Au reste, M. Depuis la guerre, elle est surtout goguenarde et malicieusement vengeresse. Georges Courteline, ceux que M. Henri Rosny. Les premiers volumes de J. Le roman de M.
En , M. Or, par ordre de M. Dans le livre de M. En effet, M. Pour ce qui est du second, une erreur de M. Lucien Descaves avait trente-neuf ans, M. Georges Ohnet est mort. Henry Bordeaux. Ils sont intelligents. Jacques Copeau? Au contraire, il y a des amateurs en extase. Sous le patronage de MM. Barthou, V. Burrows, A.
Croiset, P. Deschanel, G. Gauvain, Th. Homolle, P. Puaux, J. Reinach, A. Ribot, A. Thomas, M. Paul Gsell qui versifie. Un critique italien, M. Marinetti sait-il nager? Le docteur J. Ce sont des sanglots, mais des sanglots harmonieux. Ce fut une merveille pour toutes les jeunes dames qui nous firent cercle. Mais que ne fait-on pas pour une duchesse! Je la reconduisis au bal en nous levant de table. Sa taille petite et grosse soutenait, je ne sais comment, un jupon sale, sur lequel flottait un petit mantelet de taffetas noir tout en loques. Elle trouva sur sa route un bon accueil de la part des anciens sujets du duc de Courlande.
Je remarquais toujours sur les figures de ces pauvres gens une de ces deux expressions. Anatole France. Chesterton que M. Le plus grand peintre suisse contemporain, Ferdinand Hodler, vient de mourir. Il avait un sentiment assez vif de la nature. Et cependant ils ne manquent point. Il y en a cependant. On sait que Rodin ne voulut jamais faire le portrait de M. Le mot est excessif. Picasso doit graver une eau-forte. La lettre de M. Mais pourquoi M.
Elles ne manquent point. Les Dix le regretteront, sans doute.
Vous demandiez qui est Nelligan, ou qui fut? Du Nelligan? Robinson, Frost, Masters, Sandburg, H. On lui reprochait des attitudes un peu ridicules. Marinetti, de M. Henri Duvernois raconte une anecdote bien amusante. Pierre-Paul Plan, par exemple. Elle est extraordinaire. Pour subsister, ils se contentent souvent de balayer les rues. Jean-Pierre Jacques Dixi , caporal mitrailleur aviateur. Medardo Rosso qui est maintenant sans aucun doute le plus grand sculpteur vivant. En attendant, M. Depuis longtemps M.
Le livre de guerre de M. Il est entre toutes les mains de la jeunesse. Soffici est maintenant son chef. Junoy, Joaquim Folguera, J. Le prochain roman de M. Maurice Simart, Canudo, P. Grovlez, R. Marghiloman redoute le plus. Pour les soldats, il y a le poteau, il y a aussi le cercle. Le Dr S. Poinsot, M. Il y a en ce moment, en Italie, une affaire Goethe. Ils gagnent au change. Le conservateur de la Maison de Balzac, M. Le professeur M. Des illustrations en noir et en couleurs accompagnaient le texte qui est parfaitement clair.
Guillaume Apollinaire y publia ses premiers vers. Cette expression intrigua jadis Wagner. Cherchant alors sur le plan de Paris, il trouva en effet une rue des Lombards. On se demande en effet comment le chanteur aurait pu se faire entendre? Le chef des futuristes italiens, F. Il fut sans aucun doute le plus fashionable des peintres. Notre collaborateur M. Il comprend les noms de MM. Celle de Stendhal en est une.
Les oiseaux chantaient dans les hautes branches. Berr, Le Lion devenu vieux de M. Villeroy, Monsieur Puic-Puic de M. Alfred Machard. Willy, dans une lettre importante pour les biographes futurs. On nous affirme que M. Bien que M. Il est incontestable que M. Cette affirmation paraissait douteuse. Ses partisans restent turcophiles. On ne regarde pas dans les haremlik. Il faut souvent le canon pour forcer des bicoques.
De temps en temps, dans cette cour passaient des pappas. Mais les miracles sont interrompus. Le catholicisme allemand est surtout pratique. Herbert Booth serait le directeur. Les socialistes allemands sont dans la joie. Les catholiques aussi. Le premier contact entre Russes et Japonais eut lieu en Mais les Japonais agirent avec promptitude et vigueur. Mais il agit comme elle et tandis que le nord se peuplait de Russes, au sud le nombre des Japonais augmentait. Cette action indigna les Japonais. Chemulpo fut ouvert en Le contrat fut accompli par les deux parties. Fernschreiben remplacera sous peu telegraphieren.
De tout temps, je crois, on a vu Cabliaud ou Cabliot au lieu de cabillaud sur les menus des restaurants allemands. Mahmoud Nedim bey est un homme peu estimable, envieux, avare et jaloux. Il ne resta que la femme du ministre roumain. Mahmoud Nedim bey ne broncha pas. Henri Braun. Harden appelle tout simplement des mensonges. Il le crie violemment. Mais non, M. Harden, M. Bernhard fit amende honorable devant M. Harden cite une lettre dans laquelle M. Harden ne voulut plus recevoir M.
Harden refusa les articles. Braun en , et Au sujet du compagnon Heine, M. Il promet de tout dire prochainement. Maximilien Harden nous parle longuement de Heine dans la Zukunft. Il semble sans cesse sur le point de prononcer le Tu quoque! Le bras droit lui restait. Je suis vieux. En , il survint quelque chose de semblable dans la vie de Kant. Ce fut un malheur, et avec cet arbre disparut une partie de la raison du vieillard. Il tomba malade. En , Kant introduisit quelques changements dans ses habitudes.
Le philosophe changea plus tard le c en k pour germaniser son nom. Il y mettait de la recherche. Kant les remercia avec sa galanterie ordinaire et leur donna sa rose. Il avait soixante-dix-huit ans. Progressivement, la faiblesse du Beau Professeur augmenta. Pendant un voyage en Italie, je pense, Aladro prenait un bain. Children grow into reading and writing the same way they develop oral language.
When they are immersed in an environment that requires, uses and demonstrates the usefulness of print, children explore, invent, create, and try out print-related activities. Anderson, R. Becoming a nation of readers: The report of the Commission on Reading. Berenstain, S. The Berenstain Bears in the dark. New York: Random House.
Forester, A. What teachers can learn from natural readers. The Reading Teacher, 31, Goodman, K. Learning to read is natural. Weaver Eds.
Articles divers — Apollinaire
Hillsday, NJ: Erlbaum. Language and thinking in school. New York: Richard C. Harste, J. Language stories and literacy lessons Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Morrow, L. Home and school correlates of early interest in literature. Journal of Educational Research, 76, Morrow L. Reading and retelling stories: Strategies for emergent readers. The Reading Teacher, 38, Teal, W. Reading to young children: Its significance for literacy development. Goelman, A.
Smith Eds , Awakening to literacy pp. NH: Heinemann. Emergent literacy: Writing and reading. NJ: Ablex. Language arts: Learning processes and teaching practices Boston: Little, Brown. Wood, D. The little mouse, the red ripe strawberry, and the big hungry bear. Singapore: Child's Play International. Distributed in the U. Box , Livermore, CA The practice of administering standardized tests to young children has increased dramatically in recent years.
Many school systems now routinely administer some form of standardized developmental screening or readiness test for admittance to Kindergarten or standardized achievement test for promotion to first grade. A simultaneous trend that has influenced and been influenced by the use of standardized testing is the increasingly academic emphasis of the curriculum imposed on Kindergartens.
The trend further trickles down to preschool and child care programs that feel their mission is to get children "ready" for Kindergarten. The negative influenced of standardized testing on the curriculum is not limited to Kindergarten. Throughout the primary grades, schools assess achievement using tests that frequently do not reflect current theory and research about how children learn. Similarly, current theory of mathematics instruction stresses the child's construction while achievement tests continue to define mathematics as knowledge of numerals Kamii, a, b.
As a result, too many school systems teach to the test or continue to use outdated instructional methods so that children will perform adequately on standardized tests. The widespread use of standardized tests also drains resources of time and funds without clear demonstration that the investment is beneficial for children. Days may be devoted to testing or preparing for it that could be better spent in valuable instructional time National Centre for Fair and Open Testing, Ironically, the calls for excellence in education that have produced widespread reliance on standardized testing may have had the opposite effect- mediocrity.
Children are being taught to provide the one right answer on the answer sheet but are not being challenged to think. Rather than producing excellence, the overuse and misuse of standardized testing has led to the adoption of inappropriate teaching practices as well as admission and retention policies that are not in the best interests of individual children or the nation as a whole. The purpose of this position statement is to guide the decisions of educators regarding the use of standardized tests. These administrative decisions include whether to use standardized testing, how to critically evaluate existing tests, how to carefully select appropriate and accurate tests to be used with a population and purpose for which the test was designed, and how to use and interpret the results yielded from standardized tests to parents, school personnel, and the media.
Such decisions are usually made by school principals, superintendents, or state school officials. Teachers are responsible for administering tests and, therefore, have a professional responsibility to be knowledgeable about appropriate testing and to influence, or attempt to influence, the selection and use of tests. It is assumed that responsible and educated decisions by administrators and teachers will influence commercial test developers to produce valid, reliable, and useful tests. Standardized tests are instruments that are composed of empirically selected items: have definite instructions for use, data on reliability, and validity; and are norm- or criterion-referenced see definitions at the end of this article.
This position statement addresses tests - the instruments themselves, and testing - the administration of tests, scoring, and interpretation of scores. This statement concentrates on standardized tests because such tests are most likely to influence policy. Nonstandardized assessments such as systematic observation, anecdotal records, locally or nationally developed checklists, or mastery tests developed by individual teachers that do not meet the above criteria for standardization play a vital role in planning and implementing instruction and in making decisions about placement of children.
Decisions made on the basis of nonstandardized assessments should take into consideration the guidelines presented in this position statement. The field of standardized testing is complex. Various types of standardized tests exist for various purposes. The guidelines in this position statement apply to all forms of standardized testing but primarily address the uses and abuses of achievement, readiness, and developmental screening tests.
Developmental screening tests are designed to indicate which children should proceed further to a multidisciplinary assessment, only after which a decision regarding special education placement can be made. School readiness tests are designed to assess a child's level of preparedness for a specific academic program Meisels, As such readiness tests should not be used to identify children potentially in need of special education services or for placement decisions Meisel, Diagnostic assessments are designed to identify children with specific special needs, determine the nature of the problem, suggest the cause of the problem, and propose possible recommendation strategies Meisels, Intelligence tests are norm- or criterion-referenced measures of cognitive functioning as defined by a specific criterion or construct and are often used in diagnostic assessment.
No single test can be used for all of these purposes, and rarely will a test be applicable to more than one or two of them. Standardized tests used in early childhood programs should comply with the joint committee's technical standards for test construction and evaluation, professional standards for use, and standards for administrative procedures. This means that no standardized test should be used for screening, diagnosis, or assessment unless the test has published statistically acceptable reliability and validity data.
Moreover, test producers are strongly encouraged to present data concerning the proportion of at-risk children correctly identified test sensitivity and the proportion of those not at-risk who are correctly found to be without major problems test specificity Meisels, NAEYC's position on standardized testing is intended not to duplicate, but to be used in conjunction with the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing NAEYC believes that the most important consideration in evaluation and using standardized tests is the utility criterion.
The purpose of testing must be to improve services for children and ensure the children benefit from their educational experiences. Decisions about testing and assessment instruments must be based on the usefulness of the assessment procedure for improving services to children and improving outcomes for children.
The ritual use even of "good tests" those that are judged to be valid and reliable measures is to be discouraged in the absence of documented research showing that children benefit from their use. Determining the utility of a given testing program is not easy. It requires thorough study of the potential effects, both positive and negative. For example, using a readiness or developmental test to admit children to Kindergarten or first grade is often defended by teachers and administrators who point to the fact that the children who are kept back perform better the next year.
Such intuitive reports overlook the fact that no comparative information is available about how the individual child would have fared had he or she been permitted to proceed with schooling. The following guidelines are intended to enhance the utility of standardized tests and guide early childhood professionals in making decisions about the appropriate use of testing. Administrators making decisions about standardized testing must recognize that the younger the child, the more difficult it is to obtain reliable and valid results from standardized tests.
Development in young children occurs rapidly, early childhood educators recognize the existence or general stages and sequence of development but also recognize that enormous individual variation occurs in patterns and timing of growth and development that is quite normal and not indicative of pathology. Therefore, the results obtained on a single administration of a test must be confirmed through periodic screening and assessment and corroborated by other sources of information to be considered reliable Meisels, In practice, multiple measures are sometimes used in an attempt to find some supporting evidence for a decision that teachers or administrators are predisposed to make regarding a child's placement.
Such practice is an inappropriate application of this guideline. To meet this guideline, the collected set of evidence obtained through multiple sources of information should meet validity standards. Unfortunately, readiness tests based on age-related normative data that are designed to measure the skills children have acquired compared to other children in their age range are sometimes used inappropriately. The intended purpose of such instruments is typically to provide teachers with information that will help them improve instruction, by informing them of what children already know and the skills they have acquired.
In practice, however, teachers have been found to systematically administer such tests and then proceed to teach all children the same content using the same methods; for example, testing all kindergartners and then instructing the whole group using phonics workbooks Durkin, The practice of making placement decisions about children on the basis of the results of readiness tests is becoming more common despite the absence of data that such tests are valid predictors of later achievement Meisels, , Accurate interpretation of test results is essential.
It is the professional obligation of administrators and teachers to become informed about measurement issues, to use tests responsibly, to exert leadership within early childhood programs and school systems regarding the use of testing, to influence test developers to produce adequate tests and to substantiate claims made in support of test, and to accurately report and interpret test results without making undue claims about their meaning or implications.
Achievement test - a test that measures the extent to which a person has mastery over a certain body of information or possesses a certain skill after instruction has taken place. Criterion - an indicator of the accepted value of outcome performance or a standard against which a measure is evaluated. Criterion-referenced - a test for which interpretation of scores is made in relation to a specified performance level, as distinguished from interpretations that compare the test taker's score to the performance of other people i.
Developmental test - an age-related norm-referenced assessment of skills and behaviours that children have acquired compared to children of the same chronological age. Sometimes such tests are inaccurately called developmental screening tests. Diagnostic assessment - identification of a child who has special needs, usually conducted by a multidisciplinary team of professionals, used to identify a child's specific areas of strength and weakness, determine the nature of the problems, and suggest the cause of the problems and possible remediation strategies.
Intelligence test - a series of tasks yielding a score indicative of cognitive functioning. Standardized by finding the average performance of individuals who by independent criteria i. Norms - Statistics or data that summarize the test performance of specified groups such as test takers of various ages or grades. Norm-referenced - A test for which interpretation of scores is based on comparing the test taker's performance to the performance of other people in a specified group.
Readiness test - assessment of child's level of preparedness for a specific academic or pre-academic program. See also achievement test and developmental test. Reliability - the degree to which test scores are consistent, dependable, or repeatable, that is, the degree to which test scores can be attributed to actual differences in test takers' performance rather than to errors of measurement.
Screening test also called developmental screening test -a test used to identify children who may be in need of special services, as a first step in identifying children in need of further diagnosis, focuses on the child's ability to acquire skills. Standardized test - an instrument composed of empirically selected items that has definite instructions for use, adequately determined norms and data on reliability and validity.
Testing - the administration, scoring and interpretation of scores of a standardized test. Utility - the relative value or usefulness of an outcome as compared to other possible outcomes. Validity - the degree to which a test measures what it purports to measure, the degree to which a certain inference from a test is appropriate or meaningful.
Content validity - evidence that shows the extend to which the content of the test is appropriately related to its intended purpose. For achievement tests, contact refers to the content of the curriculum, the actual instruction, or the objectives of the instruction. Criterion - related validity-evidence that demonstrates that test scores are systematically related to one or more outcome criteria.
Predictive validity - evidence of criterion-related validity in which scores on the criterion are observed at a later date: for example, the score on a test will predictive validity will predict future school performance. Standardized tests used in early childhood programs must have content validity, that is, they must accurately measure the content of the curriculum presented to children. If no existing test matches the curriculum, it is better not to use a standardized test or to develop an instrument to measure the program's objectives rather than to change an appropriate program to fit a pre-existing test.
Too often the content of a standardized test unduly influences the content of the curriculum. If a test is used, the curriculum should determine its selection, the test should not dictate the content of the curriculum. Another difficulty related to content validity in measures of young children is that many critically important content areas in early childhood programs such as developing self-esteem, social competence, creativity, or dispositions toward learning Katz.
As a result, tests for young children often address the more easily measured, but no more important, aspects of development and learning. Young children are not good test takers. The younger the child the more inappropriate paper-and-pencil, large group test administrations become.
Standards for the administration of tests require that reasonable comfort be provided to the test taker AERA. Such a standard must be broadly interpreted when applied to young children.
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Too often, standardized tests are administered to children in large groups, in unfamiliar environments, by strange people, perhaps during the first few days at a new school or under other stressful conditions. During such test administrations, children are asked to perform unfamiliar tasks, for no reason that they can understand. For test results to be valid, test are best administered to children individually in familiar, comfortable circumstances by adults whom the child has come to know and trust and who are also qualified to administer the tests.
Test developers frequently ignore two important sources of variety in human experiences-cultural variations and variations in the quality of educational experiences provided for different children. It is easier to mass produce tests if one assumes that cultural differences are minimal or meaningless or if one assumes that test subjects are exposed to personal and educational opportunities of equally high quality.
These assumptions permit attributing all variances or differences in test scores to differences in individual children's capacities. However, these assumptions are false. Early childhood educators recognize that children's skills, abilities, and aptitudes are most apparent when they can be demonstrated in familiar cultural contexts. Because standardized tests must use particular cultural material, they may be inappropriate for assessing the skills, abilities, or aptitudes of children whose primary cultures differ from the mainstream.
Language is the special feature of culture that creates the greatest problem for test developers. There are many language varieties in the United States, some of which are not apparent to the casual observer or test developer. Although having a common language is definitely desirable, useful, and a major goal of education, testing must be based on reality. If testing is to be done, children should be tested in their native language. NAEYC's position on standardized testing in early childhood programs restricts the use of tests to situations in which testing provides information that will clearly contribute to improved outcomes for children.
Standardized tests have an important role to play in ensuring that children's achievement or special needs are objectively and accurately assessed and that appropriate instructional services are planned and implemented for individual children. However, standardized tests are only one of multiple sources of assessment information that should be used when decisions are made about what is best for young children.
Tests may become a burden on the educational system requiring considerable effort and expense to administer and yielding manger benefits. Rather than to use tests of doubtful validity, it is better not to test, because false labels that come from test may cause educators or parents to alter inappropriately their treatment of children. The potential for misdiagnosing or mislabelling is particularly great with young children where there is wide variation in what may be considered normal behaviour. Administrators of early childhood programs who consider the use of standardized tests must ask themselves: How will children benefit from testing?
Why is testing to be done? Does an appropriate test exist? What other sources of information can be used to make decisions about how best to provide services for an individual child? In answering such questions, administrators should apply the foregoing guidelines. The burden of proof for the validity and reliability of tests is on the test developers and the advocates for their use.
The burden of proof for the utility of tests is on administrators or teachers of early childhood programs who make decisions about the use of tests in individual classrooms. Similarly, the burden of responsibility for choosing, administering, scoring and interpreting a score from a standardized test rests with the early childhood professional and thus demands that professionals be both skilled and responsible. Ensuring that tests meet scientific standards, reflect the most current scientific knowledge, and are used appropriately required constant vigilance on the part of educators.
American Educational Research Association. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8 exp. Chase, A. The legacy of Malthus: The social cost of scientific racism. New York: Knopf. Farr, R. Reading: What can be measured? Goodwin, W. Handbook for measurement and evaluation in early childhood education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Gredler, G. A look at some important factors for assessing readiness for school. Transition classes: A viable alternative for the at-risk child?
Psychology in the Schools, Hilliard, A. The strengths and weaknesses of cognitive tests of young children. Andrews Ed. Kamii, C. Leading primary education toward excellence: Beyond worksheets and drill. Young children reinvent arithmetic. Katz, L. Dispositions in early childhood education. A place called Kindergarten.
Meisels, S. Siegel Eds. Child development research and social policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Testing four- and five-year-olds. Educational Leadership , 44, Uses and abuses of developmental screening and school readiness testing. Young Children, 42 2. National Centre for Fair and Open Testing.
North Carolina legislature drops exams for 1st, 2nd graders. Oakland, T. Psychological and educational assessment of minority children. Synthesis of research on school readiness and Kindergarten retention. Effects of Kindergarten retention at the end of first grade. Escalating academic demand in Kindergarten: Some nonsolutions. Smith, M. What doesn't work Explaining policies of retention in the early grades. Educational Leadership. Teale, W, Hiebert, E. Assessing young children's literacy development. The Reading Teacher, 40, Valencia, S. Reading assessment: Time for a change.
Number 1. Fall , pp. This NAEYC National Association for the Education of Young Children position statement on developmentally appropriate practice in the primary grades supports a classroom environment that fosters physical, social, emotional, and intellectual and literacy program that supports whole language.
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Curriculum is narrowly focused on the intellectual domain with intellectual development narrowly defined as acquisition of discrete, technical academic skills, without recognition that all area of children's development are interrelated. Each child is viewed a unique person with an individual pattern and timing of growth.
Curriculum and instruction are responsive to individual difference in ability and interests. Different levels of ability, development, and learning styles are expected, accepted and used to design curriculum. Children are allowed to move at their own pace in acquiring important skills including those of writing, reading spelling, math, social studies, science, art, music, health, and physical activity. For example, it is accepted that not every child will learn how to read at age six, most will learn to read by seven; and some will need intensive exposure to appropriate literacy experiences to learn to read by age eight or nine.
The curriculum is integrated so that children's learning in all traditional subject areas occurs primarily through projects and learning centres that teachers plan and that reflect children's interest and suggestions. Teachers guide children's involvement in projects and enrich the learning experience by extending children's ideas, responding to their questions, engaging them in conversation, and challenging their thinking.
Teachers use much of their planning time to prepare the environment so children can learn through active involvement with each other, with adults and older children serving as informal tutors, and with materials. Many learning centres are available for children to choose from. Many centres include opportunities for writing and reading. For example, a tempting library area for browsing through books, reading silently, or sharing a book with a friend; a listening station; and places to practice writing stories and to play math or language games.
Teachers encourage children to evaluate their own work and to determine where improvement is needed and assist children in figuring out for themselves how to improve their work. Some work is corrected in small groups where children take turns giving feedback to one another and correcting their own papers. Errors are viewed as a natural and necessary part of learning. Teachers analyze children's errors and use the information obtained to plan curriculum and instruction.
Individual children or small groups are expected to work and play cooperatively or alone in learning centres and on projects that they usually select themselves or are guided to by the teacher. Activity centres are changed frequently so children have new things to do.
Teachers and children together select and develop projects. Frequent outings and visits from resource people are planned. Peer tutoring as well as learning from others through conversation while at work or play occurs daily. Learning material and activities are concrete, real, and relevant to children's lives.
Objects children can manipulate and experiment with such as blocks, cards, games, woodworking tools, arts and crafts materials including paint and clay, and scientific equipment are readily accessible. Tables are used for children to work alone or in small groups. A variety of work places and spaces is provide and flexibly used. The goals of the language and literacy program are for children to expand their ability to communicate orally and through reading and writing, and to enjoy these activities. Technical skills or subskills are taught as needed to accomplish the larger goals, not as the goal itself.
Teachers provide generous amounts of time and a variety of interesting activities for children to develop language, writing, spelling, and reading ability, such as: looking through, reading or being read high quality children's literature and nonfiction for pleasure and information; drawing, dictating, and writing about their activities or fantasies; planning and implementing projects that involve research at suitable levels of difficulty; creating teacher-made or child-written list of steps to follow to accomplish a project; discussing what was read; preparing a weekly class newspaper; interviewing various people to obtain information for projects; making books of various kinds riddle books, what if books, books about pets ; listening to recordings or viewing high quality films of children's books; being read at least one high quality book or part of a book each day by adults or older children; using the school library and the library area of the classroom regularly.
Some children read aloud daily to the teacher, another child, or a small group of children, while others do so weekly. Subskills such as learning letters, phonics, and word recognition are taught as needed to individual children and small groups through enjoyable games and activities. Teachers use the teacher's edition of the basal reader series as a guide to plan projects and hands-on activities relevant to what is read and to structure learning situations. Teachers accept children's invented spelling with minimal reliance on teacher-prescribed spelling lists. Teachers also teach literacy as the need arises when working on science, social studies, and other content areas.
The goal of the math program is to enable children to use math through exploration, discovery, and solving meaningful problems. Math activities are integrated with other relevant projects, such as science and social studies. Math skills are acquired through spontaneous play, projects and situations of daily living. Teachers use the teacher's edition of the math textbook as a guide to structure learning situations and to stimulate ideas about interesting math projects.
Many math manipulatives are provided and used. Interesting board and card, paper-and-pencil, and other kinds of games are used daily. Noncompetitive, impromptu oral "math stumper" and number games are played for practice. Social studies themes are identified as the focus of work for extended periods of time. Social studies concepts are learned through a variety of projects and playful activities involving independent research in library books; excursions and interviewing visitors; discussions; the relevant use of language, writing, spelling invented and teacher-taught , and reading skills; and opportunities to develop social skills such as planning, sharing, taking turns, and working in committees.
The classroom is treated as a laboratory of social relations where children explore values and learn rules of social living and respect for individual differences through experience. Relevant art, music, dance, drama, woodworking, and games are incorporated in social studies. Discovery science is major part of the curriculum, building on children's natural interest in the world. You can still find traditional wear being used in the rural areas. What is important as you select important institutes is to learn from the environment while you get some additional information from the edusocial corners on the Internet.
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