Accessibility Help. Email or Phone Password Forgot account? See more of Shanti Gaia on Facebook. Log In. Forgot account? Not Now. Visitor Posts. Daniel Medeiros Martins. Como muitos maridos, t See More. Talita Bridum. Entre os dias Information about Page Insights Data. Next therapeutic experiential retreat "heal me from me" "each must be responsible for his transformation and transformation". Heal me came up when, a few months ago, I heard the song of flaira ferro of the same title.
The view until June 15th 1. Shanti Gaia shared a post. The course starts Saturday at 09 am, with the 08 pm we will serve breakfast. Includes: Yoga class, food, hosting, apostille. Can be installments. Accommodation in double or triple luxury apartment. Change the world for good, accept my gender, love—this is the burden of the heart!
A scrape. I am scraped. Torta 2 like pie, lemon pie. Sour like me. Scribbled like line-shaped clouds formed by airplanes in the sky.
Indefinite color of a crayon. In the scrape of my body, in the wax of my body, in the crayon of my arm, in the color of my eyes, in the taste of my mouth, in the bittersweet of sex, of my naked lips. In the scrape of my body I discovered the sky. That airplane line scrawling the sky is my body scribbling on paper. They called my lemon pie apple pie. I am the uneven scrape of a beautiful pie! I am a crayon. I am the scrape of life. I am the Being. I became a completely invisible being. An invisible object. An invisible thing. Something invisible. Before, the Invisibility cloak tried to cover me completely, but I would twist and turn and sneak out the edges, you know?
Before, it was hard to get a date, for example. I was always left out. But if I stretched my arms one way or another, if I persisted a little here or there, I could make it work. I always spoke of solitude. But now that the cloak covers me completely, the taste is even bitterer, more and more bitter. Bitter, bitter even; I began to wonder if that was just my taste. If I was a fruit with a sweet start but a bitter finish, rotten, bad, almost unbearable.
If before I was the last fruit to leave the bowl, today I rot in the bowl. And yet, I wait. An effort. I exert. Before the cloak covered me completely, I knew that pale fruits, fruits with beautiful curled or smooth spikes, were preferred. I kept my arms stretched out and in the end or in something after the end someone showed up.
We did it. I left. Now the dryness punishes me, but it comes disguised in various little adjectives ranging from bestie to boss to the diva who slays—but never lover, girlfriend, partner. The cloak has already covered me completely. Before, I used to read about the loneliness of the black body. Now I need to understand the loneliness of the black trans body. Is it when the cloak covers you completely? Today, I find myself asking: is anything even capable of tearing off this cloak? Are You Going To Help?
The group, which uses debauchery as their guide to survival, embraces a polyphony of body discourses and a diversity of languages in their performances. I recommend listening to La guerrillera by Soledad Bravo while reading this text. To write about pain, one must listen closely and one must live. Pain is a lived thing, it has color, and its palette is, in its vast majority, black, indigenous, Arab, Latina, Asian.
Pain has a non-white aesthetic. Pain comes together with the concept of the Aryan race and it speaks English, French, Spanish, German, it speaks patriarchy, its voice silences and destroys without any intention of building anew. The voice of pain splits the bodies that suffer on the battlefield, in concentration camps, in peripheries, in forests, in factories, on the streets. Territory de-territorializes and, in all of its diversity, we, the south, reverberate: multiple, diverse, rich.
Raw material. This is the echo of the voices of the Public Enemies of the world! Let it reverberate from the heights of the Andes, from the middle of the desert… , , From the past that paints the future-present, from the present that translates into something of rebellion. The subject subjected to fragmentation, dejection, the subject grounded in transformation, protagonist without protagonism. Public enemy number 1, 2, 3, 6 and a half billion people on a planet that believes itself sovereign on the basis of the macho-speak of cis-thought that jokes about the blithe murder of in human male beings, oh Holy Father, black, brown, Brazilian, Arab, Kurd, Congolese, Indian, indigenous, trans, Latin American streams of blood.
Return to territory, to mapping that calls me south after first calling itself north. I go south. I bring together the voices of the dead, lacerated, battered, disappeared, raped, tortured, bombed, murdered, enslaved. I flip my world map over and upside down. That is something truly threatening, so pay attention, it is a threat.
I threaten artistic structures and aesthetic systems and, most of all, theater and its methodology built on white Eurocentric cis heterosexual and frequently sexist thought. I evoke the possibility that Guerilla Art and Guerilla Theater, created in our South American continent during the Years of Lead, can re-emerge from an intersectional, Latin American, anti-fascist feminist point of view, with its ethics and aesthetics grounded in the methodology of presence.
Guerilla Theater and Guerilla Art for those who died in Latin American military dictatorships, for those who still carry this open wound from our history, along with that of colonization, and for those who are dying today. I evoke this original Latin American form of the carnivalesque, this form of thinking about art and politics. I threaten Operation Condor, which continues to act in our Pindorama 4 country known today as Brazil, an operation ordered on the false idea of a democracy built on bodies buried from through the present day, built on decimated cultures and the destruction of art.
I threaten using my body in extinction.
Using the death of my ancestors and my ancestral culture that today makes me a mongrel without a defined race, without identity, searching for fragments to construct something I lost, with the blood of murder and rape running through my mestizo veins. One who sits and another who stands. I threaten the aesthetic constructions by experimenting with fluid theory and stream of consciousness, clandestine and armed to the gunnels with poetry, hailing from a country in which dealing arms has been incentivized.
I threaten the structure of the United States acting as ally to Brazil, rallying once more against the other, aiming to kill:. Finally, this text is a meditation on political, artistic, and academic memory, which envisages the recent past as the present. A reflection on art and life and the ways in which they join with the practices of creation.
Weapon of the clandestine intellectualism of a mixed race woman blocked from taking ownership over her own choices. Practical-philosophical reflection replete with questions that places the us as subject on the territory that we occupy. Latin America, global south. It is a de-colonial treatise in legitimate defense. The boy asked the girl where the ze was. Then the boy suggested that she clean it up and she said that only after all that dust was gone could she possibly call herself ze. He made it even more dirty by ashing his cigarette on the floor and, once again, suggested that she begin cleaning.
My words refuse to let themselves be called a text. They are a set of memories and rants, ones grabbed while still in my throat and released in silence, amassing like a school of fish fleeing from something bigger and hungrier, poised to disappear into the waters, into the bloodied white page. We belong even though they erase us. We become da Silva, de Almeida, de Oliveira, de Alves… Belonging to all of the plantation owners and not to ourselves.
Fuck all of you! I know the city registers my body, looks me up and down. Documenting, interfering, during my simple act of going to the bakery, saying hello, existing. I am afraid of putting my body on the streets, it has been difficult, it has been unbelievable. Early mornings have always belonged to me, even before I belonged to them.
My body belongs to the dawn, slipping between alleyways, sleeping around in alleyways, waiting for the bus. Boy, get your hands out of your pockets, hide your cock. One more not belonging. My body pays a price on the basis of skin color and the gender constructed upon it. Gender is diffuse and ephemeral and, you see, that is why I belong to early mornings, to darkness, to secrets, to the void, to the whisper, to the rustling of trees, to the subtle touch that takes life out of bodies like mine day after day. This body: always an attempt to be something, never something in and of itself.
Everything is clear and conscious. Or were these lessons also lost? Just like the stories of my grandma, which are no longer lost because, now, I have learned to listen. I have already listened to so many things from so many people. Boy, the dust is now. Dust is the bodies that roam with no home, the mud is all of us. The mudslide already has us, taking with it our bodies and houses. Did I already tell you about Black Grandma?
Yes, one of those stories about your past that almost got lost between the non-memories and non-histories that your mom would tell. Name of a flower, name of great grandma, name of a song by Caetano, name of liberation, it means Divine Garden, just like grandma, who is a Garden of poetry. This performance was carried out with the intention of opening a conversation about personal autonomy, self-affirmation, and respect for diversity.
These are moments for integrating trans, cis, heterosexual, and homosexual people, people in a state of homelessness, visual artists, and liberal teachers; it is open to people of all ethnicities, races, genders, sexualities, socio-economic classes, and ages. Disa 18 with any curriola 19 and care for me, since I know, as your child, that I was born from you. A sensual movement that stimulates literary production as a strategy for the production of knowledge and the documentation of memories. More than fifty texts written by members of this collective, spanning the genres of prose, poetry, and manifesto, have already been catalogued.
These works have not yet been published in print form. At the same time, all of those who received documents receive a blessing and are registered in photographic lacre. We are poetry of subversive body and fighting force We dare to make everyday Resistance our Existence and our face is every part art. Eu me alegrei tanto e agora estou decepcionada. Justa causa para haver o impeachment desse presidente…. A gente tem que ver o que vai ser bom e o que vai ser pior ainda se tiver o impeachment. O risco. Sou riscado. O risco de uma linha que nada de torta tem, mas tudo de torta tem.
Azedo igual eu. Docinho quando estou feliz. De uma cor indefinida de giz de cera. Tudo se resolveu! Sou o risco torto de uma torta linda! Sou um giz de cera. Sou o risco da vida. Sou o Ser.
Fui muito preterida. Mas hoje que a capa me cobriu por inteira, eu sinto ainda e cada vez mais amargo esse gosto. Amargo, amargo inclusive; comecei a questionar se esse era realmente o meu gosto. E ainda assim espero. Quem sabe pra um suco serve, uma vitamina, uma salada serve. Talvez seja quando os pretos somem e os brancos, bom, eles continuam nos seus mesmos lugares. Que ecoa do alto dos Andes, do meio do deserto… , , Junto das vozes de corpos mortos, dilacerados, machucados, desaparecidos, estuprados, torturados, bombardeados, assassinados, escravizados.
Pertencemos tanto que nos apagaram. Here, she sits down with Artememoria to explain how she pioneered a political and cultural outcry against racism in a society that feigns color blindness. Artememoria : Tell me about how you first became interested in writing in general, and in journalism more specifically.
I read almost all of James Baldwin, who was a key author in my literary, political, and emotional education. I identify with those authors. I also inherited the practice of writing from my father. My dad always wrote. He was the neighborhood block association representative. He was the one who wrote up meeting minutes and neighborhood demands, who wrote prayers. I inherited writing from him. Journalism taught me to meet people and to listen.
More than just listening, it taught me to put the stories I heard on paper. And journalism taught me to do that in such a way that anyone from a domestic worker to a higher-up in the literary academy would understand what I had written. I observe our society and I am a victim of our society, and my actions are part of the historic liberation movement tied to issues of race in this country.
Artememoria : Was there a specific moment in your youth that you began to get involved in political and social activism? Pereira: My childhood was very rich because my grandmother raised me. My mother died when I was three years old, and my grandmother was a feminist, even though she worked in the home.
My black feminism comes from her. She was a matriarch who raised my brother and me. That world was a total nightmare for me. I was in public school and the teacher made the girls who talked during class sit under the desks. The girls who had to go under their desks were always the poorest black girls, you know? I came from a lower middle class background in financial terms, but my dad received a standard salary as a government employee, my grandmother received a pension, and my uncle also worked.
But seeing those little black girls going under their desks — the ones who came from poorer backgrounds, which you could see in the way they dressed and acted and all of that — it terrified me. I remember that I stayed completely silent. I got on behavior and bad grades in every other subject. That affected me psychologically, and I had to repeat first grade. My dad was a visionary, taking me out of that school. I sat in the first row and the teacher loved me. We had big tables, and a few different girls could sit at each one.
That was such an important phase of my life. During those years, I became best friends with other black girls. I remember how they made me feel comfortable in that context. In that school, I was around people who were like me. I grew up in an environment in which my dad, poor thing, denied racism. He saw racism as something destructive to black people in every way.
He thought black people had to adapt in order to join society in order to not suffer, in order to be accepted. But the thing is, my grandmother also raised me, and she was old school. She never told me to straighten out my hair. She always kept my hair in braids. And when afros were in fashion, I had one, and it was huge! She did it up nice. My dad got me a scholarship for me to study at Mackenzie, an American school. Only the most elite students attended that school.
The other girls who studied there had been studying at Mackenzie practically since they were born. A lot of them spoke English at home because they were foreign. I was one of two black students, and the other was a boy who studied engineering. I had to go from the periphery in the North Zone to study there in Mackenzie. And just getting to Mackenzie high school would take two hours. Two hours to get there, two hours to get back home.
I barely had any time to study. I started to feel racial discrimination when I studied at Mackenzie. Men are manipulated to reproduce all of the values of the dominant class. And one value of the dominant class is that women are inferior, and black women more inferior still, so they have to be even more disrespected. Once, when I was 16, I went to the movies. I was wearing a blue shirt and sat with a friend. The color of my skin. Boys were always the most discriminatory, the ones who were the most explicit in their racism. They continue to reproduce the values of the dominant class, which is the way they were raised.
Imagine taking a black girl home back then, more than 40 years ago. Even friendships were questioned. Imagine a black girlfriend. It was impossible in the world we were brought up in, in which standards of intelligence and beauty were defined by whiteness. I was afraid to speak up in certain situations. I felt like I had to stay quiet, that I had to study more, but all of that was a product of my background. If you want to achieve something, if you want to have a decent job and survive, you need to study. I write more than I speak. That was a huge barrier. You had that idea in your head without reading anything about it, simply because white people were the ones who raised their hands, the ones who were confident in their argumentative power, the ones who could say whatever nonsense they wanted in class and no one would pay any attention to it.
But if a black person raised their hand, the entire class would turn to see what they were going to say, to see if they were going to say something stupid. That was intimidating. Artememoria : It sounds like a long process of growing conscious about racism. A process of becoming conscious about what racism is and how it relates to those who want to maintain ideologies of white supremacy. I knew all about self-acceptance because of my grandmother, so this was never hugely traumatic for me.
I lived with her until I was 27 years old. But when I went to that other world, I did start to feel that kind of discourse. But then the era of the student movement began. In the midst of dictatorship there were marches demanding that the regime be toppled, that the oppression of all different social sectors had to end.
I was studying next door during one of the most intense crackdowns of a dictatorship that lasted for two decades. There were bombs, the police were always there. And I came from the periphery, witnessing those historic events as I entered Mackenzie high school. Artememoria : Did you participate in the movement against the dictatorship at that time? Alone, too, because I was the only one who studied in Mackenzie from my neighborhood in the periphery.
I would go to the marches out of curiosity, not because of ideology. I was also a student and I wanted to know what was going on with those other students and workers holding signs. I also started to see what was going on with the civil rights movement in the United States. That really woke me up. Our media gave airtime to the civil rights liberation movement because it was American. And I started paying attention to these movements in the United States, since I already identified with what was Americanized. What music did I listen to?
American music. Which artists did I know about? American artists. Who was the king of my generation? Elvis Presley. Of course, no one said that everything Elvis learned came from Harlem, that he went to Harlem and found rock music, but that he was accepted because he was white. My world started to open up. We were the lowest of the low in Brazil because that idea of racial democracy reigned supreme. Now, the way the TV portrayed what was going on in the US — everything except for Martin Luther King — made black people seem like troublemakers. Television and media only represent a specific sector of society, that of the dominant class.
Artememoria : That last comment is an interesting point of intersection between racial struggle and class struggle. How did you see the dynamic between movements for racial justice and socialist movements in Brazil during the dictatorship? But we were seen as entirely communist. I thought Martin Luther King was so wholesome. He was a person with really excellent principles who believed in humanity, so much so that he was assassinated. Malcom X, who later would become one of my idols, was also assassinated.
But he provoked society, he attacked society. He even argued for separation, a black United States and a white one, because there was never going to be equality and there was never even going to be dialogue. Here, nothing came close to dialogue because the dictatorship implanted racial democracy as public policy, and various thinkers corroborated that philosophy. So what did we have? Was it this national and international context that led you to write that piece?
It was very hard for me to get a job as a journalist, and I needed to work. I had been part of the counter-culture. When I discovered the hippie movement, I really identified with it because it was a movement about all kinds of freedom for young people. They had those beautiful clothes, amazing musicians, Woodstock. I started to go camping with friends on far off beaches and wore long colored skirts. We would date around because we were in favor of free love.
A profession for upper-middle-class white people. I was thoroughly mistreated and was assigned the worst stories and the worst hours. Journalism in Brazil was, as it is today, an entirely unstable profession. When there were cuts, who was at the top of the list? I was. I went to local papers and worked in revision. She does not like that she is treated differently.
Girl, do you feel any sort of racism here? She was working for a boss who maybe treated her well, who paid her salary on time. My dad and I just looked at each other. That confirmed it. They saw black women as domestic workers, prostitutes, or people who would serve you. So they would ask themselves, how could I, as a white person, me, as the owner of this newspaper, send this person out to cover a business meeting? How could I send her out to interview a doctor?
I had a friend who was a photographer, one of the best, and he worked at Jornal da Tarde , the most revolutionary newspaper in the Brazilian press in the 70s. He had to work on a piece about Erasmos Dias , who was a terror during the dictatorship. He was the man who invaded the Pontifical Catholic University. Erasmos Dias looked at the photographer and called the newspaper to say, how dare you send me this unkempt black person in sandals? Send him back. It was in this context that I identified with the counter-culture aspect of the Black Panthers.
I shared their socialist views, because I wanted to change society and was not in favor of capitalism, but I also saw the new aesthetic they had, the way they did their hair, wore leather jackets, celebrated the idea of black is beautiful, you know? It valued our culture. All of this went into my head when I was 18, 19, 20 years old. And all of it was new: I was discovering counterculture, the hippie movement, civil rights, resistance to the dictatorship here in Brazil, a movement that permeated all social classes.
All of these sectors were struggling against the status quo, which was a state of exception that was arresting, killing, cornering everyone, that was censoring all of the art and writing. I thought, this is the kind of paper I need to work at. Artememoria : What brought you to Versus specifically, and what the environment of that publication like? How did you organize that initiative?
They were the publications I identified with most. I went around to various leftist newspapers. There are people on the left who think like that to this day. I read Jornal da Tarde , which was a very liberal paper with excellent writers who had almost a literary approach to journalistic writing, and the editors of Versus were from Jornal da Tarde. Versus was a Trotskyist newspaper, but it was open to any journalism that had freedom of expression as its goal.
It was an open-minded publication. At least they kept the thing instead of sending me away with an apology. After three or four days they told me that they thought it was a great piece and that they were going to publish it. And they did publish it: an article written by a woman, discussing discrimination. I wrote the manifesto about discrimination against black women, something that I, as an individual, felt.
They must suffer more than I do.
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It was a way for me to vent about the way I felt treated in the world and why I refused to accept it. The people who ended up accepting it were men. White, bourgeois, intellectual men from Rio Grande do Sul.
She is almost my contemporary and, like me, she was thinking about racism. I broke through glass ceilings because I had to. I had to work, which meant working with others. I wanted them to give me space because black people needed to speak out. We needed to join the resistance movement that was growing in every sector of Brazilian society. There was a writer at Versus, Oswaldo de Camargo , who worked in the newsroom along with Marcos Faerman.
He said that he felt it was the moment for black people to speak out because, at that moment, every social group was unified in one common goal: to take down the dictatorship, the state of exception. He talked about this in the newsroom, and thank the orishas, I walked in with my manifesto, my article. After that, I was always in the newsroom because I liked the environment.
There was an influx of visual artists, writers, journalists, and musicians that came from all over Brazil. I stayed there, observing that space, and then the editors came to me and said: we want to give you space to work here with us. Do you know any black journalists? We want to give you guys stories. I was the first black journalist that they had seen.
I remember going to Hamilton Bernardes Cardoso , a poet who made a living reciting his poetry in bars. We would look at revolutionary movements in Brazil, Latin America, the United States, and Africa from a black perspective. The newspaper approached Latin America as a whole. Eduardo Galeano would frequent the newsroom and all Latin American writers had a voice in the paper. Permanent revolution. Trotsky said that socialism will never succeed unless it spreads globally.
An article questions the myth of racial democracy. Versus was key to my intellectual and political education. I had access to so many books there. I discovered Frantz Fanon, who was maybe the first black psychiatrist who discussed the psychological consequences of racism, not only for black people, but also for white people. It was because of the Black Panthers that I was able to reach the conclusion of my blackness, and my blackness was made up of black literature. I became an urban woman. I had this desire within me to explore the world, to discover the transformative power of human thought, one that sought to change the society in which I found it so hard to circulate, to act in a profession for which I had all of the requirements.
When you want to fight a system, you need to have another one to put in its place, and what did we want to put in its place? Something that we thought was more just, that would give more opportunities to people, that was less racist, that was more tolerant, that understood difference, that would create a new Brazil, that would expand our knowledge on an international scale, that would create an exchange of knowledge. Artememoria : You were arguing for all of these changes in the context of a military dictatorship. How did you manage to communicate openly about these issues while the dictatorial regime was in power?
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Then, five heuristic evaluators were selected and asked to visit all the pages determined by the students using the developed heuristics while evaluating each website. The results proved that the ranking of the three universities at Eduroute was an indicator regarding the overall usability of the sites; the first ranked university at Eduroute had the lowest number of usability problems identified by the evaluators, while the least ranked university had the largest number of usability problems.
The heuristic evaluators also identified fourteen common usability problems on the three tested websites related to navigation, design, content, and ease of use and communication. Keywords: Usability, university ranking system, Eduroute, Jordan, heuristic. However, the aim of their websites differed over time due to technological advances, and the increasing number of Internet users.
Nowadays, academic websites become a vital part of academic institutions, and one of their most visible faces Peterson, Therefore, the aim of the websites for the academic institutions has changed. Early research indicated that higher education websites aimed to: Recruit major stakeholders of academic institutions i. As the importance of academic institution websites has increased with the increasing number of academic websites, and number of Internet users, the importance of university ranking websites, which review, and rank university websites, has increased as well. In fact, university ranking systems are gaining importance for at least two main reasons.
The first relates to the fact that they provide the educational seeker i. The second reason relates to the fact that they provide an impetus for academic institutions to perform better. There are many university ranking systems, which are based on different indicators, i. Eduroute is one of the major university ranking systems, which evaluates quality of a university website, and its content.
Pedro Seabra | ISCTE - University Institute of Lisbon (ISCTE-IUL) - xuxixutiqevy.gq
However, there is a lack of research which investigates the findings obtained from usability evaluation methods i. This research aims to investigate the possibility of predicting the usability of educational websites using a university ranking system called Eduroute. This paper is organized as follows. Section two presents earlier research which employed the heuristic evaluation method in the evaluation of the usability of academic institution websites. Section three provides a summary of the major university ranking systems together with their indicators.
Section four presents the methodology used by this research. Section five presents the results. Section six presents the discussion, and finally section seven concludes the paper. Usability has been defined as: "A measure of the quality of a user's experience when interacting with a product or system - whether a web site, a software application, mobile technology, or any user operated device" Anonymous, Heuristic evaluation is an example of a common usability method related to evaluator-based methods, which include methods that involve evaluators in the process of identifying usability problems.
Only a few studies were found in the literature that evaluated the usability of educational websites. The study was conducted by two experts who evaluated, and rated the sites based on Likertscale against five characteristics: Information content, navigation, usability, customization and download speed, and security. The authors indicated that the tested websites had usability problems related to old content, and inappropriate layout, which made it difficult for users to locate the information of interest.
The checklist was categorized into four major sections: Finding information, understanding the information, supporting user tasks, and presenting information. The results showed that the sites had several usability problems, including: Lack of a site map, old content, lack of navigational tools or site index that help students to find information on the sites, and inconsistency problems.
The results also showed that the Thai websites have additional problems, such as: Ineffective internal search functions, and language problems i. Alternatively, Pierce employed user testing, and heuristic evaluation methods to comprehensively evaluate the usability of the Harvard University website.
Nielsen et al. The results identified several design problems on the site, related mainly to: Lack of navigational tools, inconsistency in navigation throughout the site i. Harvard Library , and an inappropriate presentation of content on the home page i. The usability assessment was conducted by five evaluators; two were usability specialists while the other three were. The results revealed that the heuristic evaluation method was an effective, and useful method which identified 38 usability problems, most of which were not previously detected. Examples of the usability problems that were identified on the website are: Lack of navigational support links i.
The usability guidelines which were used in the evaluation consisted of five categories: Content, organization and readability, navigation and links, user interface design, performance and effectiveness, and educational information. The studies outlined above proved the usefulness of the heuristic evaluation method regarding its ability to identify various types of usability problems on educational websites. They provided useful examples regarding various types of usability problems that could be found on educational websites from the viewpoint of evaluators.
This section presents a summary of the major university ranking systems, and their indicators. Universities and colleges worldwide are ranked by 4ICU by the popularity of their websites. These data were extracted using Google. The source used in this evaluation is Scopus, the world's largest abstract, and citation database of research literature. Universities are ranked by the ARWU using several indicators of academic or research performance, including alumni and staff winning Nobel prizes and field medals, highly cited researchers, papers published in Nature and Science, papers indexed in major citation indices, and the per capita academic performance of an institution.
The number of highly cited researchers in 21 subject categories is also considered. Only publications of 'Article' and 'Proceedings Paper' types are considered. The aim was to find a university ranking system, which considers quality of a university website through its indicators. Eduroute indicated that the first three indicators volume, online scientific information, and quality of links, and content measure quality of both content and navigation of a university website.
It provides examples on issues that are usually considered while ranking a university website, such as: If the content of a university website is updated regularly; if a university website presents all the required information, and the degree of investments and efforts a university has put into its website. Therefore, Eduroute was selected since the issues it considers are similar to the usability issues included in many heuristic guidelines that are used to evaluate the usability of different types of websites, including educational websites.
These issues are also included in the heuristic guidelines that were used in this research Table1. In order to evaluate the usability of the studied educational websites using the heuristic evaluation method, two documents were developed: Heuristic guidelines, and a list of tasks.
The developed heuristics were organized into five major categories. Table1 displays the categories, and the subcategories of the developed heuristics. The categories and subcategories of the developed heuristic guidelines. Navigation: Assesses whether a site includes main tools i. Ease of use and communication: Relates to the existence of basic information which facilitates communications with a university using different ways.
Quick downloading of web pages; easy interaction with a website; contact us information; foreign language support. Design: Relates to the visual attractiveness of a site's design; the appropriate design of a site's pages, and the appropriate use of images, fonts and colors in the design of a site. Aesthetic design; appropriate use of images; appropriate choice of fonts; appropriate choice of colors; appropriate page design; consistency.
Up-to-date information; relevant information; no under-construction pages; accurate Information; information about the university; information about faculties; information about departments. The -list of tasks- document includes ten tasks, which represent the pages students visit usually on a university website. The questionnaire was provided to students from various departments at one of the universities in Jordan as part of this research.
Five evaluators participated in this research; two usability specialist and three web experts. The evaluators were asked to visit all pages included in the list of tasks, and to use the developed heuristic guidelines, which presented in Table 1, while evaluating each website.
The evaluation was done independently by each evaluator, and completed over four months May to August Each heuristic sub-. These problems were classified, and similar problems were grouped together to identify common areas of usability problems on each website. These were examined to identify common areas of usability problems across the three websites. Consequently, fourteen problem sub-themes were generated, which correspond to four main problem-themes. The list of problem themes and sub-themes is explained in the results.
In order to determine the level of usability of the three studied university websites, and because of the fact that not all the university pages were investigated, a usability index was identified in this research, and calculated for the three websites. The usability index represent the number of usability problems found on a website divided by the average number of pages investigated on the site.
Based on the indicators used by Eduroute to rank universities, the results could indicate that generally the website of Hashemite University had the best overall design quality in terms of its content, and navigation compared to the websites of both the University of Jordan and Yarmouk University, while the website of Yarmouk University had the worst design quality compared to the other websites. The results also could indicate that the website of Hashemite University had the lowest usability problems compared to the other tested websites, while the website of Yarmouk University had the highest usability problems.
The results obtained from Eduroute were consistent with the findings obtained from the analysis of the heuristic evaluation. Table 2 presents the findings of this research which showed that the usability index as identified in this research for the website of Hashemite University was the lowest, indicating that it has the lowest number of usability problems per investigated pages, while the website of Yarmouk University has the highest usability index compared to the other tested websites, indicating that it has the highest number of usability problems per investigated pages.
Table 2. Usability index for the three websites. Hashemite University. An analysis of the qualitative data obtained from the heuristic evaluators provided comprehensive and detailed comments regarding the common areas of usability problems that were found on the three university websites. Fourteen common. These fourteen problem sub-themes suggested identifying four main problem themes based on the types of the identified problems.
The four problem themes are related to: Navigation, design, content, and ease of use and communication. Tables show the fourteen problem sub-themes grouped according to their themes, the description of each problem, and the number of usability problems identified on each website. Five common navigational problems were identified on the tested websites, as shown in Table 3.
The results show that large numbers of weak navigational support problems were identified on the websites of Hashemite University, and Yarmouk University. For example, it was found that these websites had pages related to various departments which did not have a navigational menu or links to go back to the corresponding department i. The results also show that the three websites had usability problems related to misleading links. For example, the link related to the name of the chairman for all the departments of Hashemite University opened a page that was not expected by the evaluators; it opened a page that displays an introduction to the department instead of information about the chairman of the department.
Also, the results show that the websites of Hashemite University, and the University of Jordan had large number of broken links, while the website of Yarmouk University had large number of orphan pages. Table 3. Usability problems sub-themes related to navigation problem themes that were identified on the three websites. Problem Theme. Description of the Problem A page did not have a navigational menu or links to other pages in the site.
The destination page, which was opened by the link, was not expected by users because the link name did not match the content of the destination page. The site had pages with broken links. The site had dead end pages that did not have any links. The internal search did not work properly. Four common usability problems were identified on the tested websites regarding their design, as shown in Table 4. The large number of inconsistency problems that was found on the sites is related to inconsistency in the language interface.
This is related to links at the English language interface, which opened pages that displayed content in the Arabic language, and vice versa. Other common inconsistency problems that were identified on the sites consist of: Inconsistency in the font case capital and small , inconsistency in the font size, inconsistency in the font style regular and bold , inconsistency in the content, and inconsistency in the alignment of the header.
Also, the results show that all the websites had a large number of usability problems related to an inappropriate page design. Furthermore, the results show that all the websites had usability problems related to the images that were presented on their pages. The problems are mainly related to poor quality, and broken images. Finally, Table 4 shows that the websites of Hashemite University, and the University of Jordan had usability problems regarding pages with an inappropriate combination of background and font colors.
Table 4. Usability problems sub-themes related to design problem themes that were identified on the three websites. A page did not clearly represent its content or it had an inappropriate design, such as being cluttered or had inappropriate headings. The site had images of poor quality, or it had some broken images on some pages i. The site used an inappropriate combination of background and link colors. Table 5 presents the common usability problems identified on the websites regarding content.
The results show that the websites of Hashemite University, and the University of Jordan presented outdated information on their pages. Examples on these pages include: News, announcements, events, and faculty members committee pages on Hashemite University website; and latest news, activities, and faculty council pages on the University of Jordan website. The results also show that all the websites had a large number of usability problems regarding irrelevant content that was presented on their pages. The common usability problems that were found on the websites regarding this type of problems related to: Missing information about the faculty members, and courses related to various departments of the tested websites, and also empty pages.
Furthermore, the results show that the content of the tested websites was not reviewed carefully; many spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors were found. Table 5. Usability problems sub-themes related to content problem themes that were identified on the three websites. Description of the Problem The content of a page was outdated.
The content of a page was not clear to users. For example, there was missing information about courses or faculty members. Also, pages displayed an unclear message, had repetitive content, or empty content. For example, it had spelling errors, grammatical errors, or punctuations were inaccurate. Table 6 presents the identified usability problems on the three tested websites regarding the ease of use and communication.
The results show that it was not easy to interact with the websites in order to visit some pages, such as course schedule page on the website of the University of Jordan. The results also show that Hashemite University, and the University of Jordan websites had problems related to the fact that they did not support the Arabic language.
The language interface of the Hashemite University website including its 13 faculties, and their corresponding departments was written only in the English language. Regarding the University of Jordan website, it was found that most of its faculties 16 out of 18 , and their corresponding departments were presented using only the English language.
However, Yarmouk University website. Table 6. Usability problems sub-themes related to ease of use and communication problem themes that were identified on the three websites. This research proved that the results obtained from the Eduroute university ranking system regarding the order of the top three universities in Jordan for the year were indicators of the overall number of usability problems identified on the three websites. The website of the top first university in Jordan according to Eduroute had the lowest number of usability problems among the other two websites according to the heuristic evaluation method, whilst the website of the top third university had the highest number of usability problems.
The results of this research suggest an additional advantage for making educational websites usable. Research has offered some advantages that can be gained if the usability of educational websites is considered or improved. This research proved that considering the usability of educational websites could improve the ranking of a university website at one of the major university ranking systems Eduroute.
It is suggested that educational institutions could conduct usability studies in order to improve the usability of their websites and therefore to obtain the advantages of usable educational websites. Despite the fact that this research concerned with comparing the results obtained from a university ranking system to the results obtained from a famous usability evaluation method heuristic evaluation , it offered usable results regarding common types of usability problems that could be found on educational websites, which is comparable to the results obtained from earlier research.
Earlier research, which evaluated the usability of educational websites using the heuristic evaluation method, provided examples of the usability problems that could be found on such websites, as summarized in Section 2. These problems related specifically to: Outdated content, lack. These were confirmed by the results of this research. Specific examples of problems identified in this research were discussed in Section 5. These usability problems include: Misleading links, broken links, orphan pages, problems with images, irrelevant information, difficult interaction with a website, and a lack of support to the Arabic language.
These results, together with the results obtained from earlier research, provide useful information to educational institutions regarding common types of usability problems that could be found on their websites. These issues should be taken into consideration, and should be investigated, and improved in order to improve the overall usability of educational websites, and therefore to obtain the advantages of making educational websites usable.
This research investigated the possibility of predicting usability of educational websites using a university ranking system called Eduroute. Then, a comparison between the results obtained by the heuristic evaluation method, and the results obtained by Eduroute was made. The results showed that the ranking of the three websites was an indicator to the overall usability of the sites; the first ranked university at Eduroute had the lowest number of usability problems per investigated pages, while the least ranked university had the largest number of usability problems.
The results also described fourteen common usability problems that could be found on a university website, which related to four problem themes that were identified in this research, and related to: Navigation, design, content, and ease of use and communications. This research has implications for research and practice.
Implications for research: This research is the first to investigate the possibility of predicting usability of educational websites using a university ranking system called Eduroute by making a comparison between the results obtained by Eduroute regarding the top three universities in Jordan, and the results obtained by the heuristic evolution method. This research offers a base for future research. Future research is needed to investigate the results obtained by Eduroute and the heuristic evaluation method using a large sample, which could be selected from different countries.
Future research could also be conducted by considering other university ranking systems, which focus on the performance of universities e. Webometrics, QS World University Rankings, Shanghai ranking to investigate the usability of the top universities in these ranking systems. Implications for practice: The results of this research have three implications for practice. The first concerned raising awareness among universities, specifically in Jordan, regarding the importance of considering the usability of their websites in order to improve the ranking of their university website in one of the major university ranking systems Eduroute.
Such clarifications could also help and encourage them to fix the identified usability problems in order to improve the overall usability of their websites, enhance the effectiveness of their websites; and achieve the objectives of their universities i. The third implication relates to the fact that the results of this research could be important for other universities, which are willing to evaluate and improve the usability of their websites.
A limitation of this research is that only a small number of websites were selected; three Jordanian universities' websites, to conduct this research. As mentioned, further research should be conducted using a large number of universities' websites selected randomly from other countries. Agarwal, R. Information Systems Research, 13 2 , — Astani, M. Issues in Information Systems, 4, An empirical study of university websites. Issues in Information Systems, IX 2 , Gonzalez, M. Testing website usability in Spanish-speaking academia through heuristic evaluation and cognitive walkthrough.
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ABSTRACT Devising an information architecture system that enables an organization to centralize information regarding its operational, managerial and strategic performance is one of the challenges currently facing information technology. The present study aimed to analyze an information architecture system developed using Business Intelligence BI technology. The analysis was performed based on a questionnaire enquiring as to whether the information needs of executives were met during the process.
A theoretical framework was applied consisting of information architecture and BI technology, using a case study methodology. Results indicated that the transaction processing systems studied did not meet the information needs of company executives. Information architecture using data warehousing, online analytical processing OLAP tools and data mining may provide a more agile means of meeting these needs. However, some items must be included and others modified, in addition to improving the culture of information use by company executives.