What the Dickens? Magazine - Issue 3: The March Hare Edition

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Artful Offerings - Seaside Sparrow. Tralala - Liberty. Luhu Stitches - Little Patriotic Fling. Luhu Stitches - Walkin' On Sunshine. Luhu Stitches - Be Joyful. Blackbird Designs - Summer's Last Rose. Blackbird Designs - Deck the Halls. Needle Bling Designs - My Town. Needle Bling Designs - Flower Seeds. Blackbird Designs - Feast of Friendship. Little House Needleworks - Suffrage Act.

The Blue Flower - Summer Quilts. The Blue Flower - Alpaca Farm. In the rapid maturing of his genius, he sought to combine seriousness of content and artistry of design, without foresaking the original aim of entertaining his readers. The direction which this progress took was away from entertainment as a major subject of his work to a thematic use of imagination - the 'fancy' which he saw as integral with a love of entertainment - as a key principle of his later fiction. With the notable exception of Hard Times , written in , in his later career Dickens largely transferred his treatment of the amusements of the people from his novels to his periodicals, and his public readings became the principal outlet for his purpose to entertain.

The chapters which follow develop these approaches, moving between the social context and Dickens's art in an attempt to clarify the relationship between them. Chapter 2 focuses upon the importance of the child in Dickens's thinking about entertainment, and Chapters 3, 4 and 5 concentrate on the novels in which entertainers figure most prominently: Nicholas Nickleby , The Old Curiosity Shop and Hard Times.

Chapter 6 deals with popular entertainment as it appears in Dickens's journalism, and Chapter 7 is concerned with the public readings. In his fiction, his journalism, his performances and his life, popular entertainment was of central importance.

Recognition of that centrality is essential to an understanding of Dickens. The values which Dickens associated with popular entertainment including spontaneity, freedom, fancy and release, as opposed to life-denying forces of hard-headedness and hard-heartedness - converged in the most important image in his art, that of the child. For Dickens, the child was being endowed with special capabilities of sensitivity, wonder and imagination, all of which found particularly congenial outlet in activities of play and amusement.

Inheriting from Rousseau the conception of innocence as the natural state of childhood, Dickens was the first major novelist to place children at the centre of novels, and his achievement in doing so is one of his significant contributions to literature.

In several works he focused his exploration of moral, social and psychological themes upon the image of the child, and in all of his fiction, as a number of critics have ably demonstrated, he makes a child's outlook integral to his artistic vision. For its intimate relationship with childhood alone, popular entertainment assumes central importance for an understanding of Dickens's art, and it can help us to discriminate certain attitudes which reveal more about life during his own childhood than about later developments in English society. Dickens's lifelong predilection was for those forms of entertainment which he first experienced as a child, and his love of the circus, theatre and pantomime is consonant with his attachment to the values and experiences of childhood.

Several of his best-known occasional pieces - 'Our School', 'Nurse's Stories', 'Birthday Celebrations', 'A Christmas Tree', 'Dullborough Town' - are autobiographical recollections of his happiest childhood days. In these essays he dwells with loving detail upon the simple festivities of a family. Christmas, the hopeful emotions of birthday parties, the excitement of bedtime stories. The fact that his childhood contained other, far less lighthearted events unquestionably made such moments all the more precious, and if memories of the tale of Captain Murderer and the dreadful mask at Christmas contain an edge of terror the softening distance of time transforms childish fear into delicious piquancy.

Typical of the way in which Dickens integrates fear, sorrow or disaster into a complex evocation of childhood joys is his account of the white mice in 'Our School':. The boys trained the mice, much better than the masters trained the boys. We recall one white mouse, who lived in the cover of a Latin dictionary, who ran up ladders, drew Roman chariots, shouldered muskets, turned wheels, and even made a very creditable appearance on the stage as the Dog of Montargis.

He might have achieved greater things, but for having the misfortune to mistake his way in a triumphal procession to the Capitol, when he fell into a deep inkstand, and was dyed black and drowned. The entertainment comes to an end in death and blighted hopes, but the star performer is only a mouse after all, and the performance confined to a schoolroom.

By adopting a tone which purports to take seriously the prospects and ultimate fate of the mouse, Dickens simultaneously authenticates the genuine fascination of the boys even as he gently mocks the intensity of their commitment to so trivial an activity. The circumstantial precision of the description indicates the hold the episode retains on Dickens's memory, even as an adult, and the aside about schoolmasters lightly extends the application of the vignette beyond mere amusement. Convinced equally of children's inherent disposition to enjoy, and of the beneficent effects of entertainment upon them, Dickens was eager to preserve childhood pleasures, both in the memory of his own past and in his concern for present and future children.

He was indignant at the thought of anyone tampering, as George Cruikshank did in his 'Frauds on the Fairies', with the direct appeal of children's entertainment, and the core of his indictment of parental disciplinarians such as Murdstone, Gradgrind and Mrs Joe was that they left no room for a child's natural graces to flourish. Opportunity for play was essential for every child: 'Play they must and play they will, somewhere or other, under whatsoever circumstances of difficulty' Speeches , p.

One thinks, in this context, of the young Dickens, wandering back to his lodgings from the blacking warehouse and being 'seduced more than once' into a. The values which Dickens associated with popular entertainment converged on the most important image in his art, that of the child. Such snatches of entertainment, Dickens makes clear, provide sustaining nourishment for the lonely, neglected child. And because he perceived childhood as a state peculiarly responsive to the appeals of entertainment, he was eager to retain such attitudes in adulthood.

His essay 'Where We Stopped Growing' is an explicit declaration of gratitude that he has not outgrown many of the pleasures he enjoyed as a child, but can still participate in them as an adult. This sentiment is echoed in his last complete novel, Our Mutual Friend , when Rumpty Wilfer, led out of his office and taken on a day's outing to Greenwich, allows his hair to be tousled like a little boy's and spends the afternoon building castles in air with 'the lovely woman'; he is so moved by the day's events that 'there was water in the foolish little fellow's eyes, but she kissed them dry' OMF , I, 8.

Particularly in his writings about Christmas, Dickens encouraged the sentiment that 'it is good to be children sometimes, and never better than at Christmas, when its mighty Founder was a child himself CC , stave 3. This is the lesson which Scrooge must learn from the three spirits, and one which Bob Cratchit acts upon the moment he leaves the counting-house, when he 'went down a slide on Cornhill, twenty times, in honour of its being Christmas Eve, and then ran home to Camden Town, as hard as he could pelt, to play at blindman's buff CC , stave 1.

So, too, Mr Pickwick , sliding on the ice with his friends at Dingley Dell, keeps alive the Christmas spirit and remains eternally young at heart, even after he has been exposed to the shadows of the Fleet. Dickens's advocacy of adult retention of the child's outlook is, of course, far from unequivocal; perhaps of all his 'holy innocents' only Mr Pickwick is accorded unqualified admiration by his creator, and the feckless Harold Skimpole stands as warning of the unprincipled selfishness to which childishness in adults is liable. Childlike indulgence is more often celebrated in Dickens's writing as holiday release, valuable precisely because it is a brief exception to the work, pain and responsibility of everyday existence.

As we shall see, he defended leisure on Sunday because it gave respite from the toil of. Economic necessity and limited opportunities for entertainment and recreation meant that adults were less likely to be childlike than children were to become prematurely adult, and his fiction contains many poignant examples of children for whom life provides no amusement at all.

His concern that adults cherish the joys of childhood was, in part, a plea that children should be enabled to do so. As a consequence of his belief in the special attributes of the child, Dickens emphasizes the separation of its world from that of adults. This distance is signalled again and again in the novels: by the isolation of Oliver, David and Pip at crucial stages of their early lives; by the uncomprehending attitudes of Mr Dombey and Mr Gradgrind towards their children; by the secret retreat of Jenny Wren and Lizzie Hexam, far away from the dust-heaps and the river.

His first-person narrators look back upon their younger days with keen awareness of how far they have travelled: David remarks of his boyhood reading that 'it is curious to me how I could ever have consoled myself under my small troubles which were great troubles to me , by impersonating my favourite characters' I, 4 , and Pip thinks of the helpless folly with which he set out to 'do all the shining deeds of the young Knight of romance, and marry the Princess' GE , Reflecting on his own childhood as well, for all the intimacy of his recollections, Dickens was under no illusion that they were other than recollections.

Some scenes had disappeared completely, like Our School, swallowed up by the railway: 'Locomotives now run smoothly over its ashes. Thus, Nurse's stories remain 'unchanged' with the passage of time; the image of his youngest Christmas experiences stands 'ever unalterable'. The sense of distance has important consequences not only for his depictions of childhood, but also for his outlook on entertainment. The perceived gap between the child's instinctive delight and the more consciously reconstructed sense of enjoyment of adults locates a principal impetus for his convictions about entertainment in the past, and makes this concern essentially backward-looking.

He is urgent for better leisure opportunities in the present, but the source of his fervour and the forms which he is predisposed to favour come overwhelmingly from his childhood. Dickens, as is well known, was no naive admirer of the past, but his feelings about his own past. This makes him basically conservative about entertainment: his concern is less for innovations which may be possible in the altered circumstances of the future than for the traditions which were being eroded.

Those traditions, having been first encountered in irretrievable childhood, take on for him the permanence of completed experience, to be treasured through memory in unchanging images. The contrast between past joys, sanctified by the associations of his earliest affections, and a less wonderful present, in which adult cares contaminate the purity of the child's response, adds an element of regret which flavours much of his writing about entertainment, and the idealization of childhood innocence inevitably creates a preference for simplicity and directness.

In short, the conjunction of childhood and entertainment in Dickens's mind renders his writing liable not merely to deep conviction but also to nostalgia. This is precisely the charge which Dickens's detractors over the years have levelled against him, and one which even some of his most thoughtful admirers have found in need of apology; that he was insufficiently engaged with the real culture and adult concerns of his time; that he substituted feeling for thought; and that his solution to the world's ills was a menu of Christmas pudding every day, in a Never-Never-Land populated - in Aldous Huxley's phrase - with gruesome old Peter Pans'.

Leavis called him, before being converted to the ranks of the faithful has remained for over a century the- popular image of the Inimitable. A whole generation of critics following Wilson has explored the dark insights of the unhappy artist divided against himself; but, as Denis Donoghue astutely observed in the centenary year of Dickens's death, to praise Dickens by setting aside the comedy and the entertainment is to 'take Dickens not as we find him but as we improve him'.

It seems to me possible to admire Dickens's positive achievements, his conscious artistry and. To understand this writer who emerged out of the popular culture of the early nineteenth century it is essential to face squarely the entertainment in and of his work. One of the most revealing writings in which Dickens looks directly at the amusements of his childhood is the sketch entitled 'Dullborough Town'. This essay was conceived as part of the series of personal reflections which he first published in All the Year Round and later collected in The Uncommercial Traveller , and it is among the best of several pieces in the series which draw upon his boyhood memories.

This, Forster reports, was 'the germ of Pip and Magwitch'. The setting of 'Dullborough Town' is of the sort to which Dickens instinctively returns when thinking of boyhood. Like their creator, Oliver, Nicholas, David and Pip all grow up in small rural towns before making their way to London. Nicholas's birthplace, Dawlish, is located in Devonshire, and David's Blunderstone is in Suffolk, but Dickens thinks of them generically; as he says in The Uncommercial Traveller , 'Most of us come from Dullborough who come from a country town'.

For five years of his boyhood Dickens himself lived near Rochester, and this town appears in his fiction sometimes under its own name and at other times under such aliases as Great Winglebury and Mudfog. The name Dullborough may have been suggested to him by its variant, 'Dulminster', which was portrayed in a sketch in Household Words in - although it is always possible, given Dickens's editorial methods, that this name, too, was his own invention.

Both articles set the remembered past around , and their gaze includes subjects common to both -. But Browne's essay is less coherent and vivid than Dickens's own, and lacks altogether the firm narrative control - of a child's view mediated by adult perception - which distinguishes 'Dullborough Town. But it also reflects the particular circumstances of Dickens's life in the months prior to its composition. In the aftermath of the breakdown of his marriage, Dickens plunged into a searching reassessment of his values and loyalties.

He severed friendships, embarked upon the first of his public-reading tours, wound up Household Words and started a new periodical, All the Year Round , to take its place. He wrote a novel, A Tale of Two Cities , which questions the use of living, in a combination of self-disgust and self-pity. He soon moved permanently out of London and settled in rural Kent. By the spring of , when he came to write 'Dullborough Town', in other words, a number of factors were converging which inclined him to look more favourably than ever on the amusements of his childhood: a dissatisfaction with his present life and a physical return to the place he had lived as a boy; a rejection of the metropolis, where he had spent most of his life from the age of 10, in favour of rural surroundings; and, with the purchase of Gad's Hill Place, a reaffirmation of his earliest imaginings.

It was a house which he had first seen as a 'very queer small boy' living in Chatham, across the Medway from Rochester, and he had been told by his father that, if he worked hard, one day he might live there. In real life, of course, Dickens had visited Rochester many times after his childhood, but the fiction heightens the contrast between old and new impressions, and gives immediacy to the reawakening of youthful associations. The distance in time, between his last experience of the town and his present visit, is stressed from the outset by the juxtaposition of the stagecoach by which he left Dullborough and the railway train by which he returns.

When he left, it was 'in the days when there were no railroads in the land', and he travelled in solitary self-importance; on return, his portmanteau stamped and himself ticketed, he is 'cavalierly shunted' back to the town. This opening sets the mood for the dominant emphasis in the. He arrives full of 'tender remembrance' of the scenes of his youth, but soon finds that little remains as he knew it. The old playing-field is gone, swallowed up by the railway station; the coaching office, along with several houses on each side of it, has been knocked down to make way for a monstrous establishment for great rattling wagons; the theatre, largely converted to wine- and beer-vaults, is advertised To Let, 'and hopelessly so, for its old purposes'.

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There is a new Mechanics' Institute, but it is far from inspiring romantic associations: 'approached by an infirm step-ladder. The one sight which he finds unaltered, the figure of the greengrocer, 'with his hands in his pockets and leaning his shoulder against the doorpost, as my childish eyes had seen him many a time is indifferent to the visitor's reappearance, and it is not until the end of the day, in a chance encounter with an old schoolfellow, that he finds anything in Dullborough which has changed for the better.

Otherwise, the town has deteriorated sadly. He is appalled by the desecration of loveliness caused by the coming of the railway. The two beautiful hawthorn-trees, the hedge, the turf, and all those buttercups and daisies, had given place to the stoniest of jolting roads: while, beyond the Station, an ugly dark monster of a tunnel kept its jaws open, as if it had swallowed them and were ravenous for more destruction.

UT , pp. The image is a child's fantasy of a mythical beast terrorizing the sacred homeland, but it expresses the actuality perceived by the adult, of a countryside made ugly in the pursuit of progress. Similarly, his recollection of the romantically named coach in which he rode, Timpson's Blue-Eyed Maid, contrasts starkly with 'No. Moreover, I felt that Pickford had no right to come rushing into Dullborough and deprive the town of a public picture. Surveying with a 'heavy heart' the violated playground, the shut-up theatre and the dreary Mechanics' Institute, Dickens meditates upon the lost happiness of his childhood, and proceeds to generalize about entertainment.

Inevitably from the perspective thus. Dickens lamented the loss to 'progress' of open fields suitable for innocent recreation, and late in his life he sponsored field sports in the meadow behind Gad's Hill Place. In dispiriting contrast to the present, what he remembers most specifically about his childhood are the variety and abundance of opportunity to find entertainment, and the intensity with which he responded to it all. Buildings and vehicles and people and events all fed his youthful imagination; play with schoolmates turned into romantic adventure; a game of cricket promised the glories of battlefield although in the event polite decorum prevailed ; the theatre enacted struggles of life and death within touching distance of his seat in the stage-box; books offered glamorous roles for boys and girls to imitate.

But now, in place of the wonder, colour and excitement, which he found everywhere as a child, the prosaic reigns. Part of the problem, he is quick to realize, involves his own perception: the town seems 'shrunken' from its former grandeur; the Corn Exchange, which he once envisaged as 'the model on which the Genie of the Lamp built the palace for Aladdin', appears now 'a mean little brick heap'; the Indian sword-swallower, who thrilled him as a boy, from his present perspective seems unlikely to have been an Indian and unlikely to have swallowed the sword.

This change in himself is, indeed, the concluding thought of the essay. All my early readings and early imaginations dated from this place, and I took them away so full of innocent construction and guileless belief, and I brought them back so worn and torn, so much the wiser and so much the worse! But the problem is not simply his own faulty memory and diminished capacity for enjoyment. More important is the town's 'dull and abortive' attitude to entertainment. In the theatre, the only attraction for a long time has been a panorama, billed, with 'leaden import', as 'pleasingly instructive'; in the Mechanics' Institute, lectures are acts of aggression, in which the audiences are 'knocked on the head' and 'stunned' with information.

There, even the most innocent diversions are 'masked' as educational, as when the song 'Coming through the Rye' is introduced 'with some general remarks on wheat and clover'. The refusal to admit that leisure should include relief and diversion has inevitable consequences: no mechanics belong to the Mechanics' Institute, and it is 'steeped in debt to the chimney-pots'. Throughout Dullborough, Dickens objects,.

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I still noticed everywhere the prevalence, to an extraordinary degree, of this custom of putting the natural demand for amusement out of sight, as some untidy housekeepers put dust, and pretending that it was swept away. Recreation has been pushed aside by progress, and the picturesque replaced by the functional.

And yet, because amusement is sought where it is to be found, the desire for entertainment continues to be catered to, albeit surreptitiously. As evidence, Dickens observes a tract in the Evangelical bookshop, in which the very denunciation of entertainment has the appeal of a stage performance. Looking in at what is called in Dullborough 'the serious bookseller's', where, in my childhood, I had studied the faces of numbers of gentlemen depicted in rostrums with a gaslight on each side of them, and casting my eyes over the open pages of certain printed discourses there, I found a vast deal of aiming at jocosity and dramatic effect, even in them - yes, verily, even on the part of one very wrathful expounder who bitterly anathematised a poor little Circus.

Here, in the 'rostrums with a gaslight', Dickens detects an overtly theatrical setting for a stirring harangue which, in its 'wrathful' tones of anathema, has the polarized morality of melodrama. Just as his imagination turns mundane railways and wagons into exciting monsters, so, too, he ekes entertainment out of its denial.

This still vital capacity to search out amusement even in inauspicious circumstances prevents 'Dullborough Town' from ever becoming dull or gloomy in its writing, even as Dickens laments the loss of childhood joy, and ensures that the contrast between past and present never degenerates into simple dichotomy. As he looks around Dullborough he recognizes that not everything has changed for the worse: despite the predilections of the Mechanics' Institute, a healthy interest in travel, biography and fiction is recorded in its library returns; his former companions Joe Specks and Lucy Green, though older, are prosperous and contented, and their children remind the visitor so much of the days gone by that 'it quite touched my foolish heart'.

Moreover, as the phlegmatic greengrocer reminds him, the town has an independent life of its own, and does not exist exclusively in a sealed chamber of an absent son's memory. Other of Dickens's writings which contrast past and present confirm such complexity of response: in Dombey and Son Stagg's Gardens is destroyed by the railway, but a new, more prosperous community emerges; in Great Expectations Pip has a strong inclination to return at last to the forge, but his growth to true maturity cuts off that step as regressive; and in the sketch 'Our Watering Place' the mere survival of pleasures from the past, with no new sources of vitality, leaves the town in a semi-moribund condition.

At the same time, the detailed evocation of the past in 'Dull-. As he says of his ride in Timpson's Blue-Eyed Maid, 'life [was] sloppier than I expected to find it'. The excitement of waiting on the lady who gave birth to four, or perhaps five, babies does not disguise the fact that all of them died, or that he 'disgusted' everyone present by refusing to contribute to a subscription on her behalf.

At the cricket match, the excessive politeness of the competitors smacks of such adult hypocrisy that he dismisses them as 'sneaks'. In the theatre, there is an edge of delicious terror to the excitement, but also gross misapprehension, as in his childish discovery 'that the witches in Macbeth bore an awful resemblance to the Thanes and other proper inhabitants of Scotland; and that the good King Duncan couldn't rest in his grave, but was constantly coming out of it and calling himself somebody else'. Such ignorance is also evident in his conception of 'the Radicals' and in his credulity over the Indian sword-swallower.

It is clear, then, that the past was no more perfect than the present is wholly deplorable. Finally, the relation between childhood and age is harmonized, as it is in A Christmas Carol , David Copperfield and Great Expectations , by the mediating power of memory. As remembered scenes change shape before his eyes, the spectator realizes that distance has led to idealization: places and events were glamorous not because of intrinsic attractiveness, but because he made them so. With the loss of his own innocence some of the magic has gone, but his apprehension of the town has moved closer to reality.

Far more important, his readjusted vision of the past makes him content with the present, putting him in a more charitable mood with the town, its inhabitants and himself. This is particularly true in the reunion with Joe Specks:. They are able to speak openly 'of our old selves as though our old selves were dead and gone, and indeed indeed they were'; at the same time Specks 'illuminated Dullborough with rays of interest that I wanted and should otherwise have missed in it, and linked its present with the past, in a highly agreeable chain'.

The repetition 'indeed indeed' underlines the fervour of his newfound contentment, and the imagery of light suggests that a properly adjusted attitude to the past both brightens and clarifies his living experience of the entire span of his life. Consideration of these matters has taken us beyond strict concern. The link between entertainment and childhood helps to locate a matrix of values basic to his vision, and the perceived distance between the child's experience and that of the adult provides one measure for his perception of the limitations of prevalent attitudes towards amusement.

The presence of entertainment within the scope of memory is an indication of the intensity of its hold upon Dickens, and his conception of the sustaining power of the innocent enjoyments of childhood for the grown man is, like Wordsworth's overflow of powerful emotion recollected in tranquillity, a pillar of his thought. Dickens's imaginative return to the entertainment of his childhood is, in short, conducive to a great deal more than nostalgia. Nevertheless, for all the beneficent influence of the past upon the present, and the potential influence for present children in their future, the conjunction of childhood and entertainment in Dickens's mind did encourage a disposition to look to the past for images of entertainment.

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In his journals, he chronicles origins and developments of particular forms of popular entertainment; he records with pleasure the survival of old amusements, and examines the evolution of entertainment for improvements as well as losses. Emphatically, he is aware of the contemporary state of entertainment: week by week, as we shall see below, his journals offer detailed accounts of theatres, parks, exhibitions, circuses, waxworks, street minstrels, and so on; many of the articles are prompted by current events affecting the provision of entertainment both in London and in the country at large.

But the values which he associates with even the most innovative developments invariably are drawn from those which we have seen in 'Dullborough Town': release for imagination, escape from dull routine, encouragement to fellow-feeling, remembrance of past pleasures - in short, the traditional, communal, gregarious values which predate the entertainment of the Industrial Revolution, and which stand often in sharp conflict with the assumptions underlying the emergent commercial, disciplined, large-scale forms.

Nowhere is this association with the past more apparent than in his major fictional renderings of popular entertainment. In Nicholas Nickleby the strolling actors form an extended family; faced with the widespread decline of the provincial theatre, they emigrate to America. In The Old Curiosity Shop the itinerant showmen are seen as colourful relics from the past, and their willingness to violate bonds of friendship for financial gain is seen as a betrayal of the very basis of.

In Hard Times Sleary's circus is the repository of human fellowship, emotional security and imaginative vitality; the commercial underpinnings of its existence are nowhere in evidence. In each case, as we shall see in the chapters that follow, the image of entertainment as a form of human value is a source of artistic achievement within the novel, but the reliance upon past models inevitably places a definite limitation on that achievement.

Master Humphrey's Clock

In centring his valuation of popular entertainment in the past, Dickens shares a tendency with other major Victorian novelists. George Eliot, whose knowledge of the popular customs and folklore of her native Warwickshire was so extensive that she is routinely cited by local historians as an authority on the subject, devotes a large portion of her novel Adam Bede to the festivities surrounding Arthur Donnithorne's birthday celebration.

The entertainment is conducted at the expense and under the patronage of the local gentry; the intermingling of ranks is delicately orchestrated; and the speeches by Mr Poyser and by Arthur vigorously defend the event as an emblem of the stable, hierarchical, rural community in which they live and work. In the course of the novel Arthur's seduction of Hetty radically undermines the relations between classes, and as a result the entertainment comes to be seen as a colourful vestige of an outmoded social structure.

Here George Eliot uses an image of old forms of entertainment in order to portray the collapse of the social system on which it depended. Hardy, likewise, in The Mayor of Casterbridge , draws upon traditional modes of entertainment as part of his evidence for the tragic failure of his protagonist, Michael Henchard, to survive in a changing society. In the opening scene of the book Henchard arrives at a rural fair, which, with its 'peep-shows, toy-stands, waxworks, inspired monsters, disinterested medical men who travelled for the public good, thimble-riggers, nick-nack vendors, and readers of fate' ch.

Situated in an open spot within ancient earthworks, offering age-old country sports such as greased poles, a greased pig. In these novels George Eliot and Hardy, like Dickens, view the passing of traditional forms of entertainment with a complex vision, in which the sense of loss predominates. The birthday festivities in Adam Bede buttress the quasi-feudal authority of Arthur's irascible grandfather, but the spirited participation by the entire countryside provides a greater sense of human fellowship than is likely in the ominously named alternative from which Dinah comes, the industrial town Stoniton.

The strong liquor and sharp dealing at Weydon-Priors incite Henchard to an unpardonable act, but the fair itself is the afternoon's holiday following an assembly in the morning for the sale of horses and sheep; as in Far from the Madding Crowd , in which Oak seeks employment at a 'mop', or hiring fair, and Troy rides in the circus at a sheep fair, the occasion is an integral part of the rhythms of work and play within the seasonal activities of a rural area. The entertainment in these novels, that is to say, is deployed to symbolize an older social fabric, which is giving way to new conditions less congenial to the vital communal spirit and depth of feeling found in the central characters.

What these novelists do not give us, as Dickens does not, is an equally full depiction of the new types of entertainment which were emerging to cater to the changed conditions of modern, urban, industrial society. Even when Victorian authors portray a large, anonymous, commercially based entertainment such as the circus, the qualities which they choose to single out in it are its old-fashioned romance as in the dashing Sergeant Troy's enactment of 'Turpin's Ride to York and the Death of Black Bess' or its humane idealism Sleary's pronouncement that 'People mutht be amuthed'.

That the developing alternative tradition of entertainment could lend itself to being seen as a microcosm of modern life is clear enough from twentieth-century examples. Contraption, - that's the bizarre, proper slang,. Eclectic word, for this portentous toy,. The flying machine, that gyrates stiffly, arms.

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A-kimbo, so to say, and baskets slung. From every elbow, skating in the air. Irreverent, we; but Tartars from Tibet. May deem Sir Hiram the Grandest Lama, deem. His volatile machinery best, and most. Magnific, rotary engine, meant. For penitence and prayer combined, whereby. Are spun about in space: a solemn rite. Before the portal of that fane unique,. Victorian temple of commercialism,. Our very own eighth wonder of the world,.

They all pursue their purpose business-like.

What the Dickens? Magazine - Issue 3: The March Hare Edition

Victims, and not companions, of delight. Or in D. Lawrence's Women in Love there is the architect Loerke, who is making 'a great frieze for a factory in Cologne':. It was a representation of a fair, with peasants and artizans in an orgy of enjoyment, drunk and absurd in their modern dress, whirling ridiculously in roundabouts, gaping at shows, kissing and staggering and rolling in knots, swinging in swing-boats, and firing down shooting galleries, a frenzy of chaotic motion. What is man doing, when he is at a fair like this? He is fulfilling the counterpart of labour - the machine works him, instead of he the machine.

He enjoys the mechanical motion, in his own body. You have never worked for hunger, or you would know what god governs us. In these examples modern forms of entertainment are used as hateful images of what their authors saw as wrong in contemporary life; the anonymous, mechanical motion in both cases mirroring the essential quality of life in modern industrial society. More recently, Samuel Beckett in Waiting for Godot , John Osborne in The Entertainer and Trevor Griffiths in Comedians have each looked to the now declining traditions of the music-hall - of all Victorian forms of popular entertainment, the one which led most directly into the mass-entertainment industry - for images with which to assess their conviction of the failure of modern civilization.

But for me the most complex and haunting image of popular entertainment seen as a microcosm of modern society is to be found in Carol Reed's film of the Graham Greene story, The Third Man , in which the great wheel at the funfair in Vienna is used as the climactic meeting-place for Holley Martins and Harry Lime.

At the same time - and herein lies the superiority of the image to those cited above - the wheel is also a perfect image of the release, the excitement and the fun of entertainment at its best: Holley, with his boy's crush on Harry, joins him briefly once again in an exhilarating adventure, high above the earth, and yet safe in the knowledge that it is, after all, only a ride in an amusement park - much as Harry conceives his own money-making schemes. Third, the wheel, appearing in the narrative just at the moment before Harry, at the height of his success, is gunned down in a sewer, can hardly avoid carrying implications of the medieval trope of the Wheel of Fortune, which lifts Harry high above the rest of mankind, only to hurl him back down at last.

In these complex ways, wholly integrated with one another and with the widest purposes of the film, the strategy of setting an episode of the plot in an amusement park releases symbolic meanings which brilliantly reflect Greene and Reed's vision of society. An image of entertainment, taken not from the old gregarious, communal tradition but from that of modern, commercial, impersonal leisure activity, serves as microcosm for the condition of man in modern civilization.

Latitude and local situation are the. In our own country the lowest layers of peat are formed of aquatic plants , the naxt ot mows , and the highest of heath. In the Falkland Islands , almost every kind of plant , even the coarse grass which covers the whole surface of the islands , becomes converted into this substance. Capabilities op Soil. In , Mr. Robert Underwood witnessed the experiment , and I e jrs witness to the truth of the above. Baines , and the independent dissenters.

Long before the hour appointed for business seven o ' clock , the large Sessions Room was inconveniently crammed ; and it was stated during the proceedings that there were four times as many waiting without as were within. The Mayor took the chair. The first resolution , moved ' by J.

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  4. Marshall , Esq. John Gott , Esq ,, moved , and Alderman Stankfield fccconded the motion , — That this tncnting desires to reeognise the duty of the State to facilitate and encourage the education of the whole body of the people. The resolution was carried. The Rev. Wicksterd moved , and S. Ilsr , Esq. Councillor Brook expressed his opinion that education should , ns in America , be free from the trammels of both church and dissent ; that the instruction should be wholly secular , and that it should be left to tho parents of the children alone to givo them such religious education as they might deem proper.

    He was opposed to all centralisation , and was ready to go for a separation of Church and State. Fawcett moved , —. Hook , in seconding tho resolution , Said , I stand here as an advocate for the education of the people on the most extensive seal j. I stand not here as a supporter of the government , or as an advocate of the present meisure ; but , having myself suggested an education on an extensive plan , I care not whether my plan is condemned or not ; I say , " Bring torward another ; bring forward a better , and I will support it.

    And here. I find that her Majesty ' s Ministers have brought forward a measure , which does not propose to go so far as I would go ; but because they. Now , we might oppose the educational scheme of the government as churchmen , or we might oppose it if we were dissenters ; but the first objection now brought against not only this , but any measure , is the interference on the part of tho State , lleac. But if you are convinced that the education of the people ought to be improved , why then take your Stand boldly upon that.

    I am perfectly well aware that a few years ago the Church was unwilling to allow that the state should interfere. The Church then took the samecourse that the opponents of this measure arc taking now. Ten or twelve years ago I took that course myself. I was desirous to see the experiment tried as to voluntaryism. I gave tbe Dissenters credit for all their exertions in this cause ; but we have tried ourselves to the utmost , and the observations I have made satisfy me that though we have not failed , we have not , by our united exertions , been able to meet the evil.

    I call upon you at the present time to prevent the cause of education from being retarded in its progress , to prevent sectarian.

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    I call upon you to assist the government to do what will add lo the comfort , and respect , and intelligence of the working classes. I call upon you to assist them in doing what will enable you te educate your children , so that they may be able to exercise any constitutional privilege with which they may afterwards be invested — loud cheers ; —in a word , gentlemen , I call upon you to allow the government to empty the gaols by building schools , Loud applause.

    The Mayor then put the resolution , and it was declared to have been unanimously adopted. The following resolutions together with a petition which were spoken to by a number of influential gentlemen , were also adopted : —. That , without pledging itself to all the details , this meeting believes the scheme for extending the operations of the Committee of Council on Education , recently luid before Parliament , to be founded on sound principles , and to combine efficient means for developing and improving the existing means of education , with the observance of perfect fairness to all sections of tho com.

    That the necessity of an annual vote to provide the requisite funds , and the constant attention of Parliament iherehy secured , from a constitutional check , which appears sufficient to control the possible abusss of patronage , and an undue expenditure of public monfy ; and that the vigilance of the House of Commons may be relied on for the investigation or redress of any grievances that may be alleged.

    Andrew Reid , D. The Government plan , it was argued , is utterly adverse to the most important of all liberties—religious liberty. It was contended that religious instruction ought not to be the business of the state , and that , therefore , education ought not to be so , since , if worthy of the name , it must include religious instruction—they cannot be separated. The necessity of such a plan was also denied , on the plea of there being as many as 1. These objections to the plan of national education were also set forth in a scries of resolutions , which were unanimously adopted.

    Printers' Pension Society. Richard Taylor , Esq , F. Other auxiliary aids in the course of the year were alluded to , viz. Harris , Esq , bookseller , St. Paul ' s Churchyard , to tho funds of the society , such donation being free of duty. The report having been received , the appointment of officor. Richard Taylor , Esq. Tho other officers were then appointed. It was announced that another theatrical amateur performance would shortly take place , and a hope expressed that it would be as liberally supported as on the last occasion.

    The result of the poll was then declared , and the successful candidates were—Richard T. Banbury , 2 , Whittingham Pension. The medical advisers of the learned gentleman have recommended a total cessation from business , and a change of air , as absolutely necessary. It is understood that tho hon. We regret to learn , from unquestionable authority , that Mr. Bad Mon-ht. They bear a head of Queen Victoria , are dated in 1 S 14 , and are brighter in appearance than tho genuine half-crown. Litbrart Prize.

    A Bonn. Yankbk Bombast. Workhouse Schoom. Coai ,. This Bhikpless. Worse than Flogging. He is then drawn out by the rope attached to him , and either dismissed orsubjeeted toa repetition of the punishment , according to the nature of hig offence. Vhkt Trub. And if the hustle does make tho sisjn of labour glisten on her brov. Rough Method of Ybntilation. R , Willis , before the Health of Tmvns Commmihi :.

    W ' iuLKs. Opunino ov New Oxpobdstbbkt. Death o? William Astbix , M. Jknny Likd. Lumley giving her an indemnity against all actions for broach of contract with Mr. The batt ' e in the courts will therefore be foudit , if at alL , between the two managers. James ' s Theatre. It in seated that. Butler will sustain the principal ehai ai. Hall , tub Poblisiisr , —This ; ontleman breathed his last on Sunday , atti-v sirugpiag for some time with the mosi severe suffering. His name , together with that of his partner , Mi -, ; impman , has been for many years associated with the most successful literary works in tho department of fiction of the present day—those of Mr.

    Charles Dickens. The success ot the " Pickwick Papers , " which were published by Messrs. Chapman ami Jail , gave them a celebrity in their profession , which has since increased. The Nkw Modul P rison. It contains 1 , separate cells to keep porsons entirel y apart whilst under detention. Libhrationof Convicts. Tub Cuckoo. PonToouBsK Soldiers. Nkw Convent. A Long Word. The Electric Telegram. It has been suggested that Mr. Hyde Clarke ' s electro telegraph coniposin" machine can bo worked in connection with Notts system , so as to make it a printing telegraph.

    A company is being formed to work Professor Morse ' s American printing telegraph in this country. Editorial Troublbs in Canada. Adsurd Law. Shut tour Mouth. Explosion op Portable Gas. Tho unfortunate gentleman was in bed when the explosion took place , and was burnt and scalded troin head tofuot. Tiic Great It. Nineteenth-Century Serials Edition Facsimiles. A S05g. Ara—Fitft Helmet on hit Brow. Let the base sycophant Of wars and heroes sing ; ' Land ttie despot' cringe and bow To Emperor or Kin ; : I scorn such fulsome themes , 1 sing of the patriot brave , Buncombe , tha friend of Liberty , And Labour ' s worn-down slave.

    Talt's Edinburgh Magazine,—March-Edinbur Death interferes , in the Brett majority of cases , to save tha public from an intolerable burden. Even in England the miserable children of the multitude are left to perish bodily and mentally , because savage sectarians tinnot agree to even fairly compete with each other , but must needs insist upon each bavin?