Fifty years old Mayumi coming WA Yoji ishikawa photo library (Japanese Edition)

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Working hours were subdivided into six groups and odds ratios were calculated for positive outcomes on the SDS and CFSI using logistic regression analysis. A total of workers participated. The present results clarified that working hours should be Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: results from a survey of Japanese high school students.

In , students aged years filled out an anonymous self-report questionnaire, which included a case vignette describing either depression, schizophrenia or social phobia and two questionnaires to assess stigmatising attitudes towards people with these disorders. Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling ESEM was used to determine the dimensionality and loading pattern of the stigma items in the two scales, to establish dimensions of stigma and to compare levels on these dimensions between genders. Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders in young Japanese people are substantial.

The social distance dimension of stigma was separate from other components. Females had lower stigmatising attitudes than males. These findings echo those of Australian studies and extend them by demonstrating a similar structure of stigma in another cultural group, namely young Japanese people.

Maternal mental disorders and pregnancy outcomes: a clinical study in a Japanese population. To assess the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnant women with mental disorders in Japan. We conducted this retrospective cohort study to examine the patients who delivered at Nagoya University Hospital Thereafter, the patients without any complications other than mental disorders and with several sources of psychiatric information were included in the present series, and the maternal and neonatal outcomes between patients with or without maternal mental disorders were compared.


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The psychiatric outcomes and the adverse effects of psychotropic drugs were also examined. A total of women delivered during this period, and 63 of them were complicated by maternal mental disorders. Intervention by psychiatrists was required for only 10 patients, and no patients required termination of pregnancy due to exacerbation of mental disorders. In schizophrenia patients who were taking atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepine, a significant increase in maternal gestational weight gain, and a significant shorter gestational age were detected, respectively, compared with patients who were not receiving any drug treatments.

A trend towards a lower birth weight and shorter gestational age was observed in Japanese women with well-controlled mental disorders, but the effect of well-controlled mental disorders on the perinatal outcome was minimal. Job stress and mental well-being: similarities and differences among American, Japanese , and Indian managers. The sources and mediators of occupational stress have been assessed frequently but rarely from a cross-cultural perspective. The present study examined responses to a number of stress, social support, job satisfaction, and personal characteristics measures and their relationships to mental well-being among samples of lower-, middle-, and upper-level managers in the United States, Japan, and India.

These data suggested basic similarities between U. Variability among these groups was seen, however, in the relative weights given to the factors of the mental well-being measure and in the association of these factors with the various independent variables. Implications and shortcomings of these results are discussed, along with suggestions for future research priorities. Effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression.

This intervention study evaluated the effectiveness of home visits by mental health nurses for Japanese women with post-partum depression. The intervention group received four weekly home visits by a mental health nurse. Control group participants received usual care. Two women in the intervention group did not complete the study. Depressive symptoms and quality of life were measured at 1 and 6 weeks' postintervention.

In addition, participants completed an open-ended questionnaire on satisfaction and meaning derived from the home visits. Women in the intervention group had significant amelioration of depressive symptoms over time and reported positive benefits from the home visits, but there were no statistically significant differences between groups. Significant differences P mental health nurses can contribute to positive mental health and social changes for women with post-partum depression. A larger trial is warranted to test this approach to care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the mental health status of caseworkers at welfare offices and factors affecting mental health i.

The welfare offices in Japan 1, locations were arranged in descending order according to their establishment and region. A total of 1, caseworkers on welfare five from each institution were administered anonymous self-completed questionnaires. The questionnaires involved the General Health Questionnaire GHQ Japanese version and questions regarding basic attributes, working conditions, social support i.

The GHQ high- and low-score groups were considered gender-specific dependent variables due to the sex differences observed in the univariate analysis. Significant variables in the univariate analysis were considered independent variables in the multiple logistic regression analysis forward stepwise selection. Five hundred and six people male and 96 female provided valid responses. Individuals with low self-efficacy had significantly poorer mental health compared to people with high self-efficacy. Men who were able to maintain moderate hours of sleep and. Being appropriately aware of the extent of stress experienced in daily life is essential in motivating stress management behaviours.

Excessive stress underestimation obstructs this process, which is expected to exert adverse effects on health. We prospectively examined associations between stress underestimation and mental health outcomes in Japanese workers. Participants were asked to complete survey items concerning stress underestimation, depressive symptoms, sickness absence, and antidepressant use. Semantic activation by Japanese kanji: evidence from event-related potentials. In a character-judgment paradigm, the subject quickly pressed a key when a hiragana Japanese syllabary appeared on a display and did nothing when a kanji Japanese logograph appeared.

The amplitude of the N component was compared when four types of visual stimuli were used: Type 1 single kanji--Grade 1- to 3-level words, Type 2 single kanji--Grade 1- to 3-level bound morphemes, Type 3 single kanji--high school- and college-level bound morphemes, and Type 4 obsolete kanji. Analysis showed that N was largest in the temporal-occipital areas for the Type 1 stimuli and larger in the right parietal area for Type 2 than Type 3 stimuli. The analyses of N to semantic stimulations have been conducted and discussed in terms of their meaningfulness, age when writing of these kanji was mastered, and linguistic status kanji versus nonkanji.

Most interestingly, the Types 3 and 4 kanji did not activate semantic responses, showing that they did not function as linguistic units, i. The present study employed a mixed methods approach to explore well-being, quality of life and experiences among Japanese sojourner graduate students studying in the U. Key measures used include: the K6 screen for risk of serious mental illness K6 Kessler et al. Similarities and differences of systematic consensus on disaster mental health services between Japanese and European experts. We recently developed new disaster mental health guidelines in Japan through the Delphi process, a method for building consensus among experts, using as a reference the guidelines developed by The European Network for Traumatic Stress TENTS in Europe.

We included in our survey 30 items used in the TENTS survey, 20 of which achieved positive consensus in that survey. Here we report on the extent of agreement of 95 Japanese experts on each of these 30 items and examine the reasons for disagreements with the TENTS survey results based on the comments obtained from the participants of our survey.

Of the 20 items, 12 also gained consensus in our survey and 1 additional item achieved consensus that did not achieve it in the TENTS survey. Items that did not gain consensus in our survey, but did in the TENTS survey, were recommendations for close collaboration with the media, screening volunteers for their suitability, and withholding formal screening of the affected population. The need for specialist care for specific populations was endorsed in our survey, but not in the TENTS survey. Overall, the opinion of Japanese experts was congruent with that of Western experts, but some guideline amendments would be beneficial.

The number of children with disability is increasing gradually in Japan. Previous researches in other countries have reported that parents as caregivers CGs of children with disability have mental health problems, but the actual situation has not been examined nationwide in Japan so far.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between mental health of CGs who had children with disability and characteristics of children, CGs, and household based on the nation-wide survey. This study utilized data from Comprehensive Survey of the Living Conditions, and defined children with disability aged 6 to Individual data of children and CGs were linked, and pairs of them were extracted. The Japanese version of Kessler 6 K6 was used to assess mental health status of caregiver, scored 5 and over represented to general psychological distress.

Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of interest. The almost half This study encourages health care providers to pay more attentions toward parent's mental health, especially for in case of having low social support, and lower income family. Further research should examine the detailed information of child's disease and disability, medical service use, and quality and quantity of social support in nationwide to straighten the system for supporting services of both children with disabilities and their CGs.

State propaganda and mental disorders: the issue of psychiatric casualties among Japanese soldiers during the Asia-Pacific War. This article explores the politics of Japanese wartime medical policy, demonstrating how state propaganda about the people and their armed forces influenced authoritative views on health and what might endanger it.

By focusing on the obstacles faced by psychiatrists trying to promote more official concern for mental health issues, it challenges the validity of figures indicating a low incidence of psychological trauma among the country's soldiers. Civilian psychiatrists had to contend with the threat of censorship and arrest for even discussing war-induced mental disorders; at the same time, army psychiatrists as military insiders were pressured to convince their patients that their conditions were not serious and did not merit compensation.

While discussing the neglected topic of Japanese psychiatric casualties, an attempt is made to provide a comparative approach by referring to the state of military psychiatry in other national settings. Objective The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical conditions related to the depressive mental states in Japanese patients with subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy SMON , caused by clioquinol intoxication more than 40 years previously.

Materials and methods The changes in the mental states with aging were investigated in 25 Japanese SMON patients mean age: These mental and medical examinations were repeated more than twice within 2 to 11 years' interval. The mean J-SDS scores at the first and latest studies were significantly higher than in the age-matched healthy elderly people. The total J-SDS scores of the latest study were significantly correlated with the degree of physical disability, such as the inverse total Barthel index scores, severity of SMON or gait disturbance, but not with the age.

Repeating mental supportive interviews and medical examinations by experts helped to improve the depressive mental state and revealed close relationship between the mental state and the physical disabilities of the SMON patients. Tuition and Memory: mental models and cognitive processing in Japanese children's work on d. This paper looks at the familiar problem of students' understanding of elementary electrical circuits from a much neglected point of view.

It is conjectured that the patterning commonly found in students' ideas might have its roots in the cognitive processing with which students operate their mental models of d. The data are new and come from Japanese year olds living in the UK. Progressive analysis of these students' answers to a six item test shows that the percentage of students operating particular mental models, following tuition, matches the percentages one might expect from a knowledge of their cognitive processing.

Associations between sleep disturbance and mental health status: a longitudinal study of Japanese junior high school students. A limited number of longitudinal studies have addressed the association between sleep disturbance and mental health status among adolescents. To examine whether each of these is a risk factor for the onset of the other, we conducted a prospective longitudinal study of Japanese adolescents. In , we performed a baseline study of students attending three private junior high schools in Tokyo, and in , a follow-up study was performed on the same population.

The mean age of the subjects was 13 years. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to evaluate sleep disturbance, and the item General Health Questionnaire was used to evaluate mental health status. The subjects were students, of whom were suitable for analysis. The incidence of newly developed poor mental health status during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was New onset of poor mental health status was significantly associated with new onset of sleep disturbance and lasting sleep disturbance. The incidence of sleep disturbance during the 2 years leading to the follow-up study was New onset of sleep disturbance was significantly associated with new onset of poor mental health status and lasting poor mental health status.

Sleep disturbance and poor mental health status increase each other's onset risk. Objective To examine the consequences of early-onset hearing loss on several social and health measures and any related gender differences in Japanese populations. Methods Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey of , men and women aged 20 to 39 years were obtained prevalence of self-reported hearing loss: 0.

We examined the association of hearing loss for each measure using generalized estimating equations to account for correlated individuals within households. Men with hearing loss were more likely to be married, whereas women with hearing loss were less likely to be married p mental health, especially in women. These issues may reflect a gap between the actual needs of women with hearing loss and the formal support received as a result of existing public health policies in Japan. Triple difficulties in Japanese women with hearing loss: marriage, smoking, and mental health issues.

To examine the consequences of early-onset hearing loss on several social and health measures and any related gender differences in Japanese populations. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey of , men and women aged 20 to 39 years were obtained prevalence of self-reported hearing loss: 0. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence IPV on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV.

A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , and dissociative experiences.

The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences.

The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.

Mental -health-related stigma among Japanese children and their parents and impact of renaming of schizophrenia. Mental -health-related stigma affects help-seeking behavior and service utilization among young people. Whether mental -health-related stigma is different or correlated between parents and their children is unknown. It is also unknown whether the name change of schizophrenia in has had long-term effects on reducing stigma for adults in the general population. We recruited parent-child pairs mean ages [SD]: We also assessed negative stereotypes for three psychiatric disease names old and new names of schizophrenia, and depression , and for diabetes mellitus as a physical illness comparison.

The questionnaires also asked respondents to identify the old and new names of schizophrenia and dementia, respectively, among 10 names for mental and physical illnesses and conditions. Parents showed lower stigma levels toward mental illness and diabetes mellitus, but similar or greater stigma levels toward schizophrenia, compared with their children. Stigma levels toward mental illness in parents and their children were significantly correlated. The rate of correct identification of the old and new names for schizophrenia was higher in parents than in their children Socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: explanations from work and family characteristics.

Poor physical and mental functioning is more common among people of low socioeconomic status SES and those with disadvantaged work and family characteristics. This study aims to clarify whether the SES inequalities in functioning can be explained by the SES differences in work and family characteristics.

The subjects were male and female civil servants, aged , working in a local government on the west coast of Japan. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine 1 whether there were employment-grade SES differences in poor physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 SF and 2 whether these SES differences were explained by work and family characteristics.

In general, low control at work, high demands, low social support, short and long work hours, shift work, being unmarried, high family-to-work conflict and high work-to-family conflict were independently associated with poor physical and mental functioning in both men and women.

In men, the age-adjusted odds ratio OR of low-grade employees for poor physical functioning was 1. The age-adjusted OR of the low-grade employees for poor mental functioning was 1. Among women, there were no significant grade-differences in poor physical and mental functioning. Although longitudinal research is necessary to clarify the causal nature of these associations, improvements in SES differences in work and family characteristics may be important for reducing SES inequalities in physical and mental functioning among Japanese men.

The different patterns of SES inequalities in health between men and women deserve further research. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants. Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness.

This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3, civil servants 2, men and women in , taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems.

In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

A cross-sectional study design was employed. These results showed that the BMI was a reliable tool to study beliefs about mental illness across cultures. Our findings also suggested that continued efforts to reduce stigma in culturally specific contexts within and between countries are necessary to promote help-seeking for those suffering from psychological distress. Considering four aspects of mental health depression, mental instability, nervousness and neurosis and six lifestyle factors alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, cigarette smoking, physical exercise, eating breakfast and eating snacks , a cross-sectional study involving volunteers workers and spouses was performed using the Todai Health Index THI for surveying self-perceived health and a lifestyle related self-administered questionnaire.

Alcohol consumption had no associations with any of the four aspects of mental health, and only very weak inverse associations were found between the other five lifestyle factors and the four aspects of mental health in the workers group. In the spouses group, physical exercise was the only lifestyle factor significantly associated with mental health. This study aims to evaluate whether the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 SF differs among employees in Britain, Finland, and Japan and whether work characteristics contribute to some of the health inequalities.

The participants were men and women British employees, men and women Japanese employees, and men and women Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40—60 years. Both male and female low grade employees had poor physical functioning in all cohorts. British and Japanese male low grade employees tended to have poor mental functioning but the associations were significant only for Japanese men. No consistent employment-grade differences in mental functioning were observed among British and Japanese women. Among Finnish men and women, high grade employees had poor mental functioning.

In all cohorts, high grade employees had high control, high demands and long work hours. The grade differences in poor physical functioning and disadvantaged work characteristics among non-manual workers were somewhat smaller in the Finnish cohort than in the British and Japanese cohorts. Low control, high demands, and both short and long work hours were associated with poor functioning. When work characteristics were adjusted for, the socioeconomic differences in poor functioning were mildly attenuated in men, but the differences increased slightly in women.

This study reconfirms the generally observed pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in health for physical functioning but not for mental functioning. The role of work characteristics in the relationship between socioeconomic status and health differed between men and women but was modest overall. We suggest that these differences in the pattern and magnitude of grade differences in work characteristics and health among the 3 cohorts may be attributable to the different welfare. Socioeconomic inequalities in physical and mental functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese civil servants: role of job demand, control, and work hours.

All the participants were civil servants aged years. Association of smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, work, lifestyle and mental health of Japanese civil servants. Few studies have examined the individual and social impact of smoking behavior in the Japanese population.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between smoking behavior and socio-demographic factors, lifestyle, mental health and work characteristics of Japanese civil servants. A self-administered questionnaire survey of 1, employees men and women aged yr was conducted in a local government department in The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic factors, education level, grade of employment, lifestyle, affect balance scale, and work characteristics.

Smoking status was divided into current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoked. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between smoking and the other items. Men presented a higher smoking prevalence rate than women In men, a strong relationship between current smoker and advanced age 40 yr or older , low education level, less physical activity, irregular breakfast and negative affect balance was found.

Among men with a low education, the prevalence of smoking cessation was significantly lower in comparison to men with a high education. In women, being young yr , unmarried single or other , having a hobby, and irregular breakfast were associated with smoking behavior.

Furthermore, smoking cessation was significantly associated with having a hobby and negative affect balance. The above results suggest that socio-demographic, lifestyle and mental health characteristics are independently associated with current smoking.

These factors should be considered in smoking cessation policies as program components. Caregiver burden mediates between caregiver's mental health condition and elder's behavioral problems among Japanese family caregivers. In Japan, the prevalence of depression has been reported to occur among 1 in 4 family caregivers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-rated burden associated with mental health conditions among caregivers.

We studied 95 caregivers aged years in a cross-sectional study. Caregivers with a high GHQ score had the number of caregiver burdens increased by 2. A mediational model was used to identify the underlying mechanism of the relationship between the number of behavioral problems and poor mental health in caregivers. Consequently, we found that mental health conditions in caregivers were associated with both the number of caregiver burdens and behavioral problems among care recipients.

It is vital to provide support not only to the caregivers but also to their elderly relatives, paying particular attention to early identification of poor mental health in caregivers so as to administer effective interventions, and to offer useful advice concerning how to deal with behavioral problems.

The Japanese suicide rate is still high compared with other countries. Worker suicide especially leads to marked social and economic losses and severely affects the bereaved. There is an urgent need to devise a system to prevent suicide at a very early stage.

Generally, it is considered very difficult to intervene and prevent suicide in cases in which individuals kill themselves suddenly. However, according to some studies on suicide attempts, even those who killed themselves suddenly had experienced some kind of conflict or a desire to die for a long period. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the risk factors at an early stage when individuals have vague thoughts of suicide.

This will help reduce the risk of suicide in such cases. In this article, I first survey the data related to workers' mental health in Japan. Second, I introduce the results of our pilot study in which we investigated mental health issues related to suicide among workers who have taken leave from work for more than two months. In this study, workers who do not exhibit help-seeking behavior are suggested to be a high-risk group for suicide. It is speculated that this behavior is related to several factors such as the sex, age, social status, education, personal stigma, and perceived stigma.

Therefore, we must focus on both clinical and social solutions for the prevention of suicide. I believe that psychiatrists will come to play a more important role as liaisons between workplaces and social resources for the prevention of suicide. Career satisfaction level, mental distress, and gender differences in working conditions among Japanese obstetricians and gynecologists. Career satisfaction level, degree of mental distress associated with certain work-related factors, and demographics were examined for the first time in obstetricians and gynecologists in Japan.

Associations between the score on Kessler 6 screening scale, or the job satisfaction level, and the scores on the job content questionnaire, Social Support Questionnaire SSQ , working conditions and demographics were examined in members of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Multivariate linear regression analysis identified a heavier workload, less personal control, lower satisfaction on the SSQ, and longer working hours as being independent risk factors for mental distress. Careful monitoring of the mental state is necessary for obstetricians and gynecologists with lower incomes, heavier workloads, lower degrees of personal control, and lower satisfaction scores on the SSQ.

The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas. In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women i.

However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. Completed questionnaires were obtained from women Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends.

Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age. Mental and Physical Health and Sports. This annual publication introduces Japan's educational policies in education, science, sports, and culture. Part 1, "Trends in Education Reform," discusses fundamental concepts in educational reform.

Part 2, " Mental and Physical Health and Sports," includes two chapters. Chapter 1, "Health and Sports into the Future,"…. Differences between British and Japanese perspectives on forensic mental health systems: A preliminary study. Based on a discussion by the research team, we created an interview form.

After we finished conducting all the interviews, we qualitatively analyzed their content. In the United Kingdom, forensic psychiatrists were responsible for ensuring public safety, and psychopathy was identified as a disease but deemed as not suitable for medical treatment. On the other hand, in Japan, psychopathy was not considered a mental illness. Some ideas taken from both cultures for better FMH practice were suggested. Mental illness and a high-risk, elderly Japanese population: characteristic differences related to gender and residential location.

Examining the sociodemographic determinants of psychological distress is important in identifying specific subgroups in need of further intervention. However, there are few studies focusing on older populations and on the role of gender or location of residence. To try to clarify characteristics of a population at high risk for mental illness, we examined the sociodemographic determinants of psychological distress in older adults living in three different locations.

A mail survey was used to collect data on levels of psychological distress and sociodemographic characteristics from a population-based sample of older adults who lived in Bunkyo urban setting , Fuchu suburban setting and Oyama rural setting in Japan aged years, Psychological distress level was measured based on Kessler's six-item psychological distress scale K6 and dichotomized into two groups with a cut-off score of 5 or Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between sociodemographic factors, specifically gender and location of residence, and psychological distress levels.

The variables of older age, living in Bunkyo, living in Oyama and living alone were significantly associated with high psychological distress. Although these associations were observed in men, no associations were observed in women. Location-specific analyses showed significant associations between sociodemographic and psychological distress among men living in Oyama, but not among those in Bunkyo or Fuchu.

Sociodemographic factors were significantly correlated with psychological distress, particularly among older men in rural areas. Characteristics of a population at high risk for mental illness may vary based on gender and location of residence. Health promotion initiatives for older adults may be more effective if they take these demographic factors into account.

The association between eczema and mental health problems in schoolchildren has been underexplored. We aimed to investigate this association with the validated questionnaires. Of 46, invited children, we analyzed The presence of eczema was associated with four SDQ subcategories. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.

We examined item-by-item distributions of the MMSE between two cohorts, comparing 1 percentage of correct answers for each item within each cohort, and 2 relative difficulty of each item measured by Item Characteristic Curve analysis ICC , which estimates log odds of obtaining a correct answer adjusted for the remaining MMSE items, demographic variables age, gender, education and interactions of demographic variables and cohort. Results Median MMSE scores were very similar between the two samples within the same education groups.

However, the relative difficulty of each item differed substantially between the two cohorts. Specifically, recall and auditory comprehension were easier for the Tajiri group, but reading comprehension and sentence construction were easier for the MoVIES group. Karabulut 1 , M.

Aksulum 2 , E. Erdogan 2 , S. Cenik 1 , O. Sarli 5. Ralf C. Tissera 1 , V. Pham 2 , R. Abhishek 1 , J. Soon 1 , J. Aung 1 , G. Chia 3 , K. Chow 1 , S. Ankit 1 , L. Deng 2 , K. Low 1. Junpei T. Okada 4. Kido, S. Kawasaki, A. Shibuya, K. Yamada, T. Ogasawara, T. Suzuki, S. Tamura, K. Seino, A. Ichikawa, A. Sato 2 , Yasumasa Kasaba 1. Dmitrenko 5 , Tomoki Nakamura 6 , Hisashi Otake 7. Valery V. Dmitrenko 1 , Sergey E. On is sitting and one is standing. One is sitting in a toy car and the other is on a tricycle. One is sitting inside and one is standing beside her. Black and white photograph postcard of two young girls in dresses standing in front of their toy car.

One is sitting in wicker chair and the other is standing. At the top is: "T. Makino, Modern Shoe Shop, shoes made to order, A full line carried in stock, repairing a speciality, best of machine work, Main St. Black and white photograph postcard of the Japanese Pavilion at the Alaska, Yukon Pacific exposition. Black and white photograph postcard of the Japanese Pavilion building at the Alaska,Yukon Pacific exposition.

Black and white photograph postcard of Japanese Pavilion building at Alaska Yukon Pacific exposition with sign for formosa tea. Black and white photograph of foreign dignitary being escorted in an automobile down a street by the police on horseback. Makino and another man standing out front. Black and white photograph postcard of Makino children and other children, T. Makino and two other men in a park.

Color slide photograph of Nori Makino and two other women eating maki sushi. A piece of paper with the slide idenitfies it as Sacramento. Black and white photograph of woman sitting on front steps of house. Written on the back is: "Summer , Washington D. Miyako Ishihara". Black and white photograph of woman on the steps of the supreme court building.

Written on the back is: February , Supreme Court Bldg. Washington, D. Miyako Ishihara. Black and white photograph of two women and two young girls wearing hats and standing in front of them. They appear to be on a wooden pier. Black and white photograph of five women with a boy standing in front of them, hands in pockets. The setting is outdoors and they are standing on the lawn of a house.

Brownish tint and slightly out of focus. Black and white photograph of six young girls wearing coats. Photo has some smuges. Black and white photograph of group of people in front of stone wall. Two women standing, one sitting, three men sitting and a small boy. Black and white photograph of two young girls standing on top of a log lying in the water. Black and white slightly blurry photograph of young girl in sweater. Written on the back is: "June 17, Norichiyo Makino 11 years old.

Black and white photograph of family consisting of three women seated on a large log, one woman and a boy standing in front, a man partially seen behind the log. The photo is faded. Written on the back is: "Aug 24, ". Black and white photograph of two women seated on drift wood log. Photo is faded. Written on the back: "8 24 ". Black and white photograph of woman in graduation cap and gown standing in tall grass. House in background.

Black and white photograph of three children standing on driftwood log with a man squatting on the log. Photo holder remnants on corners. Black and white photograph of woman, man, two young women and a boy all in hats, in front of tall flowering bush. Black and white photograph of the new bridge over Lake Washington as seen from the western shore. Black and white photograph of the new bridge over Lake Washington as seen from the western shore as evening decends.

Black and white photograph of the entrance to the tunnel of the west side of the I bridge at night. Black and white photograph of two young girls and a boy standing in front of a frame house. Ericson at the yard of Mrs. Cora Parks". Black and white postcard photograph of man seated on bench with man standing behind him and a woman sitting to their right on side of path. Black and white postcard photograph of two young girls standing on a wooden plank. Behind them are frame buildings and telephone polls. Black and white postcard photograph with large white border of man and woman seated outdoors on grass each is holding a girl on their lap.

Slightly blurry. Black and white postcard photograph of a man seated on a bench, a woman standing behind him and another man seated on the other side of the path. Black and white postcard photograph of large group of people having a picnic. Large Bon Marche umbrella in back center. Bushes on background. Written on the back: "Mr. Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman in dark shirt and jacket and wearing glasses. Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman in stripped shirt and slacks standing on sidewalk.

Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman sitting on chair in front if pattered curtains. She is wearing gloves and holding a pamphlet. Black and white photograph of four women walking down street in front of the Fairmont Tonga Room. Black and white photograph of five people looking over a rock wall at the ocean. Possibly in California. Black and white photograph of Nori Makino in dress standing on a lawn in front of hedge and large tree. Written on the back in pencil: "Pasadena Sept. Black and white photograph of Nori Makino and another woman and two Caucasian women on the sidewalk in front of the Fairmont Tonga Room.

Black and white photograph of Nori Makino and three other women standing in front of wooden fence. Color photograph of group of women standing near a table while one cuts a cake. A note with the photo says: "Shower for Anne Lyons June 8, ". Black and white photograph Christmas card shows woan laying on the floor with baby and toys. Black and white photograph of two young girls and three men standing ouside with Seattle behind them from Beacon Hill. Black and white photograph of wedding couple. Black and white wedding photograph with the groom in western white coat and tie and the bride in Kimono.

Black and white photograph of baby in stroller. Black and white photograph of young girl with ballon. Written on the back: "Mary on her 2nd birthday, Oct. Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino in white lab coat. Written on the back is: "To Loving Sister March Black and white photograph of woman and dog sitting in tall grass in front of house. Black and white photograph of man chopping driftwood log on beach. Written on the back in pencil: "Aug.

Saturday 21 April 2018: Screening Room 1, The Soho Hotel, 4 Richmond Mews, London, W1D 3DH

Black and white photograph of Nori Makino in coat sanding near lamp post. Written on the back is: Feb. Black and white photograph of Nori Makino standing with 6 other Caucasian women one with a baby. Black and white photograph of four women an three men in front of large government building. Written on the back is "Mar or Apr ". Black and white photograph of Jefferson Memorial across the water with cherry blossom at the top.

Black and white photograph of woman on lawn in front of colonial building. Black and white photograph of two women and three young boys. Written on the back - "Bart at right age 8. Blond quiet sensitive. Always making things or reading. Wants to be a farmer. He loves school and does well. Black and white photograph of Caucasian couple with baby and a Japanese American woman.

Written on the back is: "The Peuery's? Black and white photograph of young Caucasian woman sitting on outside steps. Black and white photograph of group of Japanese American women standing in front of a storefront numbered " Black and white photograph of woman standing under cherry tree. Black and white photograph of two boys playing on the beach.

The Japan Foundation, London - Whats On

Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman standing by stone wall. Written on the back: "Feb Palo Alto". Writtenon the back is: " 1 Nori in S. Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino standing outside of building. Black and white photograph portrait of Tsunechiyo Makino. Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman standing in front of building. Written on the front: To Nori - Love Helen". Black and white photograph of Nori Makino and co-workers, two Asian women and two Caucasian men, standing on Seattle street.

Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman standing in front of house. Written on the back: "Sept. Black and white photograph of couple leaving wedding ceremony. Written on the back: "Do you see all the rice flying around? The Japanese janitor of the chapel thought it wasteful and collected them. I don't blame him. Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino standing on print dress. Written on the back: "July 16, , Tokyo, Japan". Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino reading newspaper. Black and white photograph portrait of young woman.

Love Helen. Black and white photograph of two women looking out of a window.

Japanese War Orphans in Manchuria

Written on the back: "Eva and me" "July 16, Tokyo, Japan". Black and white photograph of young boy. Black and white photograph of a group of Japanese American women and one man standing in dirt street. Three Model A cars are on the street and a hotel in the background. Black and white photograph of young boy on scooter in front of Standard Furniture building. Written on the back is: "Masayasu Sese". Black and white photograph of two women wearing belted sweaters, and white caps.

One is holding a mop or broom handle. Black and white photograph of Caucasian woman standing outside building doorway. Black and white photograph of elderly couple and a younger woman at a cemetery. Black and white photograph Young boy in sports uniform holding violin case standing outside of a house. Black and white photograph of woman standing outside school building. On the back is written: "Miss Eveline Crow". Black and white photograph of Japanese American couple in western clothes with a younger woman in a kimono between them.

Black and white photograph of two young Japanese American women in front of school steps. Younger children to either side. Written on the back is: "Kimiko Hikida 15 Toshiko Uyehara 12". Black and white photograph of the interior of a laundry. Group of women and one man standing in front of large machines.

Black and white photograph of young Japanese American boy in overalls and hat sawing lumber on house steps. Black and white photograph of three Japanese American boys playing in a field near the Standard furniture building. Two on a wagon and one on a scooter. Black and white photograph Japanese American man in suit and tie. Written on the back is: "Mr. Black and white photograph of two Japanese American women standing with arms around each other on a hill. Beacon Hill? Seattle is in the background. Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman in dark outfit, outside in front of a tree.

Black and white photograph of Japanese American woman in dark outfit, standing outside in front of a tree. Black and white postcard photograph of a baby. Written on the back: "to the Makinos Luwana Kiku Hasegawa on her th day". Black and white photograph of a woman in kimono outside by field. The proint has a black stylized border around it. Black and white postcard photograph of young boy at a small table with photo album.

Black and white postcard photograph of family, a woman and two small boys in sailor uniforms, a baby and a man. Black and white photograph of woman in kimono outside by a backyard wall. Black stylized border around photo. Printed on the back: "Hi-Lo finish, Aug 31, ". Black and white photograph of young boy sitting on big chair at a table writing.

Kanji on the back. Black and white brown tinted photograph of cemetery. Group of people in front of memorial. The photo is of former Furuya employees at the memorial service of the late Daihachi Matsumi, held at Capital Hill on February 25, Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino. Written on the front: "to Nori Tsunchiyo, Feb. Black and white photograph of a woman on skis in front of a large building. Written on the back: "me on skiis at Akakura, a winter resort". Written across the front: "Nori With Love Fuki".

Black and white photograph of Japanese American man and woman standing in front of store. Circa Black and white photograph of Nori Makino and another woman on a beach. Written on the back: "Copalis Bach, July or Aug ". Black and white photograph Nori and another Japanese American woman with a Japanese American family on a mountain trail. Black and white photograph of staff of Furuya Co. Nori Makino center of second row. Black and white photograph of Nori Makino standing near a car. Black and white photograph of Nori Makino with a group of high school women all in the same sweater; white with dark B and with various numbers of chevrons on their sleeves.

Black and white photograph of a group of children standing in a group in front of the Standard Furniture building. Black and white photograph of children playing on toy wagon in front of the Standard furniture building. Black and white photograph of group of 18 children and one adult standing in pyramid formation on a truck, s. Black and white photograph of Makino children on sand hill at a beach. Black and white photograph apartment building across from a school.

On the back is printed in blue: "Hi-Ko finish Jul 19 ". Black and white photograph of young Japanese American woman on a shore. Written on the back: "Aug 25, ". Black and white photograph of Makino family at Miller Beach. Black and white dark exposure photograph of Makino family. Written on the back: "Japanese CAmp G. Small Japanese pots on the porch banister.

Black and white photograph of Japanese American man in vest and tie standing outside. Sumito Yokoyama". Black and white photograph of a group of school biys haming it up in front of brick school. Black and white photograph of a group of school children standing in front of the door of a brick school. Black and white photograph of a group of seven girls in coats posing for the camera. Written on the back is: "Tsunechiyo".

Black and white photograph of a young Japanese American girl standing in front of a house. Same photo as Black and white photograph of a young Japanese American girl standing in a coat in front of a 3 story school building. Written on the back: "Martha Shintani 12 years old.

Black and white photograph of young girl in hat standing in front of hydrangias. Written on the back: "Lake Washington Boulevard, June 6th ". Black and white photograph of Japanese woman in checked pattern kimono in a paper Florio folder. Black and white photograph of two young men in kimono. One is sitting, one standing. Black and white photograph of Tsunechiyo Makino, in western dress and another woman in kimono standing in front of pond.

Red Cross Hospital July by Sadahisa of x-ray dept. Black and white photograph of group of Japanese women, three in western dress and the rest in kimono. Black and white brown tint studio photograph of 7 men. Four in western clothes and three in kimono. Seated second from right is Makino. Black and white photograph of man reading at a desk next to book shelf. Letter in kanji on the back.


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  • Black and white studio photograph of a family; husband and wife seated and four children. Large black Kanji on the back. Black and white photograph of a group of wounded Japanese soldiers and women, all in kimono, around them. Black and white photograph of woman in kimono standing next to divan. Black and white photograph of members of Meiji University Basketball team and coaches posing on court. Roster posted to the front. Black and white photograph of a boxer sitting in the ring corner. Written in ink across the front is N. Black and white photograph of a baseball team in uniform.

    Black and white photograph of a professional baseball team. On their jersey's is: "St. Black and white photograph of mostly Japanese men near a large steam locomotive. One man holds an oil can. Some of the men are in school uniforms. Black and white photograph of Japanese touring group in front of train station.

    Possibley a Japanese American team on tour in Japan. Black and white photograph of a group of Japanese people at a banquet. It is the Courier League celebration dinner. Black and white photograph of the first Japanese Community Queen contest. Pictured in front of JACL booth.

    Black and white photograph of workers on top of a Great Northern Train with mountain in the background. Black and white photograph of three Issei women with children and babies standing at 4th and Dearborn. Union station visible in background. Black and white photograph of veterans of the Russo-Japanese War at their 25th reunion. Included in the photo are war nurses who later served as midwives. Black and white photograph of grouping of the Salvation Army in front of the Oriental Trading Company.

    Kanazawa Castle - Ishikawa, Chubu, Japan

    Black and white photograph of the Lotus Skyliners as they leave Seattle for a series of concerts. Black and white photograph of the Tanagi grocery store front showing vegetables, fruit displays and scales of the s. Located at King st. Customers sit at the counter and the staff stands behind it. Black and white photograph of five women with a life preserver on the deck of a ship. Black and white photograph and negative of a group of women and girl members of the Japanese Congregational Church outside or nearby their church. Twenty-seven people dressed in kimonos in front of a row of houses.

    Black and white photograph of the Skyliners dance band. They performed locally and on the west coast. They were organized by the Seattle Buddhist church. The men are standing in front of a barrack building or atop a truck with a big banner that says "Coal Division". Now Auburn. Black and white photograph of the Japanese language school in White river Valley. Possibly a graduation. There are two rows of people and they are in front of a building. The girls are wearing corsages.

    Black and white photograph of two judo competitors showing one being thrown with his feet in the air. Black and white photograph of Dillon Myer, director of the War Relocation Authority, which ran the Japanese internment camps addressing the internees of Minidoka inside a building at the camp. He is at the microphone and is seen from the back. In it became legal for Japanese immigrants to become naturalized US citizens. Black and white photograph of Minidoka Internees tilling the soil outside the camp. They are all men and are bent over with a hoe in one hand.

    Black and white photograph of three men, two women and two babies outside of a building. Possibly this may be a Japanese Baptist Church facility. Black and white photograph of Japanese Chamber of Commerce's float in the city's annual Potlatch celebration. It is at 6th S. The float has a crane on the top and there are four women on the float in nurses uniforms.

    Black and white photograph of a bowling association's dance at one of the local dance halls. There is a band in the background. Black and white photograph of the Garfield High School football team in its championship game with Lincoln High School in Black and white photograph of a group of women of the Japanese Baptist Church in Seattle wth the Rev. Fukumatsu Okazaki, founder of the church, on the right. The name Yamamoto is written on the front. The children are lined up in rows on the street. The letters "JBSS" are held by four men in the back row. Black and white photograph of an English language class for Japanese immigrants at Baily Gatzert school in Seattle.

    There is a Caucasian woman in the front row. Black and white photograph of an Issei shoemaker at his establishment. He is shown operating a machine. Boots and boxes on the surrounding shelves. Black and white photograph of a group of Issei railroad workers standing in front of a Great Northern boxcar. The boxcar has a ladder that slightly obscures the lettering. Black and white photograph of the Fukuda Barber shop and three of the women working there. The woman behind the first lady is blurred. Black and white photograph of the interior of a restaurant. There are tables with white tablecloths, wooden chairs.

    In the photo are two men and one woman. Black and white photograph of Japanese Americans working in a field problably near Minidoka Internment camp. Black and white photograph oflarge group of Japanese American men sitting in rows on stage in uniforms. Black and white photograph of a Christmas scene in a building at the Minidoka internment camp showing a snow man, a picket fence and a house with a Christmas tree.

    Black and white photograph of the Garfield High School football team standing for team photo. Black and white photograph of J. Tanada's dairy farm in Kent, Washington. There are three men in the photo. Tanada is in the center. Black and white photograph of Issei workers at Barnaston, Washington sawmill near Selleck. Four rows of people in front of a wooden building. Black and white photograph of the staff of the Minidoka Irrigator Newspaper at the Minidoka internment camp at Hunt, Idaho pictured outside the office.

    Black and white photograph of Japanese Americans working in the sugar beet field near Minidoka Idaho. Black and white photograph of an Issei woman going to have a bath in the Minidoka internment camp. She is wearing a robe, geta and carries a towel and soap. Black and white photograph of the moving of the altar from the old Seattle Buddhist Church at S. Black and white photograph of Japanese American soldiers leaving the Minidoka internment camp after being on furlough.

    The soldiers are inside an army truck and the back of the truck can be scene. Women are wearing scarfs. Guard house is visible. Black and white photograph of two girls at Hunt High School. They appear to be napping and a large mural of Minidoka is on the wall behind them. Black and white photograph of mochi pounding in a wooden mortar.

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    Grainy photo shows children, men and women around a mortar. Two men have large mallets to pound the rice flower into paste to make New Year's mochi. Black and white photograph of children at the Minidoka internment camp visiting Santa Claus. There are two trees with Christmas decorations. Black and white photograph of a judo class at Minidoka internment camp. Five rows of students in uniform.

    Black and white photograph of Bon Odori participants in a photo in Kimono in front of the Seattle Buddhist church at Main. Black and white photograph of two children walking down a lane amidst the tar paper barracks at the Minidoka internment camp. Black and white photograph of a Japanese man standing on a barge in Alaska.

    Others are standing on the dock while two men are working on the barge. Black and white photograph of family farm of Cano Numoto's parents in Bellevue Washington. Nine people in a strawberry field. Black and white photograph of 4 Japanese immigrants - 2 women, one man and a young girl in traditional clothing of One woman seated and the others are standing. Black and white photograph of a woman's basketball team.

    Kneeling and standing. Black and white photograph of adrum and bugle corps formation inside a building. Black and white photograph of the interior of Main Drug, a pharmacy on Main st. Black and white photograph of women and men marching against racism. Bugle Corps members marching in a building.

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