She worked out for two hours four times a week, doing intense cardio and lifting heavy weights, then biked to and from work on other days. By early September, 5-foot-4 Rennie had dropped 13 pounds and got back in her size-2 jeans. But some health professionals and their clients are finding that too much exercise can make slimming down harder. Gottfried cites studies linking high-intensity exercise with an increase in ghrelin — the so-called hunger hormone — in women. Too much cardio can also raise cortisol levels, she says, elevating blood-sugar levels and leading to sugar being stored as fat.
For years, she ran an hour-long boot camp and competed in marathons and triathlons. Hundt focused on getting eight hours of sleep a night, instead of her previous five. These days, she maintains her pound frame with long walks daily and an hour of workouts a week. She also stopped teaching boot camp. Elizabeth Maatta was a competitive runner in high school and college, but struggled with her weight.
At her heaviest, the 5-foot-4 nurse weighed pounds and wore a size 10, despite running 5 to 12 miles nearly every day. A few years ago, she stopped running completely because she was sick of the aches and pains. Paul, Minn. Working with nutritionist Cassie Bjork, another reformed over-exerciser, she cut back on processed foods and learned that she had celiac disease and cut out gluten.
Since her abduction, Smart has gone on to become an advocate for missing persons and victims of sexual assault.
Barzee was sentenced to 15 years in federal prison in for her role in the kidnapping and abduction, although was granted early release on September 19, , for previously uncredited time served. Mitchell was sentenced to life in prison in At age 16, Mitchell exposed himself to a child, and was sent to a juvenile hall. November 6, , in Salt Lake City , a then-forty-year-old divorcee with six children. In the early hours of June 5, , Mitchell broke into the home of Edward and Lois Smart in the Federal Heights neighborhood of Salt Lake City, where they lived with their six children.
When she thought Elizabeth and the abductor had gone, Mary Katherine started for her parents' bedroom, but narrowly avoided being seen by Mitchell and Elizabeth, who were outside the bedroom of the family's boys. On June 6, , Ed and Lois went on television and pleaded for the kidnapper to return their daughter. A massive regional search effort, organized by the Laura Recovery Center , involved up to 2, volunteers each day, as well as dogs and planes.
After many days of intensive searching, the community-led search was ended and efforts were directed to other means of finding Elizabeth. Mary Katherine's observations were of little use, and there was little usable evidence found at the scene such as fingerprints or DNA. A search using bloodhounds was unsuccessful. Police questioned and interviewed hundreds of potential suspects including a year-old who was cleared after being located in a West Virginia hospital. The investigation had the side effect of returning several at-large criminals to prison, but Elizabeth was not found.
The Salt Lake City police considered Richard Ricci a person of interest early into the investigation.
After her kidnapping, Smart was taken by Mitchell into the woods to an encampment outside Salt Lake City, where she was met by Wanda Barzee. And when I refused, she said if I didn't, she would have Brian Mitchell come rip my pajamas off. I put the robe on. He came and performed a ceremony, which was to marry me to him.
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After that, he proceeded to rape me. To keep Smart from escaping, she was shackled to a tree with a metal cable, which allowed her limited mobility outside of the tent she occupied. Smart accompanied Mitchell and Barzee in public on numerous occasions, but her presence was either obscured or unnoticed via various methods of concealment, which often consisted of her wearing a headscarf and veil over her face.
I was mad at myself that I didn't say anything, mad at myself for not taking the chance. So close. I felt terrible that the detective hadn't pushed harder. He just walked away. Smart also visited grocery stores and a restaurant but went unnoticed. In October , Smart's sister Mary Katherine suddenly realized that the abductor's voice was that of an unemployed man the family knew as Emmanuel,   whom the family had hired for a day to work on the roof and rake leaves.
The police were skeptical because of the short time "Emmanuel" had worked for the family, the long time that elapsed, and the short time Mary Katherine had heard the abductor's voice. However, the family had a sketch artist  draw "Emmanuel's" face from their descriptions, and in February this drawing was released to the media; it was shown on Larry King Live and America's Most Wanted. The drawing was recognized by the family of Brian David Mitchell, who gave police contemporary photographs of him.
On March 12, , Mitchell was spotted with two women in Sandy, Utah by a couple who had seen Mitchell's photos on the news. Smart was recognized by the officers during questioning, and Mitchell and Barzee were arrested. March 18, One month after the recovery of Elizabeth Smart, the state of Utah superseded the then-existing Rachael Alert  with the nationwide AMBER alert child abduction alert system —in part to conform with recently implemented nationwide procedures. Although the Rachael Alert was superseded, this system had seen success in the two years of its existence.
The court requested that Mitchell undergo a competency evaluation ,  based on his claims of being a religious prophet. Stephen Golding, a psychologist hired by the defense, distinguished between zealous belief and delusion, and concluded that Mitchell's beliefs transcended zeal and were in fact delusional. It was in Golding's opinion that Mitchell was not competent to stand trial as a result of his delusions. The court, however, superseded Golding's opinion and found Mitchell to be competent in The defendant was willing to plead guilty to kidnapping and burglary for a year sentence on condition that Smart should not testify.
The prosecution refused to drop sexual assault charges against Mitchell, and no agreement was reached. On October 15, , plea negotiations had still not determined an agreement. The defense appealed as late as October 21, asking the prosecution to rethink their position in terms of what they were offering Mitchell. Up until this point the defense did not highlight breakdown in competence as a contributing factor to the deterioration of plea negotiations; they cited the lack of a coming to an agreement as being the result of the sole discretion of their client.
The appeal was subsequently rejected. Jennifer Skeem, a psychologist who initially stated that Mitchell was competent, interviewed Mitchell again per the defense's request in February After this interview, Heidi Buchi, Mitchell's attorney, filed a brief stating that Mitchell was no longer competent to stand trial. Mitchell subsequently began to act out in court, while jail staff observed no change in his behavior and thought process.
Ultimately, Judge Judy Atherton agreed with the defense, asserting that Mitchell's behavior reflected psychosis. The defendant re-entered Utah State hospital on August 11, and remained there until While in the hospital, no staff experienced Mitchell as being paranoid in a pathological sense. In February , a bill went before the Utah legislature to allow prosecutors to apply for forcible medication on defendants to restore their competence to face trial.
Permission to forcibly medicate Wanda Barzee was also sought, relying upon the U. Supreme Court 's decision in Sell v. United States , which permits compulsory medication when the state can demonstrate a compelling interest is served by restoring a person's competence and that medication would not harm the person or prevent him from defending himself.
In June , a Utah judge approved the forcible medication of Barzee so that she could stand trial.
But it was paired with my fave, burpees, so it gave me something to look forward to at the end of every minute. That kept me going. Let me know if you try it! Eat carbs before workouts. On days when she teaches up to seven classes, she refuels with a sweet potato served with ghee aka clarified butter , a carb-heavy snack that helps her power through workouts. Eat protein after exercise. Your body uses protein to rebuild the muscles it breaks down during workouts. It's why Sims chows down on foods like eggs, chicken, and tuna within minutes of exercising, although science suggests timing may be less important than getting enough protein on days you work out.
Pair natural sugars and fats. Both combos contain simple carbs — read: quick energy — from whole, not processed foods, and healthy fats , which keep you satisfied. Sometimes I wake up, and my six-pack is there with a bow on. Then there are other times when I barely see definition. Know your triggers. Go beyond crunches.
Sims prefers exercises that challenge you to stabilize your core against imbalance or gravity, like a hands plank with dumbbell pull-through and ab roll-outs using a core-training wheel. You can repeat the series several times a week. She also practices push-up to knee tucks with her feet in TRX straps , stability ball V-ups , kettlebell carries , and Russian twists — so no crunches and no basic sit-ups.
Activate your abs during every exercise. This also can be done anytime you're just sitting around. Helps tremendously with bloating. Eat similar meals every day. She also snacks on rice cakes with peanut butter, carrots, celery, and nuts.
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Although she admits this can be boring, the approach makes it easier for her to get all the nutrients she needs while remaining satisfied throughout the day. Eat before bed. Lest she wake up hungry or starve her muscles of the protein they need to rebuild while she sleeps, Yobe eats Greek yogurt, which contains casein, a slow-releasing protein, right before going to sleep. Some research suggests the technique helps with muscle recovery overnight. Ditch your scale.