Cancer of the Testis

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In particular: New WHO classification Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. May Elsevier Health Sciences. National Cancer Institute.

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Testicular Cancer

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What survival means

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Medical Animation: Testicular Cancer

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Sertoli-Leydig cell tumour Sertoli cell tumour Leydig cell tumour. Seminoma Spermatocytic seminoma Intratubular germ cell neoplasia. Lower back pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and bloody sputum or phlegm can be symptoms of later-stage testicular cancer. Swelling of 1 or both legs or shortness of breath from a blood clot can be symptoms of testicular cancer. A blood clot in a large vein is called deep venous thrombosis or DVT.

A blood clot in an artery in the lung is called a pulmonary embolism and causes shortness of breath. For some young or middle-aged men, developing a blood clot may be the first sign of testicular cancer. Many symptoms and signs of testicular cancer are similar to those caused by noncancerous conditions. These are discussed below:. A cyst called a spermatocele that develops in the epididymis. The epididymis is a small organ attached to the testicle that is made up of coiled tubes that carry sperm away from the testicle.

Infection of the testicle is called orchitis. Infection of the epididymis is called epididymitis. If infection is suspected, a patient may be given a prescription for antibiotics. If antibiotics do not solve the problem, tests for testicular cancer are often needed. If you are concerned about any changes you experience, please talk with your doctor.

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This is to help figure out the cause of the problem, called a diagnosis. If cancer is diagnosed, relieving symptoms remains an important part of cancer care and treatment. This may be called palliative care or supportive care. It is often started soon after diagnosis and continued throughout treatment. Be sure to talk with your health care team about the symptoms you experience, including any new symptoms or a change in symptoms.

The next section in this guide is Diagnosis. The 2 main sub-types of these tumors are classical or typical seminomas and spermatocytic seminomas. Some seminomas can increase blood levels of a protein called human chorionic gonadotropin HCG. HCG can be checked with a simple blood test and is considered a tumor marker for certain types of testicular cancer. It can be used for diagnosis and to check how the patient is responding to treatment.

These types of germ cell tumors usually occur in men between their late teens and early 30s. The 4 main types of non-seminoma tumors are embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, and teratoma. When seen under a microscope, these tumors can look like tissues of very early embryos. This type of non-seminoma tends to grow rapidly and spread outside the testicle. Embryonal carcinoma can increase blood levels of a tumor marker protein called alpha-fetoprotein AFP , as well as human chorionic gonadotropin HCG.

Yolk sac carcinoma: These tumors are so named because their cells look like the yolk sac of an early human embryo. Other names for this cancer include yolk sac tumor, endodermal sinus tumor, infantile embryonal carcinoma, or orchidoblastoma.

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This is the most common form of testicular cancer in children especially in infants , but pure yolk sac carcinomas tumors that do not have other types of non-seminoma cells in them are rare in adults. When they occur in children, these tumors usually are treated successfully. But they're of more concern when they occur in adults, especially if they are pure.

Symptoms | Testicular cancer | Cancer Research UK

Yolk sac carcinomas respond very well to chemotherapy , even if they have spread. Choriocarcinoma: This is a very rare and fast-growing type of testicular cancer in adults. Pure choriocarcinoma is likely to spread rapidly to other parts of the body, including the lungs, bones, and brain.

More often, choriocarcinoma cells are seen with other types of non-seminoma cells in a mixed germ cell tumor. These mixed tumors tend to have a somewhat better outlook than pure choriocarcinomas, although the presence of choriocarcinoma is always a worrisome finding. Teratoma: Teratomas are germ cell tumors with areas that, under a microscope, look like each of the 3 layers of a developing embryo: the endoderm innermost layer , mesoderm middle layer , and ectoderm outer layer. Pure teratomas of the testicles are rare and do not increase AFP alpha-fetoprotein or HCG human chorionic gonadotropin levels.

Most often, teratomas are seen as parts of mixed germ cell tumors.



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