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Among the book series in the arts published by Cambridge University Press are: . Daniel W. Janina Dill. Maja Zehfuss. Stefano Guzzini. Home Contact us Help Free delivery worldwide. Free delivery worldwide. Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Description Scholars and citizens tend to assume that rationality guides the decision-making of our leaders. Brian C. Rathbun suggests, however, that if we understand rationality to be a cognitive style premised on a commitment to objectivity and active deliberation, rational leaders are in fact the exception not the norm.
Using a unique combination of methods including laboratory bargaining experiments, archival-based case studies, quantitative textual analysis and high-level interviews, Rathbun questions some of the basic assumptions about rationality and leadership, with profound implications for the field of international relations. Case studies of Bismarck and Richelieu show that the rationality of realists makes them rare.
An examination of Churchill and Reagan, romantics in international politics who sought to overcome obstacles in their path through force of will and personal agency, show what less rationality looks like in foreign policy making. Other books in this series.
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New York: Longman, Last up-dated on 14 March ; Wikipedia. In putting his thesis, Bobbitt also contends that: epochal wars have brought a particular constitutional order to primacy; a constitutional order achieves dominance by best exploiting the strategic and constitutional innovations of its era; the peace treaties that end epochal wars ratify a particular constitutional order for the society of states; and each constitutional order asserts a unique basis for legitimacy.
In terms of the current international system, Bobbitt argues that it is transitioning from an order of nation-states to market-states. Bobbit, Philip. Constitutive Theory Constitutive theory is directly concerned with the importance of human reflection on the nature and character of world politics and the approach to its study. Reflections on the process of theorizing, including epistemological and ontological issues and questions, are typical.
Constitutive theory is distinguished from explanatory or empirical theory see below and may be described as the philosophy of world politics or international relations. Wendt, Alexander.
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Social Theory of International Politics. Constructivism Constructivist theory rejects the basic assumption of neo-realist theory that the state of anarchy lack of a higher authority or government is a structural condition inherent in the system of states. Rather, it argues, in Alexander Wendt's words, that 'Anarchy is what states make of it'. That is, anarchy is a condition of the system of states because states in some sense 'choose' to make it so.
Anarchy is the result of a process that constructs the rules or norms that govern the interaction of states. The condition of the system of states today as self-helpers in the midst of anarchy is a result of the process by which states and the system of states was constructed. It is not an inherent fact of state-to-state relations. Thus, constructivist theory holds that it is possible to change the anarchic nature of the system of states.
In Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences. Corporatism This refers to organised interest groups that mediate between society and the state. In the post-war period, corporatism is not restricted to business corporations, but often includes the larger trade unions as well. A limited number of relatively privileged groups play a role in determining public policy in consultation with the state.
This contradicts the assumptions of liberal theory. Individuals are not all equal, and the role played in the determination of policy by a relatively small number of actors is unrecognised in the democratic process. Unlike the notion of interest-group pluralism, corporatism assumes that relatively few organizations of a non-competitive kind relate to the state in a privileged way. The latter is usually associated with more authoritarian state systems.
Corporatism is defended as a way of imposing order upon society, so that the market itself is controlled and inflation and unemployment managed.
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Trends Toward Corporatist Intermediation. The nebulous core shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, do or at least can belong to a single community, and that this community should be cultivated. Different versions of cosmopolitanism envision this community in different ways, some focusing on political institutions, others on moral norms or relationships, and still others focusing on shared markets or forms of cultural expression.
The philosophical interest in cosmopolitanism lies in its challenge to commonly recognized attachments to fellow-citizens, the local state, parochially shared cultures, and the like. Walker, Thomas C.
Critical Social Theory Not really a theory, but an approach or methodology which seeks to take a critical stance towards itself by recognising its own presuppositions and role in the world; and secondly, towards the social reality that it investigates by providing grounds for the justification and criticism of the institutions, practices and mentalities that make up that reality.
Critical social theory therefore attempts to bridge the divides in social thought between explanation and justification, philosophical and substantive concerns, pure and applied theory, and contemporary and earlier thinking. George, Jim and David Campbell. Cultural Internationalism Cultural internationalism is the idea that world order can and should be defined through interactions at the cultural level across national boundaries.
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From this point of view, an alternative view of world order is created by artists, writers, thinkers, popular movements, and civil society organizations which is often in contrast the view of a world system dominated by great powers and the realist demands of geopolitics. Iriye, Akira. Cultural Internationalism and World Order. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, [see chapter 1]. Decision Making Analysis The discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.
Decision analysis includes many procedures, methods, and tools for identifying, clearly representing, and formally assessing the important aspects of a decision situation, for prescribing the recommended course of action by applying the maximum expected utility action axiom to a well-formed representation of the decision, and for translating the formal representation of a decision and its corresponding recommendation into insight for the decision maker and other stakeholders.
Hudson, Valerie M. The Art and Science of Negotiation. Defensive Realism Defensive realism is an umbrella term for several theories of international politics and foreign policy that build upon Robert Jervis's writings on the security dilemma and to a lesser extent upon Kenneth Waltz's balance-of-power theory neorealism.
Defensive realism holds that the international system provides incentives for expansion only under certain conditions.
Anarchy the absence of a universal sovereign or worldwide government creates situations where by the tools that one state uses to increase it security decreases the security of other states. This security dilemma causes states to worry about one another's future intentions and relative power. Pairs of states may pursue purely security seeking strategies, but inadvertently generate spirals of mutual hostility or conflict. States often, although not always, pursue expansionist policies because their leaders mistakenly believe that aggression is the only way to make their state secure.
Defensive realism predicts great variation in internationally driven expansion and suggests that states ought to generally pursue moderate strategies as the best route to security. Under most circumstances, the stronger states in the international system should pursue military, diplomatic, and foreign economic policies that communicate restraint. Jeffrey W. Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W. Norton, Democratic Peace All democratic peace theories seek to explain the disputed empirical fact that two constitutional democracies have never gone to war with each other in recent history onwards.
As such, they rest on a similar hypothesis: that relations between pairings of democratic states are inherently more peaceful than relations between other regime-type pairings i. To prove the reality of the democratic peace, theorists such as Michael Doyle have sought to show a causal relationship between the independent variable - 'democratic political structures at the unit level' - and the dependant variable - 'the asserted absence of war between democratic states'.
Critics, such as Ido Oren, dispute the claims of democratic peace theorists by insisting that there is a liberal bias in the interpretation of 'democracy' which weakens the evidence. Rasler, Karen A. Dependency Theory Dependency theorists assert that so-called 'third-world' countries were not always 'poor', but became impoverished through colonial domination and forced incorporation into the world economy by expansionist 'first-world' powers.
Thus, 'third-world' economies became geared more toward the needs of their 'first-world' colonial masters than the domestic needs of their own societies. Proponents of dependency theory contend that relationships of dependency have continued long after formal colonization ended. Thus, the primary obstacles to autonomous development are seen as external rather than internal, and so 'third-world' countries face a global economy dominated by rich industrial countries.
Because 'first-world' countries never had to contend with colonialism or a world full of richer, more powerful competitors, dependency theorists argue that it is unfair to compare contemporary 'third-world' societies with those of the 'first-world' in the early stages of development.
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Caporaso, James A. Deterrence Theory Deterrence is commonly thought about in terms of convincing opponents that a particular action would elicit a response resulting in unacceptable damage that would outweigh any likely benefit. The process initially involves determining who shall attempt to deter whom from doing what, and by what means. Several important assumptions underlie most thinking about deterrence.
Practitioners tend to assume, for example, that states are unitary actors, and logical according to Western concepts of rationality.