Il Terzo Reich al potere: 1933 - 1939 (Le scie) (Italian Edition)

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While Hitler cited Mussolini as an influence and expressed privately great admiration for him, [91] Mussolini had little regard for Hitler, especially after the Nazis had assassinated his friend and ally, Engelbert Dollfuss the Austrofascist dictator of Austria in With the assassination of Dollfuss, Mussolini attempted to distance himself from Hitler by rejecting much of the racialism particularly Nordicism and Germanicism and antisemitism espoused by the German radical.

Mussolini during this period rejected biological racism, at least in the Nazi sense, and instead emphasized " Italianizing " the parts of the Italian Empire he had desired to build. When discussing the Nazi decree that the German people must carry a passport with either Aryan or Jewish racial affiliation marked on it, in , Mussolini wondered how they would designate membership in the "Germanic race":.

Ah well, we respond, a Germanic race does not exist. Various movements. We repeat. Does not exist. We don't say so. Scientists say so. Hitler says so. Mussolini's rejection of both racialism and the importance of race in during the height of his antagonism towards Hitler contradicted his own earlier statements about race, such as in , when he emphasized the importance of race:. Though Italian Fascism varied its official positions on race from the s to , ideologically Italian fascism did not originally discriminate against the Italian Jewish community: Mussolini recognised that a small contingent had lived there "since the days of the Kings of Rome " and should "remain undisturbed".

By , the enormous influence Hitler now had over Mussolini became clear with the introduction of the Manifesto of Race. The Manifesto, which was closely modeled on the Nazi Nuremberg laws , [74] stripped Jews of their Italian citizenship and with it any position in the government or professions. The German influence on Italian policy upset the established balance in Fascist Italy and proved highly unpopular to most Italians, to the extent that Pope Pius XII sent a letter to Mussolini protesting against the new laws.

It has been widely speculated that Mussolini adopted the Manifesto of Race in for merely tactical reasons, to strengthen Italy's relations with Germany. Mussolini and the Italian military did not consistently apply the laws adopted in the Manifesto of Race. Mussolini also reached out to the Muslims in his empire and in the predominantly Arab countries of the Middle East. By the late s, Mussolini's obsession with demography led him to conclude that Britain and France were finished as powers, and that it was Germany and Italy who were destined to rule Europe if for no other reason than their demographic strength.

Mussolini had imperial designs on Tunisia, and had some support in that country. On 21 March , during a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council, Italo Balbo accused Mussolini of "licking Hitler's boots", blasted the Duce's pro-German foreign policy as leading Italy to disaster, and noted that the "opening to Britain" still existed and it was not inevitable that Italy had to ally with Germany.

Italy defeated Albania within just five days forcing king Zog to flee, setting up a period of Albania under Italy. Until May , the Axis had not been entirely official, but during that month the Pact of Steel treaty was signed outlining the " friendship and alliance" between Germany and Italy, signed by each of its foreign ministers. Italy's king Victor Emanuel III was also wary of the pact, favoring the more traditional Italian allies like France, and fearful of the implications of an offensive military alliance, which in effect meant surrendering control over questions of war and peace to Hitler.

Hitler was intent on invading Poland, though Galeazzo Ciano warned this would likely lead to war with the Allies. Hitler dismissed Ciano's comment, predicting that instead that Britain and the other Western countries would back down, and he suggested that Italy should invade Yugoslavia. Most significantly, Victor Emmanuel had demanded neutrality in the dispute. Convinced that the war would soon be over, with a German victory looking likely at that point, Mussolini decided to enter the war on the Axis side.

Accordingly, Italy declared war on Britain and France on 10 June Just eleven days later, France surrendered to the Axis powers. Included in Italian-controlled France was most of Nice and other southeastern counties. Advances were successful, but the Italians stopped at Sidi Barrani waiting for logistic supplies to catch up. After initial success, this backfired as the Greek counterattack proved relentless, resulting in Italy losing one-quarter of Albania. Events in Africa had changed by early as Operation Compass had forced the Italians back into Libya, causing high losses in the Italian Army.

Despite putting up a resistance, they were overwhelmed at the Battle of Keren , and the Italian defense started to crumble with a final defeat in the Battle of Gondar. When addressing the Italian public on the events, he was completely open about the situation saying, "We call bread bread and wine wine, and when the enemy wins a battle it is useless and ridiculous to seek, as the English do in their incomparable hypocrisy, to deny or diminish it. General Mario Robotti , Commander of the Italian 11th division in Slovenia and Croatia, issued an order in line with a directive received from Mussolini in June "I would not be opposed to all sic Slovenes being imprisoned and replaced by Italians.

In other words, we should take steps to ensure that political and ethnic frontiers coincide,", []. Mussolini first learned of Barbarossa after it began on 22 June , and was not asked by Hitler to involve himself. Mussolini told the Council of Ministers of 5 July that his only worry was that Germany might defeat the Soviet Union before the Italians arrived. He is overjoyed about the Japanese attack on America. He is so happy about it that I am happy with him, though I am not too sure about the final advantages of what has happened.

One thing is now certain, that America will enter the conflict and that the conflict will be so long that she will be able to realize all her potential forces. This morning I told this to the King who had been pleased about the event. He ended by admitting that, in the long run, I may be right.

Mussolini was happy, too. For a long time he has favored a definite clarification of relations between America and the Axis". By early , Italy's military position had become untenable. After the defeat at El Alamein at the end of , the Axis troops had to retreat to where they were finally defeated in the Tunisia Campaign in early Italy also suffered major setbacks on the Eastern Front as well.

The Allied invasion of Sicily brought the war to the nation's very doorstep. Factories all over Italy were brought to a virtual standstill due to a lack of raw materials, as well as coal and oil. Additionally, there was a chronic shortage of food, and what food was available was being sold at nearly confiscatory prices. Mussolini's once-ubiquitous propaganda machine lost its grip on the people; a large number of Italians turned to Vatican Radio or Radio London for more accurate news coverage.

Discontent came to a head in March with a wave of labor strikes in the industrial north—the first large-scale strikes since The physical German presence in Italy had sharply turned public opinion against Mussolini; for example, when the Allies invaded Sicily, the majority of the public there welcomed them as liberators.

Earlier in April , Mussolini had begged Hitler to make a separate peace with Stalin and send German troops to the west to guard against an expected Allied invasion of Italy. Mussolini feared that with the losses in Tunisia and North Africa, the next logical step for Dwight Eisenhower 's armies would be to come across the Mediterranean and attack the Italian peninsula.

Within a few days of the Allied landings on Sicily in July , it was obvious Mussolini's army was on the brink of collapse. This led Hitler to summon Mussolini to a meeting in northern Italy on 19 July By this time, Mussolini was so shaken from stress that he could no longer stand Hitler's boasting. His mood darkened further when that same day, the Allies bombed Rome—the first time that city had ever been the target of enemy bombing. Some prominent members of Mussolini's government had turned against him by this point. Among them were Grandi and Ciano. With several of his colleagues close to revolt, Mussolini was forced to summon the Grand Council of Fascism on 24 July the first time that body had met since the start of the war.

When he announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south, Grandi launched a blistering attack on him. This motion carried by a 19—7 margin. Despite this sharp rebuke, Mussolini showed up for work the next day as usual. He allegedly viewed the Grand Council as merely an advisory body and did not think the vote would have any substantive effect.

When Mussolini tried to tell the king about the meeting, Victor Emmanuel cut him off and told him that he was being replaced by Marshal Pietro Badoglio. Mussolini rescued by German troops from his prison in Campo Imperatore on 12 September By this time, discontent with Mussolini was such that when the news of his downfall was announced on the radio, there was no resistance. Also, his government was negotiating an Armistice with the Allies, which was signed on 3 September Its announcement five days later threw Italy into chaos, a civil war of sorts. Badoglio and the king fled Rome, leaving the Italian Army without orders.

Immediately after the Italian surrender was announced, German troops started taking over the Italian Peninsula by force as part of Operation Achse and occupied Rome on 10 September. The Badoglio government held a social truce with the leftist partisans for the sake of Italy and to rid the land of the Nazis. A rain-soaked Benito Mussolini reviewing adolescent soldiers in northern Italy, late Although he insisted in public that he was in full control, he knew that he was little more than a puppet ruler under the protection of his German liberators—for all intents and purposes, the Gauleiter of Lombardy.

One of those executed was his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. Along with his autobiographical writings of , these writings would be combined and published by Da Capo Press as My Rise and Fall. In an interview in January , a few months before he was captured and executed by Italian anti-fascist partisans, he stated flatly: "Seven years ago, I was an interesting person. Now, I am little more than a corpse. Cross marking the place in Mezzegra where Mussolini was shot.

Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci were stopped by communist partisans Valerio and Bellini and identified by the Political Commissar of the partisans' 52nd Garibaldi Brigade, Urbano Lazzaro , on 27 April , near the village of Dongo Lake Como , as they headed for Switzerland to board a plane to escape to Spain. During this time Claretta's brother posed as a Spanish consul. They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family. The next day, Mussolini and Petacci were both summarily executed, along with most of the members of their man train, primarily ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic.

The shootings took place in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra. According to the official version of events, the shootings were conducted by Colonnello Valerio , whose real name was Walter Audisio. Audisio was the communist partisan commander who was reportedly given the order to kill Mussolini by the National Liberation Committee.

When Audisio entered the room where Mussolini and the other fascists were being held, he reportedly announced, "I have come to rescue you! Do you have any weapons? Audisio ordered, "Get down"; Petacci hugged Mussolini and refused to move away from him when they were taken to an empty space. Shots were fired and Petacci fell down. Just then Mussolini opened his jacket and screamed, "Shoot me in the chest!

Mussolini fell but did not die and was breathing heavily. Audisio went near and he shot one more bullet in his chest. The other members of Mussolini's entourage were also executed by firing squad later that same day towards nightfall. On 29 April , the bodies of Mussolini, Petacci, and the other executed Fascists were loaded into a moving van and trucked south to Milan. The piazza had been renamed "Piazza Quindici Martiri" in honor of 15 anti-Fascists recently executed there. The dead body of Mussolini second from left next to Petacci middle and other executed fascists in Piazzale Loreto , Milan, After being shot, kicked, and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down on meathooks from the roof of an Esso gas station.

This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities. The corpse of the deposed leader became subject to ridicule and abuse. Fascist loyalist Achille Starace was captured and sentenced to death and then taken to the Piazzale Loreto and shown the body of Mussolini. Starace, who once said of Mussolini "He is a god," [] saluted what was left of his leader just before he was shot.

The body of Starace was subsequently hung up next to the body of Mussolini. After his death and the display of his corpse in Milan, Mussolini was buried in an unmarked grave in the Musocco cemetery, to the north of the city. On Easter Sunday his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. On the loose for months—and a cause of great anxiety to the new Italian democracy—the Duce's body was finally "recaptured" in August, hidden in a small trunk at the Certosa di Pavia , just outside Milan.

Two Fransciscan brothers were subsequently charged with concealing the corpse, though it was discovered on further investigation that it had been constantly on the move. Unsure what to do, the authorities held the remains in a kind of political limbo for 10 years, before agreeing to allow them to be re-interred at Predappio in Romagna , his birthplace. Adone Zoli , the prime minister of the day, contacted Donna Rachele , the former dictator's widow, to tell her he was returning the remains, as he needed the support of the far-right in parliament, including Leccisi himself.

In Predappio the dictator was buried in a crypt the only posthumous honor granted to Mussolini. His tomb is flanked by marble fasces , and a large idealized marble bust of him is above the tomb. Mussolini was first married to Ida Dalser in Trento in The couple had a son one year later and named him Benito Albino Mussolini. In December , Mussolini married Rachele Guidi , his mistress since , and with his following political ascendency the information about his first marriage was suppressed and both his first wife and son were later persecuted.

Mussolini had several mistresses, among them Margherita Sarfatti and his final companion, Clara Petacci. Mussolini had many brief sexual encounters with female supporters, as reported by his biographer Nicholas Farrell. Mussolini was raised by a devoutly Catholic mother [] and an anti-clerical father. His father never attended. Mussolini would become anti-clerical like his father. As a young man, he "proclaimed himself to be an atheist and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead.

He believed that science had proven there was no God, and that the historical Jesus was ignorant and mad. He considered religion a disease of the psyche, and accused Christianity of promoting resignation and cowardice. Mussolini was an admirer of Friedrich Nietzsche. According to Denis Mack Smith , "In Nietzsche he found justification for his crusade against the Christian virtues of humility, resignation, charity, and goodness.

Mussolini made vitriolic attacks against Christianity and the Catholic Church, which he accompanied with provocative and blasphemous remarks about the consecrated host, and about a love affair between Christ and Mary Magdalene. He denounced the Catholic Church for "its authoritarianism and refusal to allow freedom of thought Despite making such attacks, Mussolini tried to win popular support by appeasing the Catholic majority in Italy.

In , Mussolini saw that three of his children were given communion. In , he had a priest perform a religious marriage ceremony for himself and his wife Rachele, whom he had married in a civil ceremony 10 years earlier.

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After this conciliation, he claimed the Church was subordinate to the State, and "referred to Catholicism as, in origin, a minor sect that had spread beyond Palestine only because grafted onto the organization of the Roman empire. Mussolini publicly reconciled with the Pope Pius XI in , but "took care to exclude from the newspapers any photography of himself kneeling or showing deference to the Pope. In Mussolini began reasserting his anti-clericalism.

He would sometimes refer to himself as an "outright disbeliever," and once told his cabinet that "Islam was perhaps a more effective religion than Christianity" and that the "papacy was a malignant tumor in the body of Italy and must 'be rooted out once and for all', because there was no room in Rome for both the Pope and himself.

After his fall from power in , Mussolini began speaking "more about God and the obligations of conscience", although "he still had little use for the priests and sacraments of the Church,". A third son, Bruno, was killed in an air accident while flying a P bomber on a test mission, on 7 August Mussolini's granddaughter Alessandra Mussolini was a member of the European Parliament for the far right party Alternativa Sociale and currently serves in the Chamber of Deputies as a member of the ruling People of Freedom. Mussolini's National Fascist Party was banned in the postwar Constitution of Italy , but a number of successor neo-fascist parties emerged to carry on its legacy.

Historically, the strongest neo-fascist party was the Italian Social Movement Movimento Sociale Italiano , which was declared dissolved in and replaced by the National Alliance , which distanced itself from Fascism its leader Gianfranco Fini once declared that Fascism was "an absolute evil". American wartime comic advertising the government sale of low-return War Bonds by showing Mussolini, Hitler and Hirohito beaten by superheroes.

More serious biographical depictions include a look at the last few days of Mussolini's life in Carlo Lizzani 's movie Mussolini: Ultimo atto Mussolini: The last act , starring Rod Steiger and George C. Scott 's portrayal in the television mini-series Mussolini: The Untold Story. Actor Antonio Banderas also played the title role in Benito in , which covered his life from his school teacher days to the beginning of World War I, before his rise as dictator.

Mussolini is also depicted in the films Tea with Mussolini , Lion of the Desert also with Steiger and the award-winning Italian film Vincere. This strip, which ran from to , featured Mussolini as an arrogant buffoon. Sign In Don't have an account? Main articles: Fascism and Italian Fascism. Further information: March on Rome. Further information: Economy of Italy under Fascism. Main article: Italian Fascism. Main article: Second Italo-Abyssinian War. Main articles: Munich Agreement and Italian invasion of Albania. See also: Italian participation in the Eastern Front.

Main article: 25 Luglio. Dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio. Italian radio statement announcing the dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio, 25 July Main article: Italian Social Republic. New York: Oxford University Press. Edition of Retrieved 17 October Il Rivoluzionario 1 ed. Torino: Einaudi. Benito Mussolini. Compass Point Books. Marsch auf Rom im Nadelstreif. Sarfatti, p. Nine Etched in Life. Ayer Company Publishers, original , Delzel, Harper Rowe , page 6. Modern Italy; A Political History.

The Times. Archived from the original on Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 14 October The Doctrine of Fascism. Lit Gloss, University of Buffalo. Section I. Retrieved 21 March Western Political Thought. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors P Ltd, New York. Digital object identifier: Mussolini and Italian Fascism. Nelson Thornes. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 March The Anatomy of Fascism. New York City: Alfred A. Retrieved 24 June The University of Chicago Press. Blood Shed in Riots throughout Italy". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September Retrieved 6 November As I walked with him in the gardens of the Villa Borghese , I could easily compare his profile with that of the Roman busts, and I realised he was one of the Caesars.

There's no doubt at all that Mussolini is the heir of the great men of that period. April Retrieved 23 March Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. Hitler's ten-year war on the Jews. Kessinger Publishing. Oxford University Press, Italian Fascism and the Jews. University of California. The American Council for Judaism. Fascist Italy and the Middle East, — Palgrave Macmillan. Italian Foreign Policy — Cambridge University Press. Casemate Publishers. Fascist Italy. Manchester University Press. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Da Capo Press.

Taylor Trade. It reads "In addition to my Adolf Hitler". The Last Days Random House, p. Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 20 February Dictator Style. Smith , p. Smith , pp. Mussolini: Routledge Historical Biographies. New York: Psychology Press, p. Mussolini and Italy. New York: Heinemann Press, p. Dundee, Scotland: D. Bosworth, R.

London, Hodder. London, Allen Lane. Corvaja, Santi. Hitler and Mussolini. The Secret Meetings. The Last Centurion. Il Rivoluzionario,— 1 ed. De Felice, Renzo in Italian. Il Fascista.


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Il Duce. L'Alleato, — Dalla "guerra breve" alla guerra lunga 1 ed. Golomb, Jacob; Wistrich, Robert S.

Benito Mussolini

Nietzsche, godfather of fascism? Farrell, Nicholas. Mussolini: A New Life. Garibaldi, Luciano. The Secrets of his Death. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism. Hibbert, Christopher. Haugen, Brenda Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Compass Point Books. Kallis, Aristotle. Italy suffered major setbacks on the Eastern Front as well.

The Allied invasion of Sicily brought the war to the nation's very doorstep. Factories all over Italy were brought to a virtual standstill because raw materials , such as coal and oil, were lacking. Additionally, there was a chronic shortage of food, and what food was available was being sold at nearly confiscatory prices.

Mussolini's once-ubiquitous propaganda machine lost its grip on the people; a large number of Italians turned to Vatican Radio or Radio London for more accurate news coverage. Discontent came to a head in March with a wave of labor strikes in the industrial north—the first large-scale strikes since The German presence in Italy had sharply turned public opinion against Mussolini; for example, when the Allies invaded Sicily, the majority of the public there welcomed them as liberators.

Earlier in April , Mussolini had begged Hitler to make a separate peace with Stalin and send German troops to the west to guard against an expected Allied invasion of Italy. Mussolini feared that with the losses in Tunisia and North Africa, the next logical step for Dwight Eisenhower 's armies would be to come across the Mediterranean and attack the Italian peninsula. Within a few days of the Allied landings on Sicily in July , it was obvious Mussolini's army was on the brink of collapse.

This led Hitler to summon Mussolini to a meeting in Feltre on 19 July By this time, Mussolini was so shaken from stress that he could no longer stand Hitler's boasting. His mood darkened further when that same day, the Allies bombed Rome —the first time that city had ever been the target of enemy bombing. By this point, some prominent members of Mussolini's government had turned against him. Among them were Grandi and Ciano.

Several of his colleagues were close to revolt, and Mussolini was forced to summon the Grand Council on 24 July This was the first time the body had met since the start of the war. When he announced that the Germans were thinking of evacuating the south, Grandi launched a blistering attack on him. This motion carried by a 19—8 margin. He did, however, ask Grandi to consider the possibility that this motion would spell the end of Fascism.

Despite this sharp rebuke, Mussolini showed up for work the next day as usual. He allegedly viewed the Grand Council as merely an advisory body and did not think the vote would have any substantive effect. When Mussolini tried to tell the king about the meeting, Victor Emmanuel cut him off and formally dismissed him from office, replacing him with Marshal Pietro Badoglio. People rejoiced because they believed that the end of Mussolini also meant the end of the war. In an effort to conceal his location from the Germans, Mussolini was moved around before being imprisoned at Campo Imperatore , a mountain resort in Abruzzo where he was completely isolated.

Badoglio kept up the appearance of loyalty to Germany, and announced that Italy would continue fighting on the side of the Axis. However, he dissolved the Fascist Party two days after taking over and began negotiating an Armistice with the Allies, which was signed on 3 September Its announcement five days later threw Italy into chaos; German troops rushed in to take over Italy in Operation Achse.

The Badoglio government held a political truce with the leftist partisans for the sake of Italy and to rid the land of the Nazis. Three days following his rescue in the Gran Sasso raid, Mussolini was taken to Germany for a meeting with Hitler in Rastenburg at his East Prussian headquarters. Despite public professions of support, Hitler was clearly shocked by Mussolini's disheveled and haggard appearance as well as his unwillingness to go after the men in Rome who overthrew him.

Mussolini's new regime faced numerous territorial losses: in addition to losing the Italian lands held by the Allies and Badoglio's government, the provinces of Bolzano , Belluno and Trento were placed under German administration in the Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills , while the provinces of Udine , Gorizia , Trieste , Pola now Pula , Fiume now Rijeka and Ljubljana Lubiana in Italian were incorporated into the German Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral. In addition, the German army occupied the Dalmatian provinces of Split Spalato and Kotor Cattaro , which were subsequently annexed by the Croatian fascist regime.

I am not here to renounce even a square meter of state territory. We will go back to war for this. And we will rebel against anyone for this. Where the Italian flag flew, the Italian flag will return. And where it has not been lowered, now that I am here, no one will have it lowered. Although he insisted in public that he was in full control, he knew that he was merely a puppet ruler under the protection of his German liberators—for all intents and purposes, the Gauleiter of Lombardy. He told one of his colleagues that being sent to a concentration camp was preferable to his puppet status.

One of those executed was his son-in-law, Galeazzo Ciano. Along with his autobiographical writings of , these writings would be combined and published by Da Capo Press as My Rise and Fall. In an interview in January by Madeleine Mollier, a few months before he was captured and executed by Italian anti-fascist partisans, he stated flatly: "Seven years ago, I was an interesting person. Now, I am little more than a corpse. Yes, madam, I am finished. My star has fallen. I have no fight left in me. I work and I try, yet know that all is but a farce I await the end of the tragedy and—strangely detached from everything—I do not feel any more an actor.

I feel I am the last of spectators. Mussolini and his mistress Clara Petacci set out for Switzerland, intending to board a plane and escape to Spain. During this time, Petacci's brother posed as a Spanish consul. They spent their last night in the house of the De Maria family.

The next day, Mussolini and Petacci were both summarily shot, along with most of the members of their man train, primarily ministers and officials of the Italian Social Republic. The shootings took place in the small village of Giulino di Mezzegra and were conducted by a partisan leader who used the nom de guerre Colonnello Valerio. His real identity is unknown, but conventionally he is thought to have been Walter Audisio , who always claimed to have carried out the execution, though another partisan controversially alleged that Colonnello Valerio was Luigi Longo , subsequently a leading communist politician in post-war Italy.

The RSI only survived for another four days before Mussolini's defence minister, Rodolfo Graziani —the lone Italian marshal who remained loyal to Fascism after —surrendered its remains on 1 May. On 29 April , the bodies of Mussolini, Petacci, and the other executed Fascists were loaded into a van and moved south to Milan. The piazza had been renamed "Piazza Quindici Martiri" in honor of fifteen anti-Fascists recently executed there. After being kicked and spat upon, the bodies were hung upside down from the roof of an Esso gas station. This was done both to discourage any Fascists from continuing the fight, and as an act of revenge for the hanging of many partisans in the same place by Axis authorities.

The corpse of the deposed leader was subject to ridicule and abuse. Fascist loyalist Achille Starace was captured and sentenced to death and then taken to the Piazzale Loreto and shown the body of Mussolini. Starace, who once said of Mussolini "He is a god," [] saluted what was left of his leader just before he was shot. The body of Starace was subsequently hung up next to that of Mussolini. After his death and the display of his corpse in Milan, Mussolini was buried in an unmarked grave in the Musocco cemetery, to the north of the city.

On Easter Sunday , his body was located and dug up by Domenico Leccisi and two other neo-Fascists. On the loose for months—and a cause of great anxiety to the new Italian democracy—Mussolini's body was finally "recaptured" in August, hidden in a small trunk at the Certosa di Pavia , just outside Milan. Two Fransciscan brothers were subsequently charged with concealing the corpse, though it was discovered on further investigation that it had been constantly on the move.

Unsure what to do, the authorities held the remains in a kind of political limbo for ten years, before agreeing to allow them to be re-interred at Predappio in Romagna , his birthplace. Adone Zoli , the then-current prime minister, contacted Donna Rachele , the dictator's widow, to tell her he was returning the remains, as he needed the support of the far-right in parliament, including Leccisi himself.

In Predappio the dictator was buried in a crypt the only posthumous honor granted to Mussolini. His tomb is flanked by marble fasces , and a large idealized marble bust of him is above the tomb. Mussolini's first wife was Ida Dalser , whom he married in Trento in The couple had a son the following year and named him Benito Albino Mussolini.

In December , Mussolini married Rachele Guidi , who had been his mistress since Due to his upcoming political ascendency, the information about his first marriage was suppressed, and both his first wife and son were later persecuted. Mussolini had several mistresses, among them Margherita Sarfatti and his final companion, Clara Petacci. Mussolini had many brief sexual encounters with female supporters, as reported by his biographer Nicholas Farrell.

Imprisonment likely caused Mussolini's claustrophobia. Mussolini was raised by a devoutly Catholic mother [] and an anti-clerical father.

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His father never attended. Mussolini became anti-clerical like his father. As a young man, he "proclaimed himself to be an atheist [] and several times tried to shock an audience by calling on God to strike him dead. He considered religion a disease of the psyche, and accused Christianity of promoting resignation and cowardice.

Mussolini was an admirer of Friedrich Nietzsche. According to Denis Mack Smith , "In Nietzsche he found justification for his crusade against the Christian virtues of humility, resignation, charity, and goodness. Mussolini made vitriolic attacks against Christianity and the Catholic Church, which he accompanied with provocative remarks about the consecrated host, and about a love affair between Christ and Mary Magdalene. He denounced socialists who were tolerant of religion, or who had their children baptized, and called for socialists who accepted religious marriage to be expelled from the party.

He denounced the Catholic Church for "its authoritarianism and refusal to allow freedom of thought Despite making such attacks, Mussolini tried to win popular support by appeasing the Catholic majority in Italy. In , Mussolini saw that three of his children were given communion. In , he had a priest perform a religious marriage ceremony for himself and his wife Rachele, whom he had married in a civil ceremony 10 years earlier.

After this conciliation, he claimed the Church was subordinate to the State, and "referred to Catholicism as, in origin, a minor sect that had spread beyond Palestine only because grafted onto the organization of the Roman empire. Mussolini publicly reconciled with the Pope Pius XI in , but "took care to exclude from the newspapers any photography of himself kneeling or showing deference to the Pope.

In Mussolini began reasserting his anti-clericalism. He would sometimes refer to himself as an "outright disbeliever," and once told his cabinet that "Islam was perhaps a more effective religion than Christianity" and that the "papacy was a malignant tumor in the body of Italy and must 'be rooted out once and for all', because there was no room in Rome for both the Pope and himself. After his fall from power in , Mussolini began speaking "more about God and the obligations of conscience", although "he still had little use for the priests and sacraments of the Church".

Although Mussolini had initially disregarded biological racism, he was a firm believer in national traits and made several generalizations about the Jews. Bolshevism is being defended by the international plutocracy. That is the real truth. The truth is that Bolshevism is leading to the utter ruin of the Jews of Eastern Europe. In the early s, Mussolini stated that Fascism would never raise a " Jewish Question " and in an article he wrote he stated "Italy knows no antisemitism and we believe that it will never know it," and then elaborated, "let us hope that Italian Jews will continue to be sensible enough so as not to give rise to antisemitism in the only country where it has never existed.

The relationship between Mussolini and Adolf Hitler was a contentious one early on. While Hitler cited Mussolini as an influence and privately expressed great admiration for him, [] Mussolini had little regard for Hitler, especially after the Nazis had assassinated his friend and ally, Engelbert Dollfuss , the Austrofascist dictator of Austria in With the assassination of Dollfuss, Mussolini attempted to distance himself from Hitler by rejecting much of the racialism particularly Nordicism and Germanicism and antisemitism espoused by the German radical.

Mussolini during this period rejected biological racism, at least in the Nazi sense, and instead emphasized " Italianizing " the parts of the Italian Empire he had desired to build. When discussing the Nazi decree that the German people must carry a passport with either Aryan or Jewish racial affiliation marked on it, in , Mussolini wondered how they would designate membership in the "Germanic race":.

But which race? Does there exist a German race? Has it ever existed? Will it ever exist? Reality, myth, or hoax of the theorists? Ah well, we respond, a Germanic race does not exist. Various movements. We repeat. Does not exist.

We don't say so. Scientists say so. Hitler says so. When German-Jewish journalist Emil Ludwig asked about his views on race in , Mussolini exclaimed:. It is a feeling, not a reality: ninety-five percent, at least, is a feeling. Nothing will ever make me believe that biologically pure races can be shown to exist today. Amusingly enough, not one of those who have proclaimed the "nobility" of the Teutonic race was himself a Teuton. In a speech given in Bari in , he reiterated his attitude towards the German ideology of Master race :.

Thirty centuries of history allow us to look with supreme pity on certain doctrines which are preached beyond the Alps by the descendants of those who were illiterate when Rome had Caesar , Virgil and Augustus. Though Italian Fascism varied its official positions on race from the s to , ideologically Italian fascism did not originally discriminate against the Italian-Jewish community: Mussolini recognised that a small contingent had lived there "since the days of the Kings of Rome " and should "remain undisturbed".

By mid, the enormous influence Hitler now had over Mussolini became clear with the introduction of the Manifesto of Race. The Manifesto, which was closely modeled on the Nazi Nuremberg Laws , [88] stripped Jews of their Italian citizenship and with it any position in the government or professions. The racial laws declared Italians to be part of the Aryan race and forbid sexual relations and marriages between Italians and those considered to be of an "inferior race", chiefly Jews and Africans.

They could not own land over a certain value, serve in the armed forces, employ non-Jewish domestics, or belong to the Fascist party. Their employment in banks, insurance companies, and public schools was forbidden. Even after the introduction of the racial laws , Mussolini continued to make contradictory statements about race. I don't believe a bit in the stupid anti-Semitic theory.

I am carrying out my policy entirely for political reasons. Mussolini and the Italian Army in occupied regions openly opposed German efforts to deport Italian Jews to Nazi concentration camps. These squads spread terror among Jews and anti-Fascists for a year and a half. In the power vacuum that existed during the first three or four months of the occupation, the semi-autonomous bands were virtually uncontrollable.

Many were linked to individual high-ranking Fascist politicians. Informers betrayed their neighbors, squadristi seized Jews and delivered them to the German SS, and Italian journalists seemed to compete in the virulence of their anti-Semitic diatribes. It has been widely speculated that Mussolini adopted the Manifesto of Race in for merely tactical reasons, to strengthen Italy's relations with Germany. Mussolini and the Italian military did not consistently apply the laws adopted in the Manifesto of Race.

The Racial Manifesto could have been avoided. It dealt with the scientific abstruseness of a few teachers and journalists, a conscientious German essay translated into bad Italian. It is far from what I have said, written and signed on the subject. I suggest that you consult the old issues of Il Popolo d'Italia. For this reason I am far from accepting Alfred Rosenberg 's myth.

Mussolini also reached out to the Muslims in his empire and in the predominantly Arab countries of the Middle East. A third son, Bruno, was killed in an air accident while flying a Piaggio P. His oldest son, Benito Albino Mussolini , from his marriage with Ida Dalser, was ordered to stop declaring that Mussolini was his father and in forcibly committed to an asylum in Milan, where he was murdered on 26 August after repeated coma-inducing injections.

Although the National Fascist Party was outlawed by the postwar Constitution of Italy , a number of successor neo-fascist parties emerged to carry on its legacy. Historically, the largest neo-fascist party was the Italian Social Movement Movimento Sociale Italiano , which disbanded in and was replaced by National Alliance , a conservative party that distanced itself from Fascism its founder, former foreign minister Gianfranco Fini , declared during an official visit to Israel that Fascism was "an absolute evil".

Written in , it has Mussolini starting and losing a war with France and then being killed by an angry Italian mob. The book does not predict Hitler. In his novel The Holy Terror , H. Wells predicted Mussolini's execution:. Benito Mussolini, with a surfeit of bad history decaying in his imagination, could not see the plain realities before him.

Like most of his generation he dramatised human affairs in incurably geographical patches, and like most of the masterful men of his time his belief in his power to mould the life about him carried him beyond sanity. From the beginning his was an ill-balanced temperament; he would be blatant at one moment, and weeping at another. He beat at the knees of Mother Reality like an unteachable child.

He wanted war and conquest, triumph over definable enemies, fierce alliances, and unforgettable antagonisms. He wanted glory. He died, as his last words testify, completely unaware of the fact that the rational treatment of human affairs does not admit of that bilaterality which the traditions of warfare require.

He persuaded himself and he persuaded great multitudes of people that two great systems of ideas faced each other in the world, "Leftism" and "Rightism", and that he and his associated Dictators embodied the latter. He did contrive finally to impose the illusion of a definitive World War upon great masses of people. Scott 's portrayal in the television mini-series Mussolini: The Untold Story.

Actor Antonio Banderas also played the title role in Benito in , which covered his life from his school teacher days to the beginning of World War I, before his rise as dictator. Mussolini is also depicted in the films Tea with Mussolini , Lion of the Desert also with Steiger and the award-winning Italian film Vincere. This strip, which ran from to , featured Mussolini as an arrogant buffoon. Mussolini is the protagonist of the film Vincere , directed by Marco Bellocchio. Mussolini is a major character in Niven and Pournelle's Inferno , a retelling of Dante 's work of that name.

He is referenced in the season 1 episode 3 of the documentary Dictators Rulebook , by National Geographic. The episode "The Ghost of Nero" of the television series " Time Tunnel " depict Mussolini as a corporal; at the end of the episode, he becomes indwelt by the ghost of Nero. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Home FAQ Contact. Benito Mussolini Wikipedia open wikipedia design.

For other people named Mussolini, see Mussolini family. His Excellency. Ida Dalser m. Rachele Guidi m. Margherita Sarfatti Clara Petacci. Alessandro Mussolini Rosa Maltoni. First Marshal of the Empire Corporal. Main articles: Fascism and Italian Fascism. Further information: March on Rome. See also: Assassination attempts on Benito Mussolini. Further information: Economy of Italy under Fascism. Corporate group Body politic Organicism Solidarity Structural functionalism. Related articles. Main article: Italian Fascism. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: 25 Luglio. Dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio. Italian radio statement announcing the dismissal of Mussolini and appointment of Badoglio, 25 July Main article: Italian Social Republic.

Main article: Death of Benito Mussolini. Play media. New York: Oxford University Press. BBC — History — bbc. Young Mussolini and the Intellectual Origins of Fascism. University of California Press.

Anthroposophy and the Politics of Race in the Fascist Era

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Ayer Company Publishers, original , Delzel, Harper Rowe , p. Modern Italy; A Political History. The Times. Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 14 May Retrieved 14 October Rome: The Biography of a City. Penguin Books Limited. As early as February he had been pressing for the appointment of a dictator in Italy, 'a man who is ruthless and energetic enough to make a clean sweep'.

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Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 13 March The Seizure of Power: Fascism in Italy, — New York: Routledge. Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Retrieved 5 October The Anatomy of Fascism. New York: Alfred A. Retrieved 24 June The Journal of Modern History. Blood Shed in Riots throughout Italy". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 February Retrieved 6 November Archived from the original on 22 January Goerdeler 1 April Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 10 August When Italy depreciated the lira in , Mussolini ruled that all prices had to remain as they were.

Il Terzo Reich al potere. 1933-1939

However, in May he had to increase wages by 15 percent because retail prices had gone up as a result of the rise in the cost of imported commodities. Nature cannot be ordered to renounce her principles. Retrieved 25 May Black magic: an account of its beneficial use in Italy, of its perversion in Bavaria, and of certain tendencies which might necessitate its study in America. The Bobbs-Merrill Company. Berkeley: University of California Press. Cambridge: Polity Press. James New York: Enigma Books. Mussolini and Italy. Oxford: Heinemann Educational. Taylor and the Historians , London: Routledge, p.

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Adolf Hitler cancelliere del Reich: Il discorso del Fuhrer a Coburgo (1933)

Italian Foreign Policy — Cambridge University Press. Ramsbury: The Crowood Press. Archived from the original on 20 December Warfare History Network. Retrieved 17 November Trial of German Major War Criminals. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. A History of Fascism, Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Da Capo Press. Taylor Trade. Inside the Third Reich. It reads "In addition to my Adolf Hitler". Retrieved 3 February The Last Days Random House, p. The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October Time Magazine. Universal Newsreel. Retrieved 20 February Dictator Style.

San Francisco: Chronicle Books. Smith , p. Smith , pp. Psychology Press. Zimmerman As I walked with him in the gardens of the Villa Borghese , I could easily compare his profile with that of the Roman busts, and I realised he was one of the Caesars. There's no doubt at all that Mussolini is the heir of the great men of that period.

April Journal of Contemporary History. Retrieved 23 March Racial Theories in Fascist Italy. Hitler's ten-year war on the Jews. Kessinger Publishing. University of California. Archived from the original PDF on 15 May The American Council for Judaism. Ovazza started a Jewish fascist newspaper, "La Nostra Bandiera" Our Flag in an effort to show that the Jews were among the regime's most loyal followers.

Italians and the Holocaust. New York: Basic Books Inc. Fascist Italy and the Middle East, — Palgrave Macmillan. The Economist. Retrieved 7 April Dundee, Scotland: D. Nat Geo TV. National Geographic. Retrieved 2 September Radio Times. Bosworth, R. London, Hodder. London, Allen Lane. Corvaja, Santi. Hitler and Mussolini. The Secret Meetings. The Last Centurion. Il Rivoluzionario,— in Italian 1 ed.


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De Felice, Renzo Il Fascista. Il Duce. L'Alleato, — Dalla "guerra breve" alla guerra lunga in Italian 1 ed. Golomb, Jacob; Wistrich, Robert S. Nietzsche, godfather of fascism? Farrell, Nicholas. Mussolini: A New Life. Garibaldi, Luciano. The Secrets of his Death. Young Mussolini and the intellectual origins of fascism.

Hibbert, Christopher. Haugen, Brenda Benito Mussolini: Fascist Italian Dictator. Kallis, Aristotle. Fascist Ideology. London: Routledge. Kroener, Bernhard R. Lowe, Norman.

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