For other aspects of renderings, see the introduction to the text edition. First, there is a general outline based on word class. While the irst 24 chapters deal only with nouns, the articles in the concluding chapter Beysatz belong to two other word classes: the irst arti- cles consist — with a few exceptions — of adjectives, whereas the that follow comprise verbs. However, it is far from uncommon for the dictionary to give two — very occasionally even three — alternative equivalents. In Polish this occurs in some ity cases, while the German has only 14 examples of alternative equivalents.
As the above examples indicate, nouns are normally represented by the custom- ary entry form, that is, the nominative singular. A regular diference between the languages, however, is that whereas German nouns are usually provided with the deinite article, Swedish nouns are given without the article, with some few excep- tions. Nor is the dictionary fully consis- tent in terms of number: one example is the article Der Feyertag A8 , where not only the German but also the Polish and Latvian equivalents are given in the singu- lar, while the Swedish is in the plural Helgedagar cf.
However, here, too, there are deviations from the pattern. On the other hand, the adjective section evinces a certain lack of consistency regarding the word class of the equivalents. Cycki, while Die Augurcke E7 is matched by Ogorek plur. In the Latvian vocabulary there are two footnotes containing comments written in German — and to some extent in Latin. Deggots brennend.
While the great majority of the population in Riga and the neighboring parts of Livonia and Courland were Latvian speakers, the upper social strata were mainly speakers of German. See further Larsson f. On the other hand, the dictionary does raise a number of questions from the point of view of its users: How and by whom was it to be used?
And to what extent did its structure and lexical content allow such use? McArthur b and Stein f. During the 16th century these dic- tionaries intended for elementary Latin studies came to form a pattern for a new type of dictionary with other purposes and target groups. Oten these works were created by adding one or more further languages to existent bilingual dictionaries.
And even though these diction- aries were no longer intended for Latin studies, Latin normally remained one of the languages. Moreover, we are dealing here with widely diver- gent social contexts. Another distinction between these two types of dictionaries concerns their man- ner of use. Ater all, such use places diferent demands on the structure of the dictionary. In as much as the thematic arrangement of a reading dictionary is primarily justiied by the psychology of learning — lan- guage acquisition is facilitated by learning semantically related words in their con- text — the macrostructure is in such a case less crucial; the educational purpose can easily be reconciled with a considerable measure of arbitrariness on the part of the dictionary writer.
On the other hand, in a reference dictionary, the placement of the articles and their arrangement in the overall order is critical in an entirely diferent way; the consultability of the dictionary is contingent on its macrostructure being transparent and predictable to the user. And to what extent are they truly equivalent to each other? While the irst two chapters deal with God, the universe, and the four elements, the two that follow treat the human soul and the human body respec- tively.
Chapters 5—16 are devoted to various kinds of human conditions and activi- ties, starting in the churchly sphere and ending in food and drink. One of the conditions of quickly succeeding with a inding, of course, is that the headings correspond to the chapter content, which must be said to be largely the case. To start with, many of the 24 chapters are divided into semantically delimited subsections. Mention has been made 1. In some cases these subsections are already relected in the chapter headings. An example already given 1.
A major reason that the placement of the articles can be diicult to predict is that it is not uncommon to ind diferent principles of placement competing with each other. Here, too, the chapter Von den Handwercks-Leuten serves as an illus- tration. As the designations of various cratsmen are followed not only by the tools they use but also of the products their activities result in, diferent principles for grouping inevitably wind up conlicting with each other; ater all, these products have natural slots in other chapters.
A problem of another sort is presented by the inal chapter, Beysatz. As already mentioned 1. Firstly, the chapter is divided by word class: the irst articles are mainly adjectives, while the following are verbs. If this chapter was used for 1. Another problem, however, is that — even disregarding the inal two arti- cles — the alphabetical order is far from perfect. Of the adjectives, 26 — that is, as much as a ith — are placed out of alphabetical order, and in the case of verbs this proportion is even higher.
And this is far from always the case. While the German and Latvian vocabularies exhibit a relatively high degree of correctness, the Swedish and — albeit to a lesser extent — the Polish vo- cabularies stand out, partly owing to their many distorted forms and partly because of their more or less obviously inappropriate equivalents. In these two languages it also happens that two consecutive equivalents have been reversed, thereby appearing in the wrong article: thus, for Swedish, Steeksill and Saltsill E2 see 3.
As a conse- quence of the typesetter having had to divide the German heading into two rows, the German and Swedish article ields came to be out of alignment in relation to the 9 his calculation is based solely on the initial graphemes of the equivalents; if the subsequent graphemes are taken into consideration, the number of deviations is even somewhat greater. Regarding verbs, the irst four spreads alone G3—G6 evince 28 deviations from this roughly calculated alphabetical order; in the remaining two spreads G7—G8 the alphabetical order is so loose as to render any exact calculations unfeasible.
On the one hand, it is a matter of the selection of articles. Also in terms of the selection of articles, Beysatz occupies a position of its own. While the thematic chapters nevertheless evince a considerable measure of consis- tency and discernment in this regard, the choice of adjectives and verbs seems in- deed arbitrary from a semantic point of view.
Even more diicult to explain from the point of view of functionality are the four articles in the concluding chapter that reappear in virtually identical form: Vollkommen F7 and G3 , Laufe G3 and G4 , Verwahre G3 and G5 , and Warte G3 and G5. Since the macrostructure here is alphabetical, these double entries cannot be explained by claiming that their meanings belong in diferent contexts cf. And considering the fact that the Polish — with the exception of the irst case — has exactly the same equivalents in both articles, these doublets inevita- bly entail departures from the alphabetical order, and the only search path the chap- ter has to ofer is thereby invalidated.
One indication of this is the fact that the title is in German only.
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Nor is it a mere coincidence that the German vocabulary is given in the most marked posi- tion on the far let of the spread, nor that it is set in larger type than the other lan- guages. Another feature that indicates that German was the intended starting lan- guage is that the number of alternative equivalents is much smaller for that language than for the others see 1.
E1 and Der Hollunderb. F1 to make room for the equiva- 1. Nor can the information provided there — in one case an alternative Latvian equiva- lent and in the other a brief description of adjectival inlection in that language — have been intended for a native Latvian user. Another circumstance that indicates that the target group was non-Latvian is the large number of alternative equivalents in the Latvian vocabulary, along with the fact that they are oten morphologically closely related variants; for instance, when Die Tulpe is given the alternative equiva- lents Ta Tulpe.
Tulpans E8 , this is information that would not be of interest to a Latvian dictionary user. It is signiicant that the conjunctions used in the Polish and Swedish vocabularies are albo and eller, those used in the respective languages; if these vocabularies had been consciously designed for German-speaking users, then oder would reasonably have been used here as well. On the other hand, there are also features of these vo- cabularies that argue against their having been intended for native speakers. Regard- ing Polish, the two plural variants see 1.
What indicates that the Swedish vocabulary was intended for native speakers, besides the choice of conjunction, is the fact that the nouns lack any gender specii- cation. As gender in Swedish — as opposed to what is the case in Polish and Latvian — is not evident from the morphology of the word, indications of gender would obviously have been of great value to anyone who did not have a command of the language, whereas for native speakers of Swedish they would be unnecessary.
At the same time, however, the numerous alternative equivalents seem to indicate that the prospective users would not be native Swedish speakers. On the contrary, the dictionary appears in many ways to be a contradictory product that does not lend itself to gen- eralization regarding any clear plan. On the other hand, there are other diferences that are more diicult to explain.
While the thematic chapters were no doubt primarily intended to provide basic vocabulary, the information that the concluding chapter was originally designed to convey was probably rather more morphological than semantic in nature; the main purpose seems to have been to illustrate the word for- mation of adjectives and verbs. It is also worth noting that even though Beysatz is the largest chapter in terms of volume, it plays only a minor role in the dictionary as a whole. For neither Swedish nor Polish does the dictionary present any clear directionality; while some features sug- gest that the prospective target group was native speakers, others indicate just the opposite.
Concerning German and Latvian, the latter does stand out as the target language to all intents and purposes. Nevertheless, here too certain features do not it this pattern: the irst of the two Latvian footnotes, with its etymological informa- tion, hardly belonged in an elementary dictionary in Latvian for German speakers, and the same can be said of the reference to an earlier Latvian dictionary that ap- pears in one of the articles see 1.
Firstly, it is evident that the dictionary relies on several diferent mod- els and sources see further 1. A case in point in this connection is found in the respective Swedish and Polish conjunctions eller and albo; they can probably be explained by the authors of the Swedish and Polish vo- cabularies being native speakers. One aspect of this issue has to do with the four languages and their respective vocabularies. Of course, it may have been used by speakers of Swedish and Polish. However, here the numerous formal and semantic deiciencies — especially as regards Swedish — must have considerably impaired its usefulness.
Another aspect of functionality has to do with the distinction between reading dictionaries and reference dictionaries. Even though there is reason to assume that its use as a reference dictionary did occur to its publishers to some extent cf. And while the thematic chapters — albeit with certain diiculty — may have been used for consultation, this was probably out of the question regarding the concluding chapter.
Both the selec- tion of articles and the faulty alphabetical order no doubt rendered such use imprac- ticable. In Vocabularium the German and Latin vocabularies stand in respective columns on the verso, while the recto is reserved for Polish and Latvian here as well; in the later dictionary Swedish thus takes the place of Latin. Likewise, in Vocabularium three of the languages — besides German and Latvian, Polish as well — are set in various Gothic fonts, while the Latin is in the traditional Roman type.
Only two copies of Vocabularium seem to have been preserved — apart from the fragment in the Latvian Academic Library in Riga see 1. However, in roughly a tenth of the articles the equivalents difer. Even though the changes usually involve orthography or morphology, there are some lexical al- terations that are oten based on faulty semantic correspondence between the vari- ous equivalents in Vocabularium see further Larsson f. Not only in the Latvian and Polish vocabularies but also in the Latin, there are a number of anomalies that can apparently be traced to faulty readings of handwriting.
To be sure, in both cases German constitutes the self-evident source language: in Vocabularium as well, the title is formulated only in German, and there, too, that language occupies the initial let-hand column. We thus have every reason to believe that Vocabularium is based on a thematic German-Latin dictionary; considering how many dictionaries of this kind were available on the market, it is unreasonable to assume that those responsible for the dictionary compiled the German-Latin parts themselves.
At the same time there must have been another model. A2 and Torba. B12 for German Der Engel and Das Wehrgeheng respectively — leads us to suspect that there was a model in which such information appeared more systematically. However, this is hardly relevant in this con- text; ater all, as it was certainly not an original work, we can readily assume that this dictionary existed in earlier editions printed either in Riga or elsewhere. Firstly, the chapter division is identi- cal, with only a few exceptions.
Vocabulariu[m] Secondly, both the selection and the order of the articles are largely identical in the thematic chapters of the three dictionaries. However, these diferences rather underscore the dependency between the dictionaries. One example is the chapter Von den Fischen. Sometimes the diferences concerning the sets of articles have more to do with the fact that Malczowski adapted the lexicalization patterns to conditions in Polish.
In the great major- ity of cases, the German article ields are identical in the three dictionaries, and the same holds true for Latin in Vocabularium and Vocabularium pro qvinta classe and 21 Here we can suspect religio-political motives behind the addition to Vocabularium; one of the perceived threats to Lutheran orthodoxy was Anti-Trinitarianism. By way of illustration some alternative equivalents can be cited. In Vocabularium, it should be noted, the number of alternative equivalents is con- siderably smaller — probably owing to considerations of space.
B12 corresponding to German Der Hanf, where even the parentheses surrounding the alternative equivalent are found in Malczowski B8r. Not unexpectedly, all of the grammatical information in the Polish vocabulary in Vocabularium is also found in Malczowski; in this latter dic- tionary, Polish nouns are consistently provided with gender information, and in a few instances they have slipped into the compilation of Vocabularium.
As con- cerns Der Ruchbaum, Malczowski has the correct Der Eichbaum A8r instead, and here the lacuna is probably ascribable to the distortion that the German equiva- lent was subjected to in Vocabularium see above. However, the picture is not quite as simple as that. It is nevertheless more probable that the irst edition from contained substantially fewer adjectives and verbs; Malczowski had not taken these sections from the German-Latin model, 1. Her point of de- parture is a fragment of the Vocabularium that is preserved in the Latvian Aca- demic Library in Riga: all 12 leaves of sheet B and leaves 2—11 of sheet E.
Closer scrutiny of the fragment reveals that, on the contrary, most factors argue against such an as- sumption. For one thing, the Swedish vocabulary is conspicuously absent from the fragment. Regarding the other languages there are, to be sure, occasional emend- ations and comments in the same hand that provided the Latvian vocabulary; how- ever, they are extremely few in number and are moreover limited to the latter part of the fragment, sheet E. Examples of such insertions include the above-mentioned 1.
It is not remarkable that Depkin made changes in the other vocabularies. However, this does not mean that he was responsible for these ields. Nor could the fragment have served as the main type- setting model regarding German. What also speaks against Liborius Depkin having had the main responsibility for the dictionary is the list of his books that he recorded.
For a more detailed account of this book list, see Larsson — Secondly, the numerous errors in the Swedish and although to a far less extent Polish vocabularies indicate that they were not subjected to any proper proofreading cf. Larsson f. In these cases, however, the individuals probably had no close connection with the printing house. For one thing, this might be the reason why these vocabularies were hardly proofread at all; by this stage in the production, these individuals were no longer involved. Petersburg is probably war booty, and regarding the three copies at Swedish university libraries in Stockholm, Uppsala, and Lund , they are undoubtedly all obligatory copies that printing houses were mandated to submit to the Swedish authorities.
And it is indeed possible that these three copies are the only ones ever to make their way to Sweden. Further evidence of such a chronological order is the fact that Depkin seems to have assumed that the new dictionary would also have Latin as one of its languages; indeed, Swedish might not have been consid- ered initially, entering the picture only in the course of the work. To be sure, the Polish and Swedish vocabularies had rather the character of complements to the German and Latvian cf. Nevertheless, Polish remained an important language for the German-speaking merchants in Riga see Larsson f.
As Riga served as a retreat site for troops in Livonia and Courland and as a shipping port for the Swedish martial power, there must have been a considerable contingent of Swedish-speaking soldiers in the city during these years, which obviously made it useful to know Swedish. Ater the decline of the Hanseatic League in the late Middle Ages and the introduction of Lutheran Refor- mation in the early 16th century, High German gradually became more dominant, especially in its written form.
Baltic German, as it was later to be described, retained many elements of Low German vocabulary. For a more recent discussion with extended references to literature , see Balode pp. German appears in the let-most column in the opening of the pages, and is set in larger type than the other languages. Many proposals were presented, and in some cases they led to radical spelling ex- periments. At the end of the 17th century, however, orthography had in most cases turned back to the kind of norm which had been in force before the attempted radical revisions. Riga belonged to the periphery of the landscape of German printing in the 17th century, and it is therefore an interesting question whether the reformed orthogra- phy had any impact on prints produced in the city.
Even a random example shows interesting orthographic features. In a section about the diferent tools, necessary for farming, Gubert writes p. Are there changes over time? Are there even diferent in-house ortho- graphies existing side by side? Since I want to be able to compare all ive dictionaries, the mate- rial consists of their common vocabulary, i. On its let 42 Slavica Suecana series a — publications, vol. Vocabu- larium n. Some good examples for this phenomenon are found in the chapter on the human body: side is the Vocabularium , which is the expanded version of the smaller German-Latin work.
M A1r V A6f. WB A6f. In Vocabularium n. Even more striking, of course, is the fact that we are dealing with works of the same genre from the same printing oice. A good explanation for this use is to be found in the practice of printing, since the type ck was in fact a ligature in Early Modern printing oices cf.
In the contemporary orthographic discussion, especially the use 44 Slavica Suecana series a — publications, vol. With very few exceptions, these cases of orthographic agreement represent the norm which is still valid today. In the 53 cases where the dictionaries disagree, there is great diversity. It is very hard to see any kind of system here at all. A kind of pattern appears, however, in an analysis of the correlations in all the 53 cases where there is some kind of orthographic disagreement between the works.
Interestingly enough, there are also a number of correlations between Vo- cabularium n. In Ger- man historical linguistics, dictionaries have oten been used as source material see e. In my analysis of the vocabulary, I will irst discuss lexemes in one chapter of the dictionaries, followed by a speciic analysis of double formulas, consisting of lexico- geographical synonyms.
Here, too, the source material consists of the articles on nouns, since they enable a comparison between all the dictionaries. Among these words, there are deinite examples of local lexi- cal material, such as Augurcke, Zipolle, Burkan and Bete. Are there diferences, especially regarding the lexico-geographical origin of the lexemes? M A7r f. V D3 WB E6 f. Zaum is a form which can be found in High and Middle German Grimm As will be seen in the following, this is not the only indication of this kind.
Especially interesting are examples where the irst part consists of a geographically foreign lexeme followed by a local one. It can be found from northwestern Germany all the way to Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria Kretschmer In the German-Latin dictionaries, we are presented with double formu- las, consisting of two geographically distinct synonyms. In the other dictionaries, this entry was obviously viewed as too speciic, and the authors conine themselves to the hyperonym Kohl. Both members of the synonymic pair Zwiebel oder Zipoll come from the Ro- mance languages and have their origin in Latin cepula Kluge f.
In the Vocabularium n. Beete is the Low German lexeme. Frischbier For a detailed discussion, see Polanska f. All the dictionaries, expect Malczowski, keep the double formula. Vocabularium n. Finally, the word Kappers was probably too speciic to be in- cluded in all the dictionaries. As can bee seen, the small German-Latin dictionary — Vocabularium n. Striking are the lexico-geograph- ical pairs of synonyms which are treated somewhat diferently in the other diction- aries.
In the case of Augurke oder Ruschappel and Pasternak oder Mohrwurtzel the non-Latin dictionaries refrain from the more local alternative. One of the most interesting lexicographic features is the fact that Vocabularium n. All the cases are included where a lexeme occurs in at least four out of the ive dictionaries.
As can be seen, double formulas are especially frequent in the two German-Latin works: V V n. A few of them, 5 in all in Vocabularium n. Latin concepts oten have a broad content, and frequently their vernacular cor- respondence therefore consists of more than one word. However, the majority of the double formulas in the small German-Latin dic- tionary are lexico-geographic synonyms. In 59 cases, the double formula consists of a High and a Low German member. Malczowski, on the other hand, keeps merely one of the double formulas Der Frosch oder die Pogge.
In nine out of the ten cases quoted here, the latter two dictionaries select the High German synonym. M V WB High German member High German member — 2 2 in irst position Low German member 3 2 2 High German member High German member 26 43 44 in the second position Low German member 16 9 9 Double formula 6 3 2 51 59 59 his results in the following distribution in percentages since there are so few cases of the High German member in the irst position, there is no division according to position : V n.
Malczowski takes a middle position, however. Young students were most likely not expected to have this extended experience, but to be more exclusively dependent on their oral linguistic competence, which was deinitely Low German. Furthermore, there are 15 examples in the dictionaries where the double for- mula contains some other kind of variation related to Baltic German than a Low German one.
Among the garden plants, we encountered the lexeme Burkan, which is probably of Latvian origin. Finally, there are also a number of lexemes relecting local usage in Riga in the dictionaries, without being parts of double formulas. Dictionaries intended for young students contained more linguistic explication by locally frequent Low German lexemes; dictionaries intended for adult users with presumably an extended experience with High German did not need this supply of local lexical material.
One of the dictionaries, the German-Latin Vocabularium n. Especially interesting are the indications that this irst dictionary has a work of High German origin as its own source. Most of the double formulas were reduced to one lexeme. Since all the works also contain Low German and other lexical elements of a local nature, the result is, especially for the last mentioned dictionaries, a surprising lexico-geographical mixture. On the one hand, it is a pioneering work in many ways: it is not only the irst dictionary where Swedish is contrasted with Polish and Latvian but also the irst multilingual dictionary where Swedish is included but not Latin.
For one thing, the Swedish vocabulary contains a striking number of peculiarities and obvious errors: faulty equivalency with the other languages, words that do not be- long in Swedish, orthographic and morphological mistakes. Did the author of the Swedish vocabulary make use of a dictionary as a source or did he rely entirely on his own language skills? And who was this author? Where was he from? And was he — con- sidering the numerous anomalies in the Swedish vocabulary — really a native speaker of Swedish?
No documents are known to exist that might shed light on the genesis of the Swedish vocabulary, so the answers to these questions must be sought in the vocabu- lary itself. Even though he might have theoretically based his work on each one of the four languages in Vocabularium, practically speaking only two of them are candidates. Whereas the Swedish vocabulary — as expected — lacks any trace of the Latvian and Polish vocabularies on the recto side see Larsson f. It is also evident that the author made use of a Latin-Swedish dictionary as a source, speciically one of the alphabetically arranged small-format dictionaries that appeared during the years — and were produced on the basis of the Dictionarium Latino-Sveco-Germanicum, the so-called Lincopensen see further Larsson — For the most part, however, the diferences are no doubt unconscious or unintentional, devia- 45 No German-Swedish dictionaries could have been used for the simple reason that there were no such dictionaries at this time.
One diference between the dictionaries, however, is that the latter also contains a Swedish-Latin wordlist, Index Svecicus. Santesson In the second case the faulty equivalency is already found in Vocabularium; it was the Swedish equivalent to Fal- lax E1 in Vocabularium that the author had copied verbatim from the source dic- tionary. A similar explanation probably lies behind the fact that Hiernan A5 , in a depar- ture from what is normally the case in the Swedish vocabulary, has the deinite arti- cle cf. At the same time, seven lines above, Wolimhaus has sternuo, ere n.
It is not uncommon for the author to have complemented the source dictionary with an alternative equivalent stemming from the German. Occasionally the author does not rely on the source dictionary at all. One reason might be that the Latin equivalent is not found there. However, the main reason the author rejected the source dictionary seems to be that the meanings included there conlict with the German equivalents in Vocabu- larium.
In other cases it might be more diicult to explain why the author chose to de- part from the source dictionary. If this had not been the case, it would have been impossible for him to complement or replace, as he did, the equivalents from the source dictionary. E1 , Der Plau- menb. E8 , and Der Hollunderb. Likewise, he must have had a relatively good knowledge of German. To start with, whenever he did not make use of the source dictionary, he hardly seems to have consulted the Latin equivalents in Vocabularium at all; with one minor exception see Larsson f.
And if he did not clearly indicate the order of the elements — the question is whether it ever occurred to him that the person setting the type might not have a command of the language — the type- setter could easily have reversed that order. But considering the command of German that the Swedish vocabulary otherwise evinces, these errors should rather be regarded as the result of lagging attention and concentration; perhaps it is not coincidental that these examples occur in the inal pages of the dictionary?
In the source dictionary the Latin lemma has the form teda and is explained as 1. If — as we can assume — he did not know the meaning of Pergel, this also indi- cates something else: that his stay in Riga was rather temporary. As Pergel was an accepted and well-established expression in Livonia, it would hardly have been un- familiar to him if he was at home in that country.
Raag However, if the author had incorporated German into his own idiom to such a degree, the Swedish article ields would have been afected by that language to a much greater extent, which is not the case see Larsson f. One indication of this is his — as it seems — somewhat limited knowledge of Latin. A further sign that the author was not a member of the educated elite in society is the lack of conidence he displays in his orthography. He could hardly have been an experienced and practiced writer; on the contrary, a picture emerges of a person who was not particularly used to dealing with Swedish in writing and who had a rather difuse notion of what proper writing was.
We ind a hint of this in some of the Swedish equivalents that were not taken from the source dictionary. And the explanation for this can hardly be that he was uncertain about the choice of Swedish equivalents. It is similarly signiicant that the author followed Wolimhaus also in in- stances where the latter had shiting spellings of one and the same morpheme.
It thus appears that the author took the trouble to look up both Lardum and Succidia B8 in Wolimhaus, even though these two Swedish equivalents should have been self-evident from German Der Speck and Die Speck- seite, respectively. In cases like these, his consultations of the source dictionary can hardly be explained in any other way than that the author wanted to ascertain whether the forms would be authorized there, which it is reasonable to believe would not have been necessary if he had been an experienced and conident writer.
As mentioned in the introduction 1. Perhaps the author of this vocabulary should be sought among these soldiers? A task of this nature would have required more than the basic ability to read that we can assume these quartered individuals possessed see e. Hansson f. Grammatical features can be dis- cussed only to a limited extent, because the dictionary lacks explicit grammatical information, and those inlectional forms which do difer from base forms occur only occasionally, mainly in titles of chapters. Of course, it is possible to draw some conclusions, in particular those related to semantics, based on the selection of words and on their equivalents in the other languages.
Firstly, there are obvious systematic diferences in spelling of Polish words in the two books. Secondly, as has already been mentioned see 1. It seems that there are two reasons underlying the discrepancies between the two dictionaries. In a less probable scenario the hesaurus by Knapski and was used, less probable, as the use of a mainstream Jesuit dictionary was more than dubious in the Protestant Riga.
Some features of spelling, which relect pronunciation, can be recognized as charac- teristic of the Polish used in the northern and eastern territories of the former Re- public of Poland, where the phonetics of the Ruthenian and Baltic languages exerted considerable inluence on pronunciation. Apart from the above, there is one in- stance where sotness was marked erroneously in a consonant cluster, cf. Apart from the two phonetic and orthographic features, it is worth discussing one more feature, namely so-called secondary nasality, which is the nasality of ety- mologically oral vowels [o] and [e] before nasal consonants.
Occasionally secondary nasality also occurs in contexts without nasal consonants, e. In principle the dictionary contains only base forms of nouns and adjec- tives. Forms of dependent case forms occur only in titles of chapters and in those few 60 his phenomenon was characteristic of the Polish language of the 17th century. Nevertheless, there is no agreement among historians of the Polish language whether this phenomenon was indeed of phonetic character assimilation , or whether it was limited to a peculiar ortho- graphic style.
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Zu den normativen Grundlagen des Chancenspiegels. Bildungsstandards ante portas? Eine Replik. Gymnasium Helveticum, 69 4 Biocuration of microRNAs in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Bartuschat, Johannes Biografie umanistiche di Dante. In: Furlan, Francesco. Letture e lettori di Dante. Umanesimo e Rinascimento. Ravenna: Angelo Longo Editore, Bioinspired event-driven collision avoidance algorithm based on optic flow. Blatt aus einer astrologischen Abhandlung: P.
Theusinger, Oliver M Bleeding management in elective orthopedic surgery. Perioperative Hemostasis : Coagulation for Anesthesiologists. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, Varela Braga, Ariane Blick nach Osten — Orientbegeisterung in Europa des In: Giese, Francine. Oberhofen: s. Blutdruckkontrolle bei Patienten mit polyzystischer Nierenerkrankung.
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Das Lexikon der offenen Fragen. Metzler, Hilty, Lorenz Concise review: workshop review: understanding and assessing the risks of stem cell-based therapies. Stem Cells Translational Medicine, 4 4 Conclusion: Advanced capitalism in crisis. The politics of advanced capitalism.
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New York: Cambridge University Press, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Conclusion: What is Lost and Gained? Translating Religion : What is Lost and Gained? Driza Maurer, Ardita ; Barrat, Jordi E-voting case law: A comparative analysis. Schlag, Thomas ; Koch, Muriel Confirmation Work in Switzerland. Confirmation Work in the View of the Workers.
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Conrad Jon Godly. Geschichtete Zeit. Contes merveilleux. Coordinated epigenetic remodelling of transcriptional networks occurs during early breast carcinogenesis. Clinical Epigenetics, 7 1 Coping through blogging: a review of studies on the potential benefits of weblogs for stress reduction. Cyberpsychology : Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberpspace, 9 2 :online. ACS Catalysis, 5 6 Klinkert, Thomas Alberto Moravia e "La Ciociara". Avellino: Edizioni Sinestesie, Welp, Yanina Hofmann, Tatjana Cultural Cringe? Narrative Instrumentalisierungen lokaler Kulturen bei M.
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Willi, Barbara ; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina Glattbrugg, Switzerland: Literaturservice Virbac. Sender-Jedrzejewska, Anna HR-Today, 6 Rimmele, Marius Annen-Triptychon Medien des Heiligen. Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, Gockel, Bettina Ganz, David In: Kapustka, Mateusz ; Woodfin, Warren. Berlin: Edition Imorde, Beriger, Julian-Ivan ; Brunner, Arthur Criblez, Lucien ; Lehmann, Lukas Kunz, Ralph In: Nord, Ilona. Grundlagen und Perspektiven mit einem Schwerpunkt im Bereich von Sinnesbehinderungen.
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Weber, Rolf H ; Chrobak, Lennart Kohler, Georg Der flexible Mensch und die Talgenossenschaft. Ethik, Religionen, Gemeinschaften : Ein Studienbuch. Bern: hep Verlag, Tresch, Christine Rollenbilder bei Ursli und Flurina. In: ten Doornkaat, Hans. Alois Carigiet. Schellen- Ursli. Wildberger, Hannes Der regurgitierende Welpe. Kutter, Annette P N Der schwierige Atemweg bei Hund und Katze.
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Wissenschaftskomminikation im Wandel. Developing a Religious Identity during Confirmation Time. Avanzi, Mathieu ; et al Developing a ToBI system for French. In: Frota, Sonja ; Prietro, Pilar. Intonation in Romance. Development of a custom-designed, pan genomic DNA microarray to characterize strain-level diversity among Cronobacter spp. Frontiers in Pediatrics Stadlbauer, Ulrike ; Meyer, Urs Developmental Neuroimmune Mechanisms in Schizophrenia. In: Lipina, Tatiana ; Roder, John. Drug Discovery for Schizophrenia. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, Reusch, Claudia E Diabetes und Panreatitis bei der Katze: Huhn oder Ei?
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