's components. Much like other construction projects of nineteenth-century Paris, the representation of process igured in the project's staged incompletions, engineering prowess and manual labour was a subject of choice for photographers and illustrators alike, reinforcing the ideological message of progress and liberal democracy.
In many of these images of the Eifel Tower, precariousness is preferred to grounded perspectives, emphasising simultaneously the heady risks of innovation and human ascent — images that will be echoed in , with representations of construction crews working on the Empire State Building, precariously but fraternally perched on beams above the Manhattan skyline.
Framing is a social construction of a social phenomenon, usually developed by political or social movements, actors or organisations, and in concert with mass media. In other words, it ofers a schema of interpretation, using icons, stereotypes, anecdotes and other social performances through which individuals understood and responded to events, and thus invested meaning in those events and their symbols.
Whilst the oicial reports and the Guide bleu might constitute a version of oicial discourse relating to the Tower and its position in the Exposition, another text, published in , gives us some insight into how the Tower developed in the popular imagination: Prudhomme and his son, aged eight or nine; a couple who argue, she from below, he from above, and then divorce the loi Naquet was passed in ; two pickpockets; a family from the Auvergne, les Chabrouillas; M.
Lenoir, who enter and leave arguing vigorously about the merits of the Tower; a professor of astronomy and his two students; and inally a security guard, who works on the irst platform. Each scene frames a type of visitor, comically organising received ideas about the Tower, stereotypes from the world and the 'provinces', spectatorship and spectacle, and science. So it is that William Plumpudding swigs whisky between bursts of franglais a stock character in French representations of the Eifel Tower , as he tries to build up courage to shoot himself.
Before he ends it all, though, he wants to take one inal look at Paris from the Tower and, captivated by the sublime beauty of the sights, determines that he must continue to live, exiting to go and eat dinner at the Palais- Royal, as Prudhomme and ils enter. Prudhomme insists that his son, Clodomir, remove his hat out of respect for country and progress: Vous n'avez pas compris, mon ils?
Prudhomme sache lui rendre hommage. Druckman, 'he implications of framing efects for citizen competence', Political Behavior N'oubliez pas que du haut de cette tour vous avez comme une vision de la grandeur de la patrie. Pas d'enthousiasme aussi bruyant. Le silence, voyez-vous mon ils, est la meilleure forme de l'admiration.
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Ici nous sommes dans un temple; on examine et on se tait. He contends the view is 'magniique'; she replies 'je m'en moque'. Similarly, after the episodes concerning the two pickpockets who steal from each of the visitors in turn and then from each other, Lenoir and Leblanc enter. So convinced is M. Copernic that there is life on another planet that he patiently awaits a sighting, sure that the honour of discovery will be his.
Et … au jour d'aujourd'hui gardien chef de la Tour Eifel, il est le particulier le plus veinard de tous les veinards de France et de Bretagne! Aussi, vois-tu, ma p'tite tour, je t'aime. It also highlights the degree to which the discourses around the Eifel Tower have become entrenched and the Tower's iconic status established. To return to the origin of icons for a moment, these were originally deined as memorial images of the deceased, made by early Christians and embraced as cult images and authentic copies of the original.
Icons connected vision to touch, so that looking upon such an object resulted in the return of the visual ray in such a way that the worshipper's heart and mind were touched by the object of vision. In the case of the Eifel Tower, ordinary and elite citadins and tourists participated in the creation of the 'myths' of the Tower by consuming and propagating print and visual media, and by circulating through and perceiving the city, both visually and, to use Giuliana Bruno's term, 'haptically'. Bruno, Atlas of emotion: Journeys in art, architecture, and ilm London, Verso, For Bruno, the haptic facilitates the shift between an exclusive emphasis on vision and other senses in their relations to space.
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Phillip Ethington and Vanessa Schwartz's 'Urban icons project' has made a signiicant contribution to thinking in both urban history and visual culture. In a summary of the work done by scholars across a range of ields, Ethington and Schwartz propose a working deinition of the icon, and particularly of urban icons, which is central to these arguments and so worth sharing in full. In fact, the Figaro records that the 'innocente manie' of postcard-sending from the Eifel Tower in resulted in special writing desks and post oices being established on the Tower in August of that year, and in over 56 postcards being sent in just three weeks that month.
Once the Libonis featuring an illustration of the Tower were released, between and of these were sent each day, to locations around the world. Representing Paris ', Critical Inquiry, 18 Winter , pp. Monahan, Collecting postcards in colour: Pas de graitis s'il vous plait'. One sender of a Libonis draws attention to this in a paradoxical act of negation.
First, signalling his presence at the top of the Tower with the word 'Moi', he then writes: It was not until that the postcard was reconceived. Naomi Schor draws attention to the signiicance of the division of the blank part of the card in two — one part for the address, one part for the message. Furthermore, the taxonomic urge that the imaging of the capital represents in terms of the production of picture postcards is already present in a city 'pre-articulated by power' — the quartiers or arrondissements, the streets aligned, and the monuments landmarked.
Now, in the Postmodern cultural studies framework, visual tourist destination images and icons are a form of 'text' representing the world. He photographs it exactly as he knows it from posters.
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Better still, he has someone photograph him in front of it. Back home, that photograph reairms his identity within that scene. Carpenter, Oh, what a blow that phantom gave me! Once we problematise 'sightseeing', as the Eifel Tower did from the outset, then, the borders between forms of visual culture and spectacle become ambiguous. Desire is engaged by visual attraction. Indeed, there is a conlation of the public and the private that occurs in this process, too. McCannell has suggested, for example, that visual culture is constructed to deliver to the tourist what is understood to be 'authentic', even though this may be 'a staged authenticity'.
And because representations of the Eifel Tower run the gamut from mass-produced kitsch trinket to original painting, ownership of the icon is both accessible and yet still Winston, , pp. Indeed, the representation of the Eifel Tower in modern art further validates it as an icon, and gives it a privileged position on the tourist circuit.
In such a model, each successive representation reinforces others that have come before, often adding another layer of symbolic meaning to the image, and anchoring these to a central visual stereotype or icon. Indeed, he argues that the Tower should not be rationalised under the rubric of use, 49 J. Barthes's emphasis is on the readability of the visual and of the experience, upon detachment as an aesthetic condition afording privileged insight.
We know this to be a common motif in nineteenth-century French literature and art — the 'high view', as Prendergast refers to it, trumping almost every other perspective. So 53 Barthes, p. Virginia Spate has shown that this series of paintings was executed in the country, and so from memory, thus freeing the artist to concentrate on formal considerations. If the window and the Eifel Tower ofer 'an auto-referential metaphor of Delaunay's own progression towards abstraction' — a mediation of Chevreul's nineteenth-century scientiic theories of colour, or what Delaunay describes as the 'premier germe de la Couleur pour la couleur'63 — the postcard, and the photographed situation, frame a self-referential representation which, similarly, are neither fully integrated into the visual text nor entirely independent of it.
Delaunay's is, nevertheless, a privileged view, an expert eye that makes seeing a science or an art, directed at a play of meanings and interpretation. Retracing the aesthete's position, which rejects the useful or representative in favour of the purely aesthetic, Barthes, too, insists on the way in which the Tower's function was inverted, slipping from rational to irrational, from the pragmatic to the useless and purely gratuitous, recreating, as Felicia Miller argues with respect to Delaunay, the doctrine of l'art pour l'art for a modern audience.
Barthes identiies 'friends' as being connected: While Barthes accepts the universal appeal of the Tower, he nevertheless sees it as an intellectually transformational experience: Miller, 'A view from the tower: Barthes and the aesthetic tradition', Paciic Coast Philology, Replication and representation problematise and reinforce the Tower's iconic status. In Simulacra and simulation, Baudrillard suggests that, in the hyper-reality of pure simulacra, there is no more imitation, duplication, parody: However, these simulations are icons of otherness whose original ideological messages are reinvested in places — Texas, Las Vegas, Beijing, Dubai — where global capitalism and Postmodern culture have found new representations that take to new heights in the case of the projected Eifel Tower in Dubaiworld, quite literally the replication of the visual and the haptic.
Baudrillard, Simulacra and simulation, trans. See he condition of Postmodernity Oxford, Blackwell, , p. Young workers in costume move through the park's replicas, and in and out of a Postmodern reality, which embraces the simulated sites and animated cyberspace. Even the trailer for the ilm frames these co-existent spaces and, in its inal image, juxtaposes the simulacrum of the Eifel Tower with a diferent but resonant kind of labour and reality, one beyond the conines of the park.
While the dislocations of the Eifel Tower fragment the intended hegemonic experience of the Exposition Universelle, the performances of the World Parks in China — whether in the costumes, or the Bollywood-style cultural spectacles, or the replica monuments — are actually strikingly similar to the notion of the World Fair.
As Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright have pointed out, the world as created through simulation is, of course, always the product of someone's labour. In the ilm [he World] the low-paid workers who come from poor rural areas, or who are brought in from other countries, such as indentured labourers from Russia, keep the simulation aloat. In relecting on the postmodern aspects of contemporary societies and our ease with interacting in and experiencing things within simulated environments, we are also tapping into issues of space, global culture, fantasy, and communication technologies. Jameson, Postmodernism, or, he cultural logic of late capitalism London, Verso, , p.
Przyblyski eds , he nineteenth-century visual culture reader London and New York, Routledge, , pp. Late style in s and s French ilm design Ben McCann, he University of Adelaide It is a truth universally acknowledged that set designers create the space in which ilms take place. But, as Alessio Cavallaro reminds us, set designers 'never simply replicate reality: Beyond the Hexagon, Trauner's abiding collaborations in Hollywood with directors like Howard Hawks, Orson Welles and, in particular, Billy Wilder he apartment in , One, two, three in and Kiss me, stupid in won him an Academy Award and the status as one of the post-war ilm industry's most inluential and innovative production designers.
Cavallaro, Setting the scene: Famously, in both France and the US, he distilled an image of Paris even more Parisian than Paris itself — his exemplary iconic representations of the city in Les Enfants du paradis and Irma la douce were uniquely his, and today remain a time capsule of the capital's architectural and fashion trends. By distilling a visual concept from the thematic and psychological concerns of the screenplay, Trauner's skill was to appropriate realism and then simplify, stylise or accentuate it into an expressive, often highly memorable set of designs.
Yet there is also another story that needs to be told — Trauner's late career, in which he returned to France from the US in the mids to begin a third series of fruitful partnerships, this time with directors such as Joseph Losey, Luc Besson and Bertrand Tavernier. It will chart a continuity between Trauner's earlier work and these newer designs, and highlight how his creative methodology was incorporated into a new set of industrial and aesthetic contexts.