Sicily’s Solar Report 2013 (Italian Edition)

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Weiss, M. Junginger, M. Patel, and K. Blok, "A review of experience curve analyses for energy demand technologies," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. Dahlan, M. Jusoh, and W. Sark, P. Muizebelt, J. Cace, A. Vries, and P. Wirth and K. Branker, M. Pathak, and J. Pearce, "A review of solar photovoltaic levelized cost of electricity," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol.

Darling, F. You, T. Veselka, and A. Bhandari and I. Stadler, "Grid parity analysis of solar photovoltaic systems in Germany using experience curves," Solar Energy, vol. Shum and C. Watanabe, "Towards a local learning innovation model of solar photovoltaic deployment," Energy Policy, vol.

Luque and S. Hegedus, "Achievements and challenges of solar electricity from photovoltaics," Handbook of photovoltaic science and engineering. Short, D. Packey, and T. Holt, A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies: University Press of the Pacific, Sevilgen, H. Cetin, A. Volkan Akkaya, and A. Hutchinson, S. Inwood, R. James, G. Ramachandran, J. Hamel, and C. Schmidt, R. Born, and M. Schneider, "Assessing the costs of photovoltaic and wind power in six developing countries," Nature Climate Change, vol.

Breyer, A. Gerlach, J. Mueller, H. Behacker, and A. Mundada, K.

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Pearce, "Levelized cost of electricity for solar photovoltaic, battery and cogen hybrid systems," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. Larsson, D. Fantazzini, S. Davidsson, S. Kullander, and M. Abdelhady, D.

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Borello, and E. Tortora, "Design of a small scale stand-alone solar thermal co-generation plant for an isolated region in Egypt," Energy Conversion and Management, vol.

Ondraczek, N. Komendantova, and A. Jakob, "The fair cost of renewable energy," Nature Climate Change, vol. Allan, M. Gilmartin, P. McGregor, and K. Lai and M. McCulloch, "Levelized cost of electricity for solar photovoltaic and electrical energy storage," Applied Energy, vol. Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. Moosavian, N. Selvaraj, and K. Solangi, "Energy policy to promote photovoltaic generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. Mitchell, D. Bauknecht, and P.

Connor, "Effectiveness through risk reduction: a comparison of the renewable obligation in England and Wales and the feed-in system in Germany," Energy Policy, vol. Bilharz, "Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand," Energy Policy, vol. Karneyeva and R. Haas, G. Lettner, H. Auer, and N. Duic, "The looming revolution: How photovoltaics will change electricity markets in Europe fundamentally," Energy, vol. Chowdhury, U. Sumita, A. Islam, and I. Timilsina, L. Kurdgelashvili, and P.

Ameli and D. Kammen, "Innovations in financing that drive cost parity for long-term electricity sustainability: An assessment of Italy, Europe's fastest growing solar photovoltaic market," Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. Seel, G. Barbose, and R. Pegels and W. Contrasting wind and solar PV," Energy Policy, vol. Huld, E. Dunlop, and H. Ossenbrink, "Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union member states and candidate countries," Solar Energy, vol.

Huld, R. Urban, S. Geall, and Y. Martinot and J. Sawin, "Renewables global status report. Glachant, and Y. Zhao, Y. Zeng, and D. Zhao, "Distributed solar photovoltaics in China: Policies and economic performance," Energy, vol. Haitao, G. Qunyin, and C. Wei, "International experiences of distributed photovoltaic feed-in tariff and its enlightenment to China," Prices Monthly, vol. Dong, T. Feng, H. Sun, H. Cai, R. Li, and Y.

Yang, "Clean distributed generation in China: Policy options and international experience," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. Xian-gan, "Chinas photovoitaic power generation: market and policies," Power System and Clean Energy, vol. Qiong, R. Hongbo, G. Weijun, and R. Jianxing, "Economic assessment of residential photovoltaic system based on dynamic load characteristics," Renewable Energy Resources, vol. Zhu, H. Sun, and G. Plant powered by landfill gas, gases left over from purification processes and biogas. Individual wind generator plant with a height not exceeding 1.

The Italian regulatory framework also provides RES plants with favourable conditions for access to the distribution grid. In particular, the following special schemes are available for conveying RES-generated electricity into the electricity grid:. Furthermore, and even more importantly, the legal framework grants RES-generated electricity priority access to the transmission and distribution grid, thus giving it a competitive advantage over electricity generated from conventional sources.

Moreover, non-programmable RES plants can also benefit from a more favourable regime for the application of imbalance payments, which are the penalties plants must pay if they fail to comply with their daily generation plan. Project finance is the most used scheme for financing renewable energy projects in Italy. In a project finance scheme, the specific project is evaluated exclusively with regard to its profitability i.

The cash flows also serve as the primary guarantee for the debt reimbursement to the financing entity. A project finance transaction usually includes a number of participants, each having a specific role. The sponsors are the project promoters, who design the project and evaluate the costs, the bankability and the profitability of the project. The core business of sponsors of renewable energy projects is often manufacturing goods used in renewable energy projects e.


To achieve complete legal and economic separation of the project sponsors from the project, the project financing scheme usually requires setting up a specific legal entity a special purpose vehicle or SPV , which is in charge of implementing the specific project assigned to it. The SPV is usually a limited company and its by-laws limit its purpose and activities to the mere implementation of the project.

The SPV does not have any financial means other than those provided to it for the implementation of the project. Its assets are isolated, by means of guarantees and contractual constraints, for the benefit of the institutions financing the project ring-fencing. The structure described above limits the risk for the capital invested by the promoters and indemnifies them from the risk of losses by the SPV.

The success of project financing for renewable energy is mainly due to the unlikelihood of losses by the SPVs operating RES plants, because of the economic incentives and the dispatching priority for RES plants. The sponsors, or, if it is set up immediately, the SPV, submit the project to the competent public entities and authorities the MSE, the regions concerned, or municipalities to obtain the necessary approvals according to the applicable administrative procedure. The contractual structure for project financing of renewable energy projects is complex. As mentioned, the EPC contractors are often the sponsors.

The main document for renewable energy project finance is the project finance loan agreement, which governs the relationship between the financing institution and the SPV. The terms of the project finance loan agreement do not take into account the financial stability of the sponsors or the SPV — only the capability of the financed project to generate cash flows. A notable opportunity provided by the Italian regulatory framework to promote the bankability of renewable energy projects is that plants admitted to a tariff incentive scheme may assign to third parties namely credit institutions the receivables from GSE.

Distributed generation by RES in Italy has developed significantly in the past 10 years, both in terms of number of plants and capacity installed. Puglia is the Italian region with the highest value of electricity generated by RES Small Generation, mainly because of the strong presence of photovoltaic and wind power plants, 52 while generation from hydroelectric plants is highest in the north of Italy, because of the greater presence of waterways. Different ownership structures are available for Small Generation in Italy.

Households and small businesses can purchase their own RES plants directly, generally as part of a service including design, installation, connection to the distribution grid and testing and maintenance of the plant a turnkey service. The ESCO then implements the project, often with the financial support of third parties, and becomes the owner and manager of the plant, while the customer pays the ESCO periodical fees that are calculated by reference to the amount of energy generated by the plant and to the level of cost savings achieved by the customer.

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ESCO projects in Italy tend to involve the commissioning and installation of the plant equipment. While project financing is the most common scheme for financing renewable energy projects in Italy, some big players finance renewable energy projects using traditional schemes, both equity and debt financing. Regarding debt financing options, green bonds have increased in popularity in Italy in the past few years.

Green bonds have the same features as ordinary bonds, but the issuer undertakes a specific obligation to use the capital collected for renewable energy projects. Returns on these bonds for investors do not differ from returns on ordinary bonds, but issuers and traders are driven by the common intention to promote renewable energy. The capital was employed in the financing of 26 renewable energy projects.

In the following years, many other Italian energy operators issued green bonds, with a commitment to employ the capital in renewable energy and energy-efficiency projects. Renewable energy manufacturing in Italy mainly concerns photovoltaic panels, windmill blades and wind turbines with a power rating below 80kW.

In March , 3SUN Srl launched a project to convert the factory, with a view to making it the first worldwide and exclusive manufacturer of HJT bifacial photovoltaic panels, which are based on heterojunction technology. This technology brings together two different kinds of silicon, amorphous and crystalline, generating particularly high yields.

There are also some other smaller factories in Italy manufacturing solar panels, as well as an important factory manufacturing windmill blades, located in Taranto Puglia and owned by the Danish wind energy operator Vestas. The manufacturing of turbines for small hydroelectric plants is also growing notably. Italy has experienced an impressive increase in renewable energy projects in the past decade, outpacing the target set by the EU and the Italian legislature for This progress, resulting from governmental policies committed to environmental sustainability and to the involvement of credit and finance institutions in the green economy, has made Italy one of the global leaders in countries developing renewable energies.

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The Italian National Energy Strategy has established even more ambitious targets for , which should act as a key driver towards higher environmental sustainability and security of supply. Achieving these targets calls for efficient governmental policies encouraging investor confidence and decreasing the costs for the development of renewable energy projects over the long term.

Furthermore, the increasing proportion of non-programmable renewable energies especially wind and solar in the electricity generation mix requires a reform of the electricity system. In particular, real-time communication between electricity producers and the transmission system operator is fundamental. The development of non-programmable renewable energies also requires developing adequate infrastructure with a view to ensuring the capability of the energy system to maintain balance between generation and load when there is uncertainty in electricity demand or supply.

In the future, in response to the ARERA White Paper on renewables in the wholesale market, it cannot be ruled out that the ARERA may discuss with stakeholders rules promoting greater integration of RES into the electricity market including into the balancing and intraday markets, and regarding dispatch based on order of merit.

See Section III. In addition, a Ministerial Decree of 15 March the Burden Sharing Decree sets out the objectives for each Italian region for , with a view to proportionally sharing the activities necessary to achieve this national target. It also made the state-owned company GSE responsible for monitoring and calculating the consumption of RES generated energy.

I liked my stay there very much and I am sure, that. I will return somewhen. After a 3-years-circumnavigation of Now, in May I can report that I am fully satisfied and happy with this local situation. Nowhere on my whole circumnavigation have I encountered such a friendly, helpful and efficient marina staff up to the boss. The staff will also bring you to and get you from the station for buses to Catania mins, every 2 — 3 hours, 9 EUR or to Palermo mins, every ca. And they help actively with shopping in the town if you do not find your item in the m nearby shopping mall with an excellent supermarket.

As of this fall, the Oceanica Naval Cantiere reports being able to lift out even 9m wide catamarans with their new travelling overhead gantry on order. Thus, I consider all this as very good conditions for long term berthing also for catamarans. The observed fouling in the underwater structure is quite normal and easily removable on my cat painted in May with International Micron Extra. I have not heard of any serious negative event during my time here. The daily radio messages from the sailors themselves, at on channel 72, would reflect such an event immediately. In the marina bistro with a book shop, etc.

An adjacent Pizzeria, Pasteria and Gelateria are to be opened in June The marina was almost full this winter and many have renewed already their contracts. However, if this report of my also positive experiences should influence some other sailors to test this marina themselves, there is hope: the marina plans to build an additional pontoon device during this summer and to grow to even larger berths numbers in the more distant future!

We have just had a full winter in Licata and the information supplied here is first hand and truthful. They are two sides to this marina and people should be a where to both sides before making a deciding if they like to go to Licata. It very safe from the weather we had some big blows while wintering out there without any problems, each boat have two bowlines, there are two sets of showers and toilets for each of the men and women. The marina staffs are mostly on hand and there are offend seen going around checking lines when a blow is a forecaster.

Licata town although a bit run down is lovely a real Sicilian town and people very friendly, we just love the Sicilian people.

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  7. The growth in my view is horrendous, the worst I seen in 27 years sailing, within months boats where covered, by March when some try to move it was impossible and they had to be towed to the yard. There is no Security around the marina although the marina says it has a security company that patrols at night I have only ever seen it three times and that after the report of a breaking and two attempting breaking.

    We were promised that lock gate would be installed but until the time we left nothing was done, my guess nothing will be done. The management is friendly until anyone decided to complaint about the marina then it a very different story. Although on paper the winter fee here sound good and cheap when you have to add on that there a real possibility that unless your boat is copper coated like ours we still had growth on the water line in places that you have to factor in the cost of getting lifted out before you can leave, it becomes not so good valve.

    We hope this help others decided if Licata is the marina for them. The vast majority of liveaboards here in Licata are delighted with the marina, the staff, the town and weather! The dissenting voices and comments on TripAdvisor et al would appear to emanate from two boats, one British and one German, who both have long-standing reputations as trouble-makers — one to the extent that he has actually been refused re-admission to one marina here in Sicily and one in Turkey!

    The marina and facilities, as you know, are safe and generally excellent. There was an evident incidence of fouling at the end of the summer season, but now that the water temp. There was originally a problem with the availability of hot water in the showers, but the owners quickly rectified that by installing uprated heaters to supplement the solar heating. There have been two incidences of theft — both from the same boat. The owner refuses to raise his passarelle at night — despite the fact that he is in the most exposed to the public berth in the marina, and on both incidents refused to file a complaint with the police so that they might investigate the incidents!

    Relations with the marina owners and staff remain excellent — evidenced by significant collections raised for staff Christmas presents and a wedding gift for the marina administrator. As you rightly say, the owners have proved highly responsive to all complaints and have done all in their power to rectify problems.

    The marina development is a private enterprise and the owners are very aware that the success of the marina in the future is dependent on the endorsement of their customers! I am sorry Mr Campbell sees things in a negative light. The Marina is great, the staff delightful, the moorings ace and the rates are the best in this part of the Med…. Site, With so many problems and the unrest of the liveaboards community we decided to go elsewhere. We have been staying at Marina di Cala del Sole , a relatively new marina at Licata on the southern coast of Sicily.

    This is a fairly new marina and is not well known to most cruisers, so I thought some details on this marina might be of interest to the cruising community, especially since the marina is offering very attractive winter rates while it is trying to attract customers.

    The marina is located in the large harbour of Licata and is well protected by large, overlapping breakwaters. This is a modern, first-class marina with excellent facilities. The ground is nicely designed with beautiful landscape. The washrooms are especially nicely done. The marina has WiFi, but for a fee. For a long term stay it would be cheaper to get internet through one of the cell phone companies. There is 24 hr security in the marina. Most cruisers leave their boats here for the winter.

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    The winter rate for my boat at 13 meters is 1, Euros for 6 months. Repair service and haulout can be arranged at the commercial harbour next to the marina. Right next to the marina is a large, modern mall with a full-size supermarket and shops. The marina staff is excellent and extremely helpful; the office staff speaks fluent English. The marina has a grand plan of having a condo-resort, beaches, etc.

    The town of Licata is a typical mid-size Sicily town. Within a short bike ride, one can get to all the desired services of a live-aboard — shops, hardware stores, restaurants, etc. admin