Prominent public figure, educator, writer, folklorist, and linguist. For 10 years he taught in elementary schools in Kharkiv gubernia and Katerynoslav gubernia. In he settled in Chernihiv, where he organized there the largest publishing house in Russian-ruled Ukraine, which published 50 popular-educational books despite severe censorship. In he moved to Kyiv, where the Hromada of Kyiv entrusted him with the task of compiling a dictionary of the Ukrainian language.
Hrinchenko's literary work was directly linked with his journalistic work and was to a large extent subservient to it. In his realistic short stories and novelettes he depicted Ukrainian peasant life while raising urgent social questions, the attitude of the intelligentsia to the peasantry, the education and denationalization of the rural population, and the relation between nationalism and radicalism or socialism Writer and theatrical and cultural activist. Orphaned in childhood, Starytsky was raised by his uncle, the father of Mykola Lysenko. He studied at the Poltava gymnasium until , Kharkiv University , and Kyiv University Starytsky was first published in An important part of his literary legacy is his poetry on social issues, which is characterized by populist and patriotic motifs, glorification of the Ukrainian past, and protests against tsarism.
Starytsky made a considerable contribution to Ukrainian theater and dramaturgy. In he headed the first Ukrainian professional theater and in founded a new troupe with young actors. He wrote several original dramatic works as well as librettos for many of Mykola Lysenko's operas. During the last years of his life Starytsky wrote several historical novels on Ukrainian themes in Russian and Ukrainian A very prolific writer, poet, publicist, and important political leader, Franko exerted a tremendous influence not only on his native Western Ukraine, but on the Ukrainian culture and national consciousness as a whole.
In the last decades of the 19th-century and the first decades of the 20th-century he played a key role in the shaping of the powerful Western Ukrainian populist movement and the formation of Ukrainian radicalism. Although he was an ardent proponent of the realist style in literature and art and was consistently critical of modernist trends, Franko himself did not remain immune to new literary currents and produced in such collections as Withered Leaves , one of the first modernist poems in Western Ukraine. Learn more about Ivan Franko and his environment by visiting the following entries:.
Writer, scholar, political and civic leader, publicist; like Taras Shevchenko, one of Ukraine's greatest creative geniuses. The son of a village blacksmith, Franko graduated from the Drohobych gymnasium in and began to study classical philology and Ukrainian language and literature at Lviv University. His first literary works were published in the students' magazine Druh , whose editorial board he joined in Franko's political and publishing activities and his correspondence with Mykhailo Drahomanov attracted the attention of the police, and in he was arrested along with Mykhailo Pavlyk, Ostap Terletsky, and others for spreading socialist propaganda.
In he founded with Pavlyk, the magazine Hromads'kyi druh , which was confiscated by the authorities but resumed publication under the names Dzvin and Molot. In Franko was arrested again and charged with inciting peasants against the authorities. After serving a three-month term, he was released but was kept under police surveillance and was forced to discontinue his university studies Writer, lawyer, and community activist. He completed his legal studies by correspondence at Lviv University in and worked as a clerk and legal assistant in various Galician towns.
From he lived in Lviv and edited the radical newspaper Hromads'kyi holos. His first published work appeared in , a story entitled 'Nechytal'nyk' The Illiterate. He later published collections of stories and the novellette Zabobon Superstition, He depicted the daily life of the Galician peasantry and small-town intelligentsia, particularly that of priests and teachers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
He wrote in the realist style, with touches of impressionism and with occasional sharp satire directed at the rural bourgeoisie and the bureaucracy. He contributed to Dilo and other newspapers and journals. His works were translated many times, and a three-volume compilation of his works, edited by Yurii Hamorak, was published in Other editions of selected works have appeared in Ukraine since Cheremshyna completed a law degree at the University of Vienna in and maintained a law practice in Sniatyn, where he was active in civic life.
He began writing short stories as early as and published them in newspapers and journals. On the basis of regional origin, Cheremshyna is often placed together with Vasyl Stefanyk and Les Martovych in the 'Pokutia triad. They reflect the dialectal traits of Pokutia and are marked by a rhythm and style reminiscent of folk laments or of folk epics. Two collections of his stories appeared during his lifetime.
These have been followed posthumously by many selected and collected works, published in Galicia and in the Ukrainian SSR, including his last collection Verkhovyna Highlands, Cheremshyna was also known for his translations of short stories from German, Czech, and Hungarian. In the Cheremshyna literary memorial museum was founded in Sniatyn Galician socialist figure and publicist; full member of the Shevchenko Scientific Society from He and Ivan Franko became close friends as students at Lviv University.
Both of them contributed to the Academic Circle's organ, Druh , and both became Ukrainophile socialists under the influence of Mykhailo Drahomanov's letters to Druh and the Polish-language newspaper Praca. Through his writings Pavlyk remained the principal Galician propagator of Drahomanov's ideas, which brought about his persecution he was tried in court nearly 30 times , imprisonment in , , , , and , and ostracism. With Franko he edited the socialist journal Hromads'kyi druh and miscellanies Dzvin and Molot , all of which outraged the conservative Galician public and were confiscated by the police Writer, journalist, and teacher.
He attended Lviv University, from which he graduated in Varied work as an editorial assistant and a contributor to Dilo , Narodna chasopys' , and other newspapers prepared him for the position of editor of Bukovyna He was also one of the editors of Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk A monthly journal published in in Lviv, in and in Kyiv, and in again in Lviv.
LNV became the foremost literary-scientific journal of the day. Toward the end of the 19th century the dominant realist style in Ukrainian literature started to give way to modernism. Some writers no longer aimed for a naturalistic 'copy' of reality, and instead elected an impressionist mode. Along with that change the novelette gave way to the short story.
In drama the action passed inward, to explore the psychological conflicts, moods, and experiences of the characters. Poetry abandoned its realistic orientation in favor of the symbolic; emphasis on content gave way to a fascination with form. The work of Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky marks the transition from realism to modernism. Olha Kobylianska, a woman writer contemporary of Kotsiubynsky, was not so much an impressionist in her manner as a neoromantic. The neoromantic tendency in modernism prompted to a rekindling of interest in folklore and resulted in the appearance of a number of remarkable works of literature, including Lesia Ukrainka's play Lisova pisnia A Forest Song, The master of the very short impressionistic story was Vasyl Stefanyk.
The novelist and dramatist Volodymyr Vynnychenko was deeply interested in the psychological experiences and especially the morality of the intelligentsia Learn more about the Ukrainian modernist writers of the late 19th and early 20th century by visiting the following entries:. Poet and playwright. Lesia Ukrainka achieved a broad education by self-tuition and knew all of the major Western European languages as well as Greek and Latin and the Slavic languages.
She began writing poetry at a very early age. At the age of nine she wrote the poem 'Nadiia' Hope , and her first published poems appeared in the journal Zoria in Lviv in Lesia Ukrainka began to write more prolifically from the mids. Her first collection of original poetry, Na krylakh pisen' On Wings of Songs , appeared in However, she reached her literary heights in her poetic dramas. Particularly important among her works are the dramatic poems on the subject of prisoners in Babylon, which were meant to serve as symbols of the imprisonment of Ukrainians within the Russian Empire One of the finest Ukrainian writers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Expelled from the Kamianets-Podilskyi Theological Seminary in for his Populist involvement, he remained under police surveillance for the rest of his life. His earliest stories are examples of ethnographic realism and show the influence of Ivan Nechui-Levytsky and Populist ideas. In the late s, however, his themes and subjects became more varied and his approach more sophisticated, and he evolved into one of the most talented Ukrainian modernist writers Writer, statesman, and politician.
Vynnychenko began to study law at Kyiv University in but, owing to his expulsion in for 'revolutionary' activities, he never completed his studies. He was a member of the executive committee of the Ukrainian Social Democratic Workers' party and editor of its journal Borot'ba.
In he was chosen one of two vice-presidents of the Central Rada and then the first president of the General Secretariat of the Central Rada, the autonomous government of Ukraine.
Upon disagreeing with the pro-Entente politics of the Directory of the UNR Vynnychenko left for Vienna and finally settled in France where he devoted himself almost exclusively to his literary career Prose writer. In the course of his studies Stefanyk became aquainted with Les Martovych and Lev Bachynsky, both of whom had an influence on his life: Martovych turned him to writing, and Bachynsky steered him toward community-political involvement.
His first attempts to publish some of his introspective poetic prose in newspapers were unsuccessful, but in the terse narratives of scenes observed by Stefanyk appeared in Pratsia Chernivtsi ; they were followed by several novellas in Literaturno-naukovyi vistnyk and finally by Stefanyk's first collection of novellas, Synia knyzhechka The Blue Book, With its appearance came immediate literary acclaim A pioneering Ukrainian modernist writer. A self-educated and well-read woman, her first novellen were written in German, beginning in Her travels and acquaintance with Lesia Ukrainka, Nataliia Kobrynska, Osyp Makovei, Ivan Franko, Vasyl Stefanyk, and Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky changed her cultural and political outlook, and she became involved in the Ukrainian women's movement in Bukovyna and began writing in Ukrainian.
Many of her works--including the novels Liudyna A Person, and Tsarivna The Princess, --have as their protagonists cultured, emancipated women oppressed in a philistine, provincial society. Her works are known for their impressionistic, lyrical descriptions of nature and subtle psychological portrayals Toward the end of the 19th century realism in Ukrainian literature started to give way to modernism.
Emerging as a rejection of populism, Ukrainian literary modernism championed the idea of creating 'pure art' in the vein of Western European literature of the time. The Lviv-based Moloda Muza group in Western Ukraine and the Kyiv-based journal Ukrains'ka khata in Russian-ruled Ukraine believed that the necessary modernization of Ukrainian literature required a change in thematic focus from the social to the psychological and the greater sophistication of literary form.
The most prominent members of the Moloda Muza were the poets Petro Karmansky, with his end-of-the-century pessimism, and Vasyl Pachovsky, remarkable for his formal diversity. Some members of the group were influenced by its Polish counterpart Mloda Polska. But though they were much less radical than their Polish 'modernist' friends, to say nothing of the Western European symbolists and decadents whose works they often translated, the members of Moloda Muza not only did not receive popular support their ambitious magazine S'vit had to give up its international profile and turn to more mundane matters after only nine months of publication , they had to contend with attacks from such notables as Serhii Yefremov and Ivan Franko.
Franko's criticism, despite his sensitivity to their talent, centered on the absence of proper and meaningful purpose in their creativity. At a time when so much still had to be done in the social, national, and political spheres, there was, according to Franko, little room for the luxury of esthetics. The group members' sensitive brooding was labeled destructive pessimism, their attention to form, needless formalism, and their striking imagery, decadence Learn more about the Moloda Muza group and modernist literature in Western Ukraine by visiting the following entries:.
An informal modernist group of writers and artists in Western Ukraine, founded in The group's manifesto, as expressed by one of the founders Ostap Lutsky , was 'freedom and liberty in content and form' and an emphasis on the more subtle and gentle experiences of the human soul. The group established a publishing house with the same name, which during its brief existence brought out more than 10 books and the extremely ambitious but short-lived magazine S'vit.
Although the style and quality of their literary production is varied and uneven, some common traits which characterize the group as a whole include a predilection for the esthetic above the utilitarian in life and an affinity for the pessimism of the Western European intelligentsia of the turn of the century Poet, civic leader, and journalist. Karmansky was a prominent member of the modernist group Moloda Muza, and his early poetry, starting with the collection Z teky samovbyvtsia From the Briefcase of a Suicide, , reflect the typical fin-de-siecle ennui and pessimism of the modernist poets throughout Europe.
His particular idiom is characterized by the frequent use of religious imagery and the often satiric tone provoked by the estrangement between the brooding modernist poet and 'callous' society.
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Discontent did not leave him even when he tried to work within the needs of the society by being a high-school teacher, then a representative in the diplomatic missions of the Western Ukrainian National Republic to Rome, the United States, Canada, and Brazil, and finally an editor After the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine, Karmansky lectured at Lviv University and wrote two collections distinguished by their official optimism Writer; member of the modernist group Moloda Muza. Yatskiv began his literary career in with a collection of prose miniatures, V tsarstvi satany In the Kingdom of Satans , which was influenced by Western modernists, and in particular Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe and their predilection for the 'darker' elements in life.
Yatskiv transformed these motifs into naturalistic sketches of the brutality of life. Besides other collections of miniatures and short stories which constitute Yatskiv's most important literary achievement , he also wrote the novelette Ohni horiat' Fires Are Burning, and the novel Tanets' tinei Dance of Shadows, A volume of his collected works, Muza na chornomu koni Muse on a Black Horse , appeared in Poet, dramatist, publicist, and teacher. Pachovsky studied at Lviv University medicine and Vienna University history and completed his studies with a teacher's certificate in He worked as a cultural representative of the Union for the Liberation of Ukraine in the internment camp at Knittelfeld, Austria , edited Strilets' while serving in the Ukrainian Galician Army.
Pachovsky was a prominent member of Moloda Muza and made his literary debut in with a collection of lyric poetry, Rozsypani perly Scattered Pearls. His poetry is marked by a highly melodic line and folk-song stylizations. His dramas, written more in the modernist manner as highly lyrical allegories, at times too publicistic, are stylized patriotic visions of Ukraine in its quest for freedom. Similar in style to his plays is Pachovsky's epic poem, Zoloti vorota The Golden Gates , of which only two of the projected four volumes were finished Galician writer, literary scholar, civic figure, and artist.
His home in Cracow was a well-known meeting place for Ukrainian writers, artists, and scholars. In he became a founding member of the Moloda Muza writers' group. Some of his poems were put to music by Ukrainian composers; the requiem song Zhuravli Cranes is the most famous of them. From to over a dozen collections of Lepky's realistic stories and impressionist prose poems appeared. Between the years and he also published over 15 collections of predominantly neoromantic and lyrical elegiac and introspective but also social and patriotic poetry.
After the First World War Lepky turned to writing historical novels, such as the unfortunately esthetically uneven Ukrainian historical prose epic Mazepa Poet, feuilleton writer, theatrical producer and director, drama critic, and a member of the Moloda Muza writers' group. In he was in charge of the Ruska Besida Theater in Lviv. He co-edited in the daily Ukrains'ke slovo and then the weekly Ukrains'ke slovo and wrote feuilletons under the pseudonym Tyberii Horobets.
He published several collections of modernist lyrical poetry in which he expressed moods of melancholy and unease as well as his affinity for the decadent literature of Central and Western Europe of the turn of the century.
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His short stories and feuilletons appeared in several collections and in the posthumous, abbreviated edition Vybrane Selections, Charnetsky also translated Polish and German literary works and wrote a short history of the Ukrainian theater in Galicia The downfall of the Russian Empire after the First World War, the resulting abolition of imperial censorship, the establishment of an independent Ukrainian state even if for a very short time , and the relative leniency of the Soviet regime in the s all led to an astonishing renaissance of literary and cultural activity in Ukraine.
Scores of new writers and poets appeared and formed dozens of literary groups that changed the face of Ukrainian literature. Perhaps the most charismatic cultural leader was Mykola Khvylovy, a prominent writer, publicist, and founder of the elitist literary organization Vaplite.
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Among Vaplite's members were a renowned playwright Mykola Kulish, a brilliant symbolist poet Pavlo Tychyna, an avant-garde poet and writer Maik Yohansen, and such writers and poets as Yurii Yanovsky, Arkadii Liubchenko, and Mykola Bazhan. However, the Ukrainian cultural renaissance of the s was brutally quashed by Stalinist terror of the s. As a symbolic act of defiance and concern for his nation in the face of the man-made famine and the growing campaign of political terror, Khvylovy committed suicide in May The majority of Vaplite members, including Kulish and Yohansen, were imprisoned and executed.
Others, including Tychyna, were forced to capitulate to the Soviet regime and begin producing works in the socialist-realist style which glorified Joseph Stalin and the Party. Nonetheless, in a very brief time of relative creative freedom, these writers managed to create a remarkable and lasting literary legacy Learn more about Mykola Khvylovy and other Vaplite members by visiting the following entries:. Prominent Ukrainian writer and publicist of the Ukrainian cultural renaissance of the s. Born Mykola Fitilev, he graduated in from the Bohodukhiv Gymnasium.
After publishing two poetry collections, he switched to writing prose. Khvylovy experimented boldly in his prose, introducing into the narrative diaries, dialogues with the reader, speculations about the subsequent unfolding of the plot, philosophical musings about the nature of art, and other asides. In his brief period of creativity less than five years he masterfully depicted the revolution in Ukraine and the first hints of its degeneration, using a rich gallery of characters, most of them members of the intelligentsia A writers' organization which existed in Kharkiv from to While accepting the official requirements of the Communist party, Vaplite adopted an independent position on questions of literary policy and supported Mykola Khvylovy in the Literary Discussion of Vaplite proposed to create a new Ukrainian literature based on the writers in its ranks who strived to perfect their work by assimilating the finest masterpieces of Western European culture.
Joseph Stalin interpreted that goal as a betrayal of the aims of the Party and accused Khvylovy and Vaplite of working under the slogan "Away from Moscow.
The most famous Ukrainian playwright of the twentieth century. After his mother's early death, Kulish spent most of his childhood in orphanages and charity homes. He studied history and philology at Odesa University, but his university education was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War. He participated in the Ukrainian Struggle for Independence , organizing a guerrilla regiment to fight the Russian Volunteer Army in Southern Ukraine.
Kulish had joined the proletarian writers' group Hart in , and after moving to Kharkiv he met many of the group's other members. One of them, the famous writer and polemicist Mykola Khvylovy, had a great impact on Kulish's writing and views. Kulish was also profoundly influenced by Ukraine's leading theater director, Les Kurbas, who staged several of Kulish's plays at his Berezil theater Poet, writer, translator, literary theorist, and linguist of German and Ukrainian parentage.
Until he studied philology at Kharkiv University, graduating with a master's degree. Yohansen wrote in German and Russian until , but only in Ukrainian after Originally a member of the Soviet Ukrainian proletarian writers' organization Hart, in Yohansen became a founding member of the literary group Vaplite. After the forced dissolution of Vaplite in by the Soviet authorities, he cofounded and actively contributed to the literary and art periodicals Literaturnyi iarmarok and Universal'nyi zhurnal.
He was the only former Vaplite member to question publically the formation of the more populist literary organization Prolitfront, which he refused to join. Instead he founded the apolitical Techno-Artistic Group A, which was officially banned in He graduated from the Chernihiv Theological Seminary in He enrolled at the Kyiv Commercial Institute, and while a student, he worked on the editorial boards of the newspapers Rada and Svitlo. His first collection of poetry, Soniashni kliarnety Clarinets of the Sun, ; repr , is a programmatic work, in which he created a uniquely Ukrainian form of symbolism and established his own poetic style, known as kliarnetyzm clarinetism They never established a formal organization or program, but they shared cultural and esthetic interests.
Mykhailo Mohyliansky, Viktor Petrov, and others are also included in this loose grouping. The group's name is derived from their use of themes and images of antiquity and was given to them by their opponents in the Literary Discussion of The Neoclassicists were self-consciously concerned with the production of high art and disdained 'mass art,' didactic writing, and propagandistic work. Their opponents, in contrast, organized themselves around writers who were supported by the Communist party, and viewed literature in a primarily utilitarian fashion, that is, as a means of strengthening Soviet rule in Ukraine.
Maksym Rylsky was forced to publish socialist-realist works, and Burghardt emigrated to the West, where he wrote under the pseudonym Yurii Klen. The tradition of the Neoclassicists was continued among emigre poets, most notably by M. Zerov's brother, Mykhailo Orest Learn more about the literary legacy of the Neoclassicists by visiting the following entries:. A literary movement of the s. The works of the Neoclassicists were anti-Romantic and antifolkloric. They sought universal themes and considered Ukrainian culture to be an organic part of Western European culture.
The closest to what could be considered their program was set out by Mykola Zerov. High art, in their view, could be conveyed only through clarity of thought and mastery of form. Their poetry, therefore, is characterized by balance, plasticity of image, and logical ordering of subject and composition. The main purpose of literature, as they perceived it, was esthetic Poet, translator, and literary historian. He studied philology at Kyiv University. Zerov's literary activity, both as a poet and as a translator, was in complete harmony with his ideals and theoretical postulates.
An avowed classicist and Parnassian, he became the leader of the Neoclassicists. He concentrated on the sonnet and Alexandrine verse and produced excellent examples of both forms. He translated numerous works of Latin poetry. He wrote literary criticism on contemporary Soviet Ukrainian literary works, articles on literary translation, and introductions to editions of Ukrainian classics. He was arrested in April and sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment in the Solovets Islands.
On 9 October he was resentenced, to death by firing squad Poet, linguist, literary scholar, translator. He became a specialist in Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Serbian literatures and the history of the Serbian and Belarusian languages. He began writing poetry in , and in the s was a member of the Neoclassicists.
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His early poetry was lyrical, emotive, and essentially symbolist. His later poetry combined symbolist elements with an increasing attention to form, language, and imagery reminiscent of Kyivan neoclassicism. He was first arrested in February Rearrested in September , he was sentenced for 'counterrevolutionary terrorism' in March and perished in a Kolyma labor camp Poet and literary scholar.
Fylypovych studied at Galagan College and at Kyiv University , where he later was a professor His first poems were published in Russian journals beginning in After the Revolution of Fylypovych switched to writing poetry in Ukrainian. In the s he became a member of the Neoclassicists and published two collections of poetry. He made a major contribution to the comparative study of Ukrainian literature, particularly to the study of Taras Shevchenko and Ukrainian romanticism. Fylypovych was arrested in August during the Stalinist terror, presumably for his critical attitude to official Soviet cultural policies, and sentenced to 10 years in concentration camps.
He died in a camp in the Ukhta-Pechorsk region of Siberia Poet, translator, and community activist. He studied at Kyiv University, initially in the medical faculty and later in the historical-philological faculty. Rylsky started to write early in life he published his first poem in , and by he had published his first youthful collection. His poetic talents reached full bloom with the publication of several poetry collections in the s.
Rylsky's lyric poetry grew out of the best achievements of Ukrainian poetry at his time, and out of his broad knowledge of world poetry, French writers in particular. He often used motifs and images from ancient mythology and adhered to classical forms, which practices linked him to the group of Neoclassicists. In many other respects, however, his philosophical and contemplative lyric poetry did not fit the narrow definition of Neoclassicism. Rylsky's apolitical poetry provoked fierce attacks from official critics.
He was arrested in , but then proclaimed his acceptance of the official Soviet view of reality Writer, poet, literary scholar, and translator. After graduating from Kyiv University, he published in Russian a study on the latest analyses of poetic style Because he was the son of German colonists, he was exiled during the First World War to the Arkhangelsk region of northern Russia. Returning to Ukraine after the Revolution of , he worked as a teacher in Baryshivka. There he renewed his friendship with the scholar and poet Mykola Zerov and began writing poetry in Ukrainian.
Klen became one of the unofficial five-member group called the Neoclassicists. Although his poems began to appear in the periodical press beginning in , his major contributions were his translations of German, French, and English poetry. In Klen managed to emigrate to Germany and taught Slavic literatures at the universities of Munster, Innsbruck, and Prague Among the most dynamic and interesting, though often underrated, trends in the Ukrainian literature of the s and s were the urban-oriented, antitraditional, avant-garde movements such as futurism and constructivism.
The Ukrainian futurism was intruduced in by Mykhailo Semenko whose writing abounded with city-life themes and subjects inspired by the Italian futurist Filippo Marinetti, and whose poetry was characterized by experimentation with form and language which attempted to shock the reader. A number of talented poets and prose writers belonged to the futurist group: Geo Shkurupii, Oleksa Vlyzko, Mykola Skuba, and the theoretician Oleksii Poltoratsky.
The eminent poet Mykola Bazhan and the greatest poet of the Ukrainian revolutionary period, Pavlo Tychyna, were for some time influenced by futurism and utilized some of its ideas in their work. The poet Valeriian Polishchuk was closely associated with futurism and the avant-garde, on the basis of which he tried to build his own movement of 'dynamic spiralism. Yet the futurists succeeded in reinvigorating poetry by introducing fresh themes and forms and above all by their experimentation. The group Nova Generatsiia propagated new Western European trends such as Dadaism and surrealism, although this practice conflicted with its journal's official crude sociological declarations.
The majority of futurist writers and poets, including Semenko, Shkurupii, and Polishchuk, were executed for 'nationalism' during the Stalinist terror of the s Learn more about the Ukrainian literary avant-garde of the s and s by visiting the following entries:. Art movement that originated in Italy in Its founder is considered to be Filippo Marinetti, whose main objective was to destroy old art forms, particularly realism and classicism, the dominant trends of the 19th century. Cubism still recognized a certain convention, while futurism rejected all accepted forms and gave individualism free reign.
In painting this freedom led to fantastic forms and colors, and in literature, especially poetry, to abstruse language zaumna mova consisting of sound-words that often had no meaning. Futurism sought to transmit the ideas and spirit of the future technological and cosmopolitan society, which was opposed to the old conservative esthetic sensibility of the peasants and petite bourgeoisie.
Hence, urban and industrial themes were typical of this movement. Futurism did not receive much sympathy in Ukraine before the First World War. In the fine arts, besides Archipenko, who left Ukraine in , the following artists were closely associated with futurism of the constructivist rather than the anarchist bent the so-called cubo-futurism : Alexandra Ekster, Oleksander Bohomazov, Anatol Petrytsky, Kazimir Malevich, and others.
The first collection of Ukrainian futurist poetry was published by Mykhailo Semenko in Poet, writer, and founder and theoretician of Ukrainian futurism. However, in the collections that followed, such as Kverofuturyzm Quero-Futurism, , he initiated Ukrainian 'quero-futurism,' or the art of searching. He embraced urban themes and caused a scandal by adamantly rejecting the poetry of Taras Shevchenko.
In Semenko proclaimed the beginning of 'revolutionary futurism' and published his first 'revolutionary futurist' poems. In he organized the Shock Brigade of Futurist Poets, later called the Association of Panfuturists Aspanfut , which published its credo and manifestos in the almanac Semafor u maibutnie Semaphores into the Future, From to he worked as editor in chief of the Odesa Film Studio and in produced the poetic film Step The Steppe.
In he published two collections of his works from to , both provocatively entitled Kobzar. In he founded a new futurist association called Nova Generatsiia. After of severe criticism by the Communist party, Semenko abandoned futurism and became a poet of the Bolshevik revolution. Nevertheless he was arrested in and executed with other Ukrainian writers Chuzhy, Mykola Skuba, and others, and new members such as Dmytro Buzko.
In Disgrace, sex is repeatedly used a source of power. Lurie takes advantage of his young student and also pays prostitutes for sex. However, I claim sex is in fact not used for power, but that the author believes that we never own our own bodies. Therefore, considering they are not ours, they cannot be violated. Furthermore, he shows us that the worth of our bodies is simply limited to the.
This is a campus novel about the first flirtation between a university lecturer and a student. The aptly named novel suggests the possible overall outcome of having a relationship with a student. Lurie is someone who has achieved what he wanted to in life, academically but perhaps not romantically. He has the honour of winning the booker prize twice. In he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature. Duskland was his first published novel. Who could ever confuse David Lurie, from the book Disgrace, to be a hero? Heroes never selfishly think of their own personal desires before others.
David Lurie's character flaws of selfishness and lust would fit him into the mold of a tragic hero. David continually lusts women causing him to be no typical hero. A tragic hero can be a hero yet have some type of character flaw that brings him down. Therefore David is considered a tragic hero.
In Shakespearean literature the use of a tragic hero. Also without funding there will be no FIFA organization. It is an absolute disgrace and one of the worst decisions that FIFA has ever made. It is without a doubt a symbol of the blatant corruption and back scratching that goes on in the 'world game ' and an affront to the history of the World Cup. Not to mention that stories continue. King Oedipus and Queen Dido are tragic characters that suffered equally, because they both unconsciously disrupted with a designated future, became infatuated with the wrong person, and ended with disgrace and shame.
King Oedipus and Queen Dido suffered equally, because they both unconsciously disrupted with a designated future. For all of these reasons, the Finch family must not be racist or prejudiced. Finally, there was James Wilkinson. That something can be money, women, fame, or many other incentives.. To the medieval knights, victory renown and glory are the ambitions they strive for.
Breaking a law in this code would be considered a disgrace, and would bring a dishonor that was worse than death itself. However, by applying the Code of Chivalry, the knights in the medieval time displayed certain character traits which would secure success and honor in both battle and morality. In the. Fastow's office. Bowen commented to Mr. Fastow's native Houston in ,. Disgrace was written in by author J. M Coetzee. Born in South Africa in , Coetzee grew up during apartheid, something that has tinged his writing to a great extent Nobelprize.
Disgrace is set in a post-apartheid Cape Town where the protagonist David Lurie is forced to terminate his job after Melanie, a student, files a sexual abuse claim against him. In this essay I will explore how David Lurie's own view on masculinity is affected by his idolization of Lord Byron, and how this allows. More importantly, he goes back to reconnect with his daughter and connects his happiness helping at the animal shelter with Bev. The theme of disgrace is repeated in two ways throughout the novel.
The first instance of disgrace is when David chooses to violate his student Melanie Isaacs. He makes sexual advances toward her on several occasions. At first, she would object his advances and then towards the end she would just lie there. It is a realm of carnal sin that paves the road to harsh and unrelenting punishment for all who follow it.
Disgrace by J. Coetzee, demonstrates lust and the punishment that comes with it through several events befalling Byronic protagonist David Lurie. This commitment or drive imbues a zealousness of self-sacrifice, accolade, obligation, and a commitment to culminate ones ' life in the accommodation rather than peregrinate home in disgrace. Its political and economic institutions have been restructured, its society transformed. Despite the fact that the racially-based segregationist policy, Apartheid, has been smashed, the battle between the whites and the blacks has just begun.
Coetzee, is about the whites and the blacks in the newly post-apartheid South Africa no longer governed by the whites.
A Ukrainian reader Poemi: Vocabulary in English, Essay in English (annotated)
On the one hand, the decades of white political supremacy were at their end. All values are shifting. If the whites. Throughout most of the novel, particularly in the beginning, situations surrounding Hester has a disgraceful tone to them. Hester has committed the sin of adultery, which. In this paper I will be looking at prospective analogies; the female body being a territory for colonial and post-colonial conquest and also the protagonist Lurie himself being symbolic of the colonial enterprise whose power exists in residual. Beginning with the issue of body. City college being one of the top CUNY school is a disgrace based on my experience.
As a student at City College, I have taken notice that the financial aid and advisement department have a disorganized system and every transfer student that I had spoken too, are also displeased with the way the system works in both departments. On my part, adjusting to a new environment is a challenge because everything is new. So, transferring from Kingsborough community college to City college is a very big challenge. The theory of intersectionality, and women 's disability, proposes that the detachment of these talks into neglects to distinguish how talks of mistreatment propagate and support one another.
The marks of disgrace of debility, womanliness, and racial otherness in the last some portion of the nineteenth century have been depicted in other scholarship. Exploring the connection between these three social marks of disgrace in the nineteenth-century setting. The National Party institutionalized racial discrimination for nearly fifty years. In the novel Disgrace, author J. The following principles apply to almost any kind of teaching.
Some of these points may seem like common sense, yet these are the types of issues professional teachers spend years learning and perfecting. Interaction requires communication, the transfer of a meaningful idea from one person to another. Good teachers go beyond the building blocks of English such as vocabulary lists or grammar drills to develop a learner's oral, written, and even non-verbal communication skills. Every lesson should prepare your students for real-world interaction in some way.
Think meaningful and usable. When communication breaks down, native speakers usually try to clarify any potentially unclear items by asking questions and offering explanations. They ask for repetition or more information, confirm that the other person has understood what was said, expand on words or topics, or repeat back a paraphrase of what they just heard to confirm that they got it right.
This is one of the greatest communication skills, but it can be difficult and ESL learners need to be taught how to do this in English. Teachers bring communication into their lessons by guiding learners through tasks or activities which require meaningful communication in a relevant context.
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Here are some tips for making your lessons communicative:. Task and logic oriented , communication gives accurate information, respecting efficiency and time shows respect for people. Relationship and feeling oriented , communication seeks a feel-good atmosphere over accuracy, people are more important than efficiency and time.
Start on time and keep the lesson moving along, but allow for brief departures from the lesson to build relationships and let students express themselves even if it seems off-topic. Direct communication , 'yes' and 'no' are taken literally, and honest, polite words are usually not taken personally. Indirect communication , 'yes' and 'no' are not always literal, direct questions or statements may be rude or embarrassing.
Individualistic , value own identity, individuals speak for themselves, taking initiative in a group is encouraged, one person's behavior does not necessarily represent the group. Group oriented , value group identity belonging , taking initiative in a group is largely determined by roles, one member's behavior reflects on the whole group.
Provide roles for group work; when asking a class to vote, realize that one hot climate student's vote may stand for all of his same-culture classmates but a cold-climate student's vote is only his own. Private , value personal time and space, ask permission to borrow things or interrupt conversations, respect personal possessions, acceptable not to include everyone in invitations or plans.
Inclusive , being left alone is undesirable, individuals welcome to join conversations or group activities without asking, possessions freely shared, rude not to include everyone in conversations or activities. Balance individual and group work; teach students when and how to ask permission to speak, borrow things, or join an activity such as playing sports or joining a group at a table. Hospitality is planned , host usually requires advance notice and makes special preparations, guests pay for many of their own expenses such as transportation.