War: Struggle of Force

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Notwithstanding the creation of the Ukrainian National Republic UNR on 20 November , the Bolsheviks planned to seize power in Ukraine with the aid of Russian or Russified urban elements, Russian garrisons, and army units stationed near the front. Their armed uprising in Kyiv on 11 December was unsuccessful, however, and the Bolshevized army units were deported from Ukraine in stages.

December to April Hostilities broke out in Ukraine after a series of diplomatic maneuvers.

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On 17 December the Petrograd -based Council of People's Commissars issued an ultimatum demanding that Bolshevik troops be granted the legal right to be stationed on Ukrainian soil. The ultimatum was rejected by the UNR. The Bolsheviks countered by proclaiming their own Ukrainian government see the People's Secretariat based in Kharkiv on 25 December, and then proceeded with a campaign to establish effective military control over Ukraine. The Ukrainian forces at that time consisted of a small volunteer detachment and several battalions of the Free Cossacks. The pro-Soviet forces in Ukraine included Russian army regulars stationed at the front, a number of garrisoned units, and Red Guard detachments composed of laborers from Kharkiv gubernia and the Donbas.

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Their main strength, however, lay in a large force of Red Guards from Russia, which had been stationed along the Ukrainian border. The invasion by pro-Soviet forces was accompanied by uprisings initiated by local Bolshevik agitators in cities throughout Left-Bank Ukraine. On 27 January the Bolshevik army groups converged on Bakhmach and then set off under the command of Mikhail Muravev to take Kyiv.

The Central Rada prepared for the defense of the capital by sending advance forces of volunteers to Poltava and Bakhmach. One of those, the Student Battalion, was annihilated by a vastly larger 4, troops Bolshevik force at the Battle of Kruty , km northeast of Kyiv, on 29 January.

As the Soviet advance continued, an attempt was made to take Kyiv through an uprising organized by non-Ukrainian workers based at the Arsenal plant. Fighting broke out on 29 January and continued until 4 February, when the revolt was put down by a newly formed contingent of the Sich Riflemen and the Free Cossacks. Meanwhile the Bolshevik expeditionary force continued to move on the capital from Bakhmach and Lubny. On 8 February the Ukrainian government was forced to evacuate the city.

Soviet troops under Mikhail Muravev's command entered Kyiv on 9 February and then carried out brutal reprisals against the Ukrainian civilian population. After taking Kyiv the Bolsheviks launched an offensive in Right-Bank Ukraine , where they were engaged in battle mainly with Free Cossack forces.

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The tide changed following Ukraine's signature of the Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the entry of German and Austrian troops into the conflict in late February as allies of the Central Rada. With a Ukrainian command of Gen K.

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Alarmed by the changed military situation, Vladimir Lenin ordered his representative in Ukraine, Grigorii Ordzhonikidze, to Ukrainize at least ostensibly the predominantly Russian forces of Volodymyr Antonov-Ovsiienko and Mikhail Muravev in a bid for more popular support. The maneuver proved unsuccessful. Continuing military setbacks gave Soviet Russia little choice but to comply with the articles of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and to sign a preliminary peace with the Ukrainian government on 12 June December to December The Soviet attack proceeded on several fronts.

A southern group proceeded from the Kremenchuk - Katerynoslav region through Znamianka toward the Birzula —Koziatyn—Zhmerynka line in an effort to cut off the UNR troops from possible reinforcement by Entente forces.

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At a critical moment Otaman Nykyfor Hryhoriv threw his support behind them. The third Bolshevik army group proceeded from Kyiv to the Berdychiv —Koziatyn—Zhmerynka line in an effort to keep the northern and southern wings of the UNR Army divided. The Bolshevik forces retaliated in April after the withdrawal of Entente troops by marching on Zhmerynka and dividing the UNR army's southern flank from the force's main body. The southern group subsequently lost the support of Otaman Omelian Volokh and was forced to retreat into Romania, where it was disarmed eventually returning through Galicia to Volhynia.

At the same time, the UNR army was pushed back to a small parcel of territory approx 40—50 km wide in the Dubno - Brody region of southwestern Volhynia. Its position was weakened further with a coup attempt by one of its commanding officers, Volodymyr Oskilko.

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The UNR Army's fortunes improved as Ukrainian peasants , disgruntled by the Bolsheviks' anti-Ukrainian policy and high requisition quotas, started to replenish insurgent ranks. But before the army itself could regroup, it faced an assault by Polish forces in the Lutsk region and advances from the Red Army in the north and southeast that took Rivne , Shepetivka, Proskuriv, and even Kamianets-Podilskyi. The UNR then reached a peace agreement with the Poles and reorganized its army into four groups—the Sich Riflemen and the Zaporozhian Corps , Volhynian Corps, and Southwestern Corps—with a total of approx 15, soldiers.

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The Red Army retaliated at the end of the month with a campaign that regained Proskuriv 5 July and approached Kamianets-Podilskyi, which had been made the UNR's provisional capital. The UNR was then strengthened by the arrival of Yurii Tiutiunnyk with troops formerly under Nykyfor Hryhoriv , who had worked his way through the Reds' southern flank.

The UNR Army launched a campaign which pushed the Bolshevik forces back to the Horodok [see Horodok Khmelnytskyi oblast ]—Yarmolyntsi— Sharhorod —Dunaivtsi—Nova Ushytsia—Vapniarka line before being joined by UHA troops who had crossed the Zbruch River on 16—17 July; their arrival brought together a combined Ukrainian force of nearly 85, regulars and 15, partisans.

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On 31 August the Ukrainian troops entered Kyiv, only to discover that soldiers from Anton Denikin 's Volunteer Army had arrived at the same time. Hostilities between the two forces were narrowly averted when the combined Ukrainian forces pulled out of the city. The Bolsheviks took advantage of the Ukrainians' standoff with Denikin's troops to move some of their forces from the Katerynoslav region to Zhytomyr.

Meanwhile the leadership of the UNR and UHA split over how to deal with Denikin, a situation exacerbated by an outbreak of typhus among the troops. The military situation had worsened as Bolshevik forces, which had made substantial gains in Right-Bank Ukraine 's areas formerly controlled by Denikin's troops, and the Poles moved into the western reaches of Ukraine. At a conference on 4 December the army decided to suspend regular military operations in favor of underground partisan warfare. December to November In addition to that action the UNR government concluded the Treaty of Warsaw on 22 April, and then launched a joint offensive with Polish troops against the Bolsheviks.

By 7 May a Ukrainian division under the command of Marko Bezruchko entered Kyiv , but the success was short-lived. After the decisive battle of 15 September the Polish-Ukrainian forces threw the Bolshevik contingent back as far as the Sharhorod — Bar —Lityn line in Podilia.

The Poles concluded a separate peace with the Soviets on 18 October. The 23,strong UNR force continued fighting until 21 October, when its position became untenable. Those competing interpretations ignited fiery debates in the s and remain unresolved today. How we name and define this most controversial of American wars is not a narrow scholarly exercise, but profoundly shapes public memory of its meaning and ongoing significance to American national identity and foreign policy.

As President Lyndon B. Its object is total conquest. Further raising the stakes, policymakers warned that if South Vietnam fell to Communism, neighboring countries would inevitably fall in turn, one after another, like a row of dominoes. Three decades later, Robert McNamara, a key architect of the Vietnam War who served as defense secretary for both Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, renounced those wartime claims — the very ones he and others had invoked to justify the war.

He attributed the failure to a lack of knowledge and judgment. If only he had understood the fervor of Vietnamese nationalism, he wrote, if only he had known that Hanoi was not the pawn of Beijing or Moscow, if only he had realized that the domino theory was wrong, he might have persuaded his presidential bosses to withdraw from Vietnam.

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Millions of lives would have been saved. If only. In fact, however, in the s, when McNamara advocated massive military escalation in Vietnam, he simply rejected or ignored any evidence that contradicted Cold War orthodoxy. In the work of the scholar-journalist Bernard Fall, the pages of I. It should have been no surprise, therefore, that Vietnamese revolutionaries perceived the United States as a neocolonial power when it committed its own military forces in the next war.

Moreover, critics argued, the primary roots of opposition to the American-backed government in Saigon were indigenous and deep rooted, not just in North Vietnam, but throughout the South. Indeed, from the late s through the mids the bulk of Communist-led fighting was carried out by southern guerrillas of the National Liberation Front, known to its enemies as the Vietcong.