Very little is known about the actual functioning of the consulates in this early phase of their evolution, before the mid th century when such trade organizations had already become more widespread and developed. Merchants of Venetian privileges might have also been present in the Kingdom in significant numbers; nevertheless, it seems to me that Florentines outnumbered both groups during the late 14 th and early 15 th centuries. In this period, those merchants who traded with Hungary through Venice were, according to the testimonials of the Venetian sources, mainly of Florentine origins.
Hungarian sources occasionally mention Italians from Arezzo, Siena and Padua as well, but their number here likely remained considerably lower than in the three major Italian trading nations. The possible identity of the consul seems to underline this hypothesis. Unlike other correspondences of the merchant court addressed to Florentines, the letter sent to the former Italian consul was written in Latin.
The merchant court seems to have used Latin only for correspondences with non-Florentines. This, in my opinion, would suggest that the consul, Giovanni Seracino, was not of Florentine origins. Before that, he had been working as a shopkeeper apothecarius in Buda. A document issued by the chancellery of Ladislaus of Durazzo informs us that the brothers were of Paduan origins.
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Between and , when Johannes was in charge of the tax, the sources mention another officer of the thirties, a certain Nani Busculi de Florentia. So far it is considered the earliest Florentine partnership established in the Kingdom of Hungary, sometime in the early s. Three years later, his partner, Giovanni Boscoli, was already engaged in trade with dignitaries of the Church in Hungary. The consul, though, should have had good practice in reading account books. Giovanni is not mentioned as practicing any mercantile activity in Hungary, but he worked in the royal administration, and his brother started his career as a merchant, which would suggest that he was knowledgeable in such matters.
The request of the Mercanzia also alludes that the consul acted as a local judge in business disputes, and that he had the authority and the skills to keep and read account books of Florentine merchants who had pending business affairs at the merchant court. The fact that the office of the consul was an elected one also suggests that Giovanni Seracino had good familiarity with local laws and customs, which would have facilitated his attempt to mediate between Florentines and locals. Though the Hungarian National Archives lacks documents of a commercial nature, the so-called Buda law book, recording the laws and customs of the city, does not refer to the Italian consul either.
However, the law book — probably written between and , in German, for personal use — would not necessarily report the existence of an independent organization of Italians. Some Florentine merchants did acquire citizenship there, and therefore their jurisdictional cases might have fallen under the authority of the town court judges, but the majority most likely did not.
To what extent the Italian consulate differed from similar structures in other parts of Europe, we do not know. But the mention of the consul and the judge by two independent sources, separated by a span of forty years, would imply the continuous operation of such an organization during the reign of Sigismund of Luxemburg Although, as Richard Golthwaite claims, the commercial activity of Florentine merchants abroad was not subject to guild membership at home, they often enrolled in one of the five major guilds.
The major guilds during the Albizi period still maintained their own courts, headed by the so-called guild consuls, distinguishing them from the consuls of the nazioni , who in the name of the corresponding guild, also handled commercial quarrels. Dealers of the merchandise, according to the acts, refused to pay off the interests of the manufacturers. In the first case, likely occurring on May 13, , the wool entrepreneur Zanobi di Neri Macigni submitted a petition to the guild consuls for the golden florins Nofri di Francesco dello Stanghetta owed him for wool cloth he had transported to Hungary.
Besides the Wool Guild, only the Arte del Cambio has a limited number of surviving court sentences covering the period, though they seem to have no connection to trade in Hungary. Initially the five councilors were to be Florentine merchants engaged in trade abroad, but later this was not necessarily the case. The above-mentioned story of the Boscoli-Portinari company in Buda eloquently illustrates how the Mercanzia might have fulfilled its duties in such cases. His trip was also designed in such a way that he would recuperate part of the credits of the company.
If the guild consuls requested, these brokers should have been able to perform in other capacities as well. Whenever the mediation of agents proved to be unsuccessful abroad, the merchant court employed other, probably more efficient tools to settle disputes between the parties. On those occasions, the Florentine chancellery contacted the authorities in Hungary and took a stand, though a very humble one, against business misconduct. Of course, one cannot talk about egalitarian communication between the parties, but rather about a desperate attempt of the chancery to convince the ruler, with kind words and manners, to act fairly with her citizens.
By selling the textiles to King Sigismund, the merchants received a good deal of money, though he remained indebted to them in the amount of florins. The agent he sent to the Count was Filippo Frescobaldi. Consequently, in June , King Sigismund gave a letter to Filippo Frescobaldi, in which he commanded the Count to discharge his debt. Between August and January , two other Florentine merchants went to Segna Senj, HR , but their attempts were also unsuccessful. Whether these accusations were true or false, and whether the Count had finally paid off his debt to Gianozzo, we do not learn explicitly from these sources.
Both of the Florentine domestic courts involved in the case — the Mercanzia as well as the court of the Calimala Guild — tried to use means of diplomacy to get Gianozzo Cavalcanti released. During the process, the merchant court also asked the witnesses to compel testimony.
At the end, the Borghini-case was concluded by the decision of the court of the Calimala Guild. Consequently, the Signoria managed to negotiate with the ruler a favorable outcome for its citizens and to solve the business conflict between Florentine merchants internally. Yet, they provide us with a picture of how these authorities might have performed their duties as supreme courts or judges for Florentines who traded in the Kingdom of Hungary during the reign of Sigismund of Luxemburg.
Sometimes finding a solution for the situation and concluding litigation between the parties occurred at multiple levels and included actors in both Florence and Hungary. Confiscation of mobile and immobile properties was also a very common solution used by the merchant court to clear business debts. Acheri, Giustizia ordinaria, giustizia dei mercanti e la mercanzia di Siena nel Tre-Quattrocento , in M. Good thing I like the snow. I mean I really like it. I get so happy when it snows. I love to watch it fall and create velvety blankets across my lawn. We make pupazzi di neve snowmen ,.
Next week we will be talking about gli orsi polari polar bears and their habitats, and what it means to hibernate ibernare o andare in letargo. The week before Christmas vacation was quite exciting at La Piazza di Carolina.
Justice in the Florentine Trading Community of Late Medieval Buda
Everyone was in the holiday spirit so we kept the feeling going. We read about American and Italian Christmas traditions. We learned how to sing Italian Christmas hymns like Tu scendi dalle stelle , and Siam pastori e pastorelli , and learned our Christmas words in Italian. We glued the pasta onto the plates, dusted them with glitter and added a red Christmas bow. Then we taped our photos in the middle of the wreath.
On December 18th we had our 5th annual Coro dei bambini di Natale concert. We had our best turn out yet. First we learned about the history of Thanksgiving, la storia del Ringraziamento. The pellegrini pilgrims came from far away across the ocean to America in una barca called the Mayflower.
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They came to build a new chiesa church to practice their own religione. But the inverno was so duro and freddo in their new home in America. Luckily they made new amici , the indiani americani, who taught them how to grow granturco corn and zucche squash , and how to hunt fare la caccia for tacchino turkey and fish pesce.
They were very thankful erano pieni del ringraziamento. Then we made our own granturco out of carta leggera tissue paper and chicchi di granturco corn kernals. Finally we pretended to be pellegrini pilgrims by wearing our school-made cappelli di pellegrini pilgrim hats. We learned that apples come in many colors: rosso, verde, and giallo , and that they grow on trees alberi.
Renewed collaboration between MAK and Donnavventura, the team of young explorers that this year will face a very different expedition from the previous ones. Matteo Cressoni enchants the crowd at the 3 Hours of Monza, the first seasonal race of the prestigious Blancpain Endurance Series.
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- The Pomodoro Technique for Sustainable Pace in Extreme Programming Teams | SpringerLink;
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Our new wheel MAK Stuttgart, is now on stock and homolgated for 7. PDF format. MAK ist jetzt auf Instagram! The brand, combined with a dynamic image of the wheels, is present during all home games of Lazio , Fiorentina , Udinese , Sampdoria , Chievo and Torino until June Thanks to our hungarian partner for the pictures and the dedication shown to MAK. In March, with our Finnish partner, we have visited the beautiful Lapland.
Watch the video and learn more about this new wheel! Market Las Vegas Sema Show From November 03rd to 06th, Las Vegas hosted the Sema Show , one of the premier automotive specialty products trade event in the world for all car enthusiasts. Eugene and his entire team has celebrated the 20th anniversary of the company, organizing a cool social event for all their partners and customers. Juli statt.
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April bis 5. Juni bis Juni teilnehmen. Mai stattfindet. Wir entschuldigen uns bei allen die Modellen die Interesse gezeigt haben. Datei herunterladen. Vom 1. Meeting Italian Dealers Oktober Heute um