Die Anthropologie in der politischen Theorie von Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels (German Edition)

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There have been and continue to be numerous attempts to determine a canon of culture and life forms through which the various subgroups attained and represented their mutual bourgeois status. Among the aspects named are individual achievement, work and the work ethic, a proclivity for rational lifestyles, self-employment, self-organization, education, an aesthetic relationship to high culture, family ideals, symbolic forms in daily life table manners, clothing styles, social conventions , etc. Such efforts were stimulated more often than not from outside of historiography, for example from ethnology.

Hermann Bausinger has argued that bourgeois culture should be grasped as a behavioral style, as "an interaction of norms and forms that even includes everyday occurrences" and backed up his argument with impressive examples but did not elucidate his argument on a conceptual level. To date, there have been no successful attempts to describe and verify historically the existence of such a consistent "bourgeois culture" that could indeed integrate socially heterogeneous parts.

This may be due to the success of the bourgeois model in the "progressive democratization" of material and many immaterial cultural achievements. Various methods can be applied to investigating bourgeois culture. One is oriented towards social "behavioral norms and modes of action". One could also address the forms of behavior and expression that have become widespread to an impressive extent in the past two centuries — from socializing in clubs and associations to other leisure time activities to home furnishings.

The proletariat was shaped by class conditions and also formed common cultural forms of expression proletarianism. Bourgeois society thus offered a pattern for creating an order for the whole that included all subgroups and was based on legal principles. Have the challenges which individuals face changed fundamentally from the earliest phase of the post-estatist and secularly-oriented world that developed around in comparison to the period of industrial modernity in the late nineteenth century and to today's globalized postmodern era?

It is thus founded "not in a structural homogeneity but rather in cultural community", according to Friedrich Tenbruck. Questions pertaining to meaning in life were no longer answered primarily within a religiously defined space but rather in novels, in conversation, and in "convivial" contacts with those who were equally affected by these issues. The arsenal of values proves to be highly flexible and capable of being adapted to diverse contexts. One means of bringing order to this conglomerate is to form contrasting pairs of values that represent alternative orientations.

Rather, they represent, but do not strictly prescribe, ideal points of reference within possible life forms. Such dominant and important pairs are, for example, property versus education or material versus intellectual interest ; self-interest versus community interest; creativity following no purpose versus rationality tied to a goal and utility; emotion versus reason; achievement or work versus leisure. The orientation based on these dimensions forms the ideal of the bourgeoisie, to which all subgroups have felt an obligation up to the present, despite their deviations from them in reality.

Such learning processes, which can succeed or fail, generally become visible especially when new cultural interpretations are expressed. Thus, the development of the neohumanist ideal of education around was an appropriate societal response to a specific problem: The individual processes of adopting social practices that were now required had to be open and flexible, but at the same time they had to become institutionalized, so that individuals could meet the flexible challenges of bourgeois society.

The unique aspects of the neohumanist ideal of education were not the actual knowledge — in other words, the content — but rather the process of acquiring that content, the creative form of working with knowledge. Throughout all crises and challenges that it has faced internally and externally, it has proven to be astonishingly adaptable. This finding is likely to be uncontroversial on the factual, phenomenological level.

First, one should recall that the middle classes — the English term is more precise here, because of the use of the term class — have also expanded quantitatively in Western societies since The decline of industrial and rural workers and the rise of white-collar workers and of academic occupations and old and new service employment has meant that the middle classes have become the largest segment of the population in many societies. But this again raises the problem of definitions, since there are no generally accepted criteria to delimit the "middle classes" on their upper and lower borders.

However, data from social science research generally determines the middle class based on income levels. Presumably, the differences between the middle classes in industrialized countries and those in threshold countries are more significant than those between the middle classes and the classes above and below them in either the industrialized or the threshold countries.

The middle classes in threshold countries are much more at risk than those in industrialized states due to factors such as illness or unemployment, due to a general lack of state social security systems. Most surveys categorize whether people belong to the middle class based solely on income; criteria such as self-employment, management functions, etc.

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Since threshold countries generally still have a very large and very poor rural population, even very low-level service jobs in urban agglomerations security guard, train conductor, low-level clerical work, etc. However, data on the size of the middle classes differ enormously, with estimates for global figures varying by several hundred million. Two analytical potentials, which will be outlined below, should prove useful for studying the middle classes in threshold countries.

One might even argue that a comparison of today's middle classes in the emerging markets with the bourgeois as it took shape in the nineteenth century might prove more useful than comparisons with the bourgeois middle class in today's industrialized countries, since the life forms of the latter are based on assets that have accumulated over decades and on comprehensive state social security systems. It is likely that structural commonalities can be discerned within the divergent paths taken into the modernity, whether in China or India, the Near and Far East, or Latin America.

For comparative analysis, care should be taken to formulate definition criteria and the resulting descriptions of social formations very precisely. Historically, three relevant dimensions can be identified: economic, political, and socio-cultural. The "bourgeois" middle classes earmarked as representing specific constellations of economic interests have a heterogeneous internal structure and include the members of the upper middle classes and the petit bourgeoisie, entrepreneurs, investors , tradespeople, shop owners, etc. The socio-cultural dimension, in contrast, points to how "the citizen was privileged in a negative as well as a positive sense".

This was generally based on a specific kind of life style and life forms as well as on special prestige values prestige based on ancestry or occupation and manifested itself in mutual circles for marriage and social contacts, according to Weber's classic definition. For this reason, it is essential that researchers not only determine the structural dimensions of an economic, political, and cultural nature that shape the formation of the middle classes but also address the specific processes of sociation Vergesellschaftung that possibly — but not unavoidably — integrates these heterogeneous middle classes to form social units and thus potentially also units of action "in and of themselves" These sociation processes are founded on interests and value systems.

If we consider the contemporary situation and recent research on the global middle classes on the backdrop of these observations, then it is apparent that the numbers of those who have acquired a certain amount of material assets is on the rise in almost all countries worldwide. These groups do not practice traditional agrarian forms of production and rural lifestyles, nor do they have much in common with the industrial workforce.

The interests of these people — who, in quantitative terms, are often self-employed with small businesses or low-level employees in the service sector — aim to secure material assets and the guarantees that contracts can provide; in other words, they seek legal certainty. For most, their interests are based on knowledge and therefore on opportunities for education and training. Last but not least, these people develop the need to pass on property, competence, and status positions to their own children that extend far beyond the opportunities and procedures for transferring property through inheritance in rural societies.

In future, researchers will be called on to study whether, in some states or regions of the world, these middles classes undergo sociation processes and whether needs, constellations of interests, cultural forms of expression, and value systems gradually merge across national and continental borders. Then, and only then, would it be appropriate to refer to the global middle classes as a possible substrate for a "society of global citizens". Currently, the economic, cultural, and political differences presumably by far outweigh shared traits and tend to create rather than minimize differences.

Global comparative study of these rapidly and constantly growing middle classes should not only focus on identifying and describing income and assets as well as lifestyle phenomena, in particular consumption. If specific patterns of lifestyle as defined by Weber are considered, other dimensions come into view. Among the possible questions to be addressed are: What possibilities and expectations exist with respect to political independence and participation? To what extent is education valued as a specific sphere for acquiring global knowledge and to what extent does pertain not only to occupational training and knowledge that is useful in occupational and economic contexts?

Have families assumed or preserved a role as an internal emotional space without representing a dominant formation such as clans or tribes? Have urbanity as a life form and a plurality of values and norms emerged? Only such shared practices in social life — which have been outlined here with a few, by no means exhaustive examples — can form a basis for potentially perceiving these heterogeneous middle classes as a common societal formation. The appearance and the internal character of the middle classes in each of these countries are influenced by various factors and national circumstances.

Besides the economic order — put simply, the extent to which a capitalist market order is dominant — as one factor, there are five further spheres that, I would argue, are especially decisive:. Here, the legal system and the educational system occupy central positions, since they have impacts on the key interests and values of the middle classes.

A functioning legal system secures property and contract freedom; qualified educational institutions are essential for creating status opportunities based on achievement. The articulation and realization of interests are bound to institutions that promote the sociation of groups and create space for monitored self-regulation of needs. Frequently underestimated forms of local self-administration form the key arena for action in this context.

In many regions in which the wealthy middle classes are undergoing enormous expansion, opportunities for gathering experience in political self-administration remain highly limited. The European tradition defined as the "middle" of society and, as a result, the self-image of the middle classes regarding their basic political and social constellations is shaped by the ambivalent boundary shared with those above and the efforts to mark distinctions separating one from those below. In most regions of the world in which the new middle classes are expanding, the question arises whether such frontline positions also exist with respect to those above the middle class.

What determines who belongs to the higher class and does it include capitalist property owners with large holdings, political elites in the state apparatus or the military or functionaries in political parties? And what are the goals and challenges in marking distinctions towards those in lower positions?

Max Weber highlighted the groundbreaking potential of Protestantism. Bernhard Groethuysen, in contrast, emphasized that dissociating oneself from religious prescriptions was a precondition for the genesis of a bourgeois life view. The middle classes should not be reduced to a global enrichissez-vous. The perceived need for a reliable legal framework, political stability, cultural diversity, and opportunities for individual development are older and deeper in their origins and bind people together more intensely than mere socio-economic goals — and they have been shown to be attractive beyond their historical source in old Europe.

Whether the growth of the middle classes leads to social units that can also develop into forces for political action is something that remains to be seen. Versions: 1. Copyright c Clio-online e. SomeProperty:: , [[]] und kann somit nicht als Name oder Teil einer Abfragebedingung verwendet werden. Hettling buerger v1 en Aus Docupedia. Wechseln zu: Navigation , Suche. Close Print. Gustave Caillebotte, Rue de Paris, temps de pluie, Bremen's Schaffermahlzeit , ; this oldest Brudermahl freemason dinner worldwide symbolizes the ties between the shipping trade and merchants.

Bremen Town Hall, 13 February , photo: rudimente. Arrival of merchants at Leipzig central train station between 2 and 7 September Not just desk work — the varied forms of white-collar work. Recommended Reading. Budde, Gunilla Hrsg. Gall, Lothar Hrsg. Hettling, Manfred Hrsg.

Quote as. Literaturempfehlungen 7. Mau, Steffen, Lebenschancen: wohin driftet die Mittelschicht? Tenfelde, Klaus Hrsg. Ziegler, Dieter Hrsg. Web-Ressourcen 3. Rezensionen Budde, G. Hettling, M. Pernau, M. Muslime in Delhi Melitta Waligora. Plumpe, W. Sarasin, P. Schulz, A. Ziegler, D. Tagungsberichte 4. Jahrhundert, Hamburg Jahrhundert in internationaler Perspektive, Loccum Wertewandel zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne, Mainz In English there are various terms that are commonly used in different contexts citizen, burgher, burgess, freeman.

On the various semantic and terminological traditions, see Reinhart Koselleck et al. An informative and at the same vivid account of the Athenian democracy and the role of the citizen is found in Christian Meier, Die Entstehung des Politischen bei den Griechen , Frankfurt a. Compensation for those who held political offices and especially for those paid for their military service as rowers on the ships of the Delian League meant that citizens without property could also participate in the polity politically and above all militarily.

It fails to address the fact that political as well as social rights existed in the premodern societas civilis sive res publica : Thomas H. This is also why the rights of citizens and human rights were formulated, which linked aspects of the law of states and natural law. Jahrhundert , Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Jahrhundert , in: Kocka ed. Frauen arbeiten. Standes, in: Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert 32 , pp. Jahrhundert, vol. Rainer Lepsius ed. Beck, , p. Feuerbach: texts. Feuerbach's philosophy in general. Feuerbach and Hegel. Feuerbach and religion. Feuerbach's anthropology, species-being and anti-individualism in Feuerbach.

Feuerbach's political thought, his humanism and civic humanism. Feuerbach and Marx. Feuerbach and Stirner. Stirner and Marx. Hess and Marx. Proudhon and Marx. Marx's early development as a whole Early political writings as a whole State and law in the early political writings Letter to his father Doctoral Dissertation and preparatory notebooks : general. Doctoral dissertation and preparatory notebooks : political interpretations. Rheinische Zeitung articles Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State 'Kreuznach manuscript' On the Jewish Question Separation of state and civil society.

French Revolution in Marx. Democracy, republicanism and politics in the early Marx. Judaism and Marx. Religion: Marx's critique. Marxist sociology of religion. Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Notes on James Mill: text-critical accounts and reception histories. Economic theory in the writings. Species-being: general.

Species-being as a normative ground, perfectionism in Marx, normativity in the young Marx. Species-being and Aristotle. Species-being as self-creation, Marx and the posthuman and transhuman. Species-being and consciousness. Species-being and collective intentionality. Species-being and human biology, life in Marx.

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    Kantian ethics and Marx. Kantian socialism. Critique of morality and humanism in the later Marx. Class consciousness and revolutionary subjectivity. Rational choice approaches to class action and class consciousness, collective action in Marxism. Class struggle as a moral struggle.

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    Adorno and the critique of instrumental reason: Habermas's critique. Adorno and reification, fetishism. Adorno on identity thinking, ideology and Ursprungsphilosophie. Adorno and ethics. Adorno and psychoanalysis. Marcuse and Heidegger. Labour in Marcuse and the Frankfurt School. Consumerism and consumer capitalism. Existentialism and Marx. Sartre and Marx. Merleau-Ponty and Marx. Althusser: general. Althusser's anti-humanism and assertion of the structural determination of human actions. Althusser on ideology and interpellation.

    Praxis group. Ilyenkov Ilieknov, Il'enkov. Ilyenkov on the ideal. Debord, Vaneigem and situationism. Operaismo and Autonomist Marxism. Analytical Marxism. Rational choice Marxism and methodological individualist Marxism: general. Japanese Marxism, including Uno school. Critical realism and Marxism.

    Post-Marxism and radical democracy, Laclau and Mouffe. Open Marxism. Anti-capitalist movement and Marx. Luxury communism. Kierkegaard and Marx, Kierkegaard and Feurbach. Nietszche and Marx. Weber and Marx. Phenomenological Marxism. Husserl and Marx. Heidegger and Marx.

    Michael Heinrich on Jenny Marx (with Port./Span./German and English subtitles)

    Dewey and Marx. Schutz and Marx. Weil and Marx. Arendt and Marx. Fromm and Marx. Wittgenstein and Marx. Foucault and Marxism. Postmodernism and Marx. Derrida and Marx. Baudrillard and Marx. Habermas and Marx. Lacan and Marx. MacIntyre and Marx. Agamben and Marx. Honneth and Marx. Cornu, A. Specifically for species-being and Aristotle see 'Species-being and Aristotle'.

    Lobkowicz, N. Gould, Carol C. Mansfield, H. Miller, R. Patten eds Marx and Morality. Depew, D. Meikle ed. Gilbert, A. Ball and J. Farr eds After Marx. Springborg, P. Kain, Philip J. McCarthy, G. Mewes, H. Knight ed The MacIntyre Reader , Katz, C. Pike, J. Giddy, P. Burns, T. Which Marx? Ethics, law and justice in Aristotle and in Marx', Imprints 8 2. Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus , especially ch.

    Michael Hardt, Timothy Murphy, Balibar, Etienne [] Spinoza and Politics , tr. Peter Snowdon, Montag, Warren 'Spinoza: politics in a world without transcendence', Rethinking Marxism 2 3. Smith, Steven B. Hull, Gordon 'Marx's anomalous reading of Spinoza', Interpretation 28 1. See also 'Rights and the rule of law'. Blackburn, R. See also A social and political philosophy bibliography : 'Rousseau and critical theory'. Rousseau [] Discourse on the Origins of Inequality. Rousseau [] The Social Contract , book 1 chs. Rotenstreich, N. Della Volpe, G. Meszaros, Istvan Marx's Theory of Alienation , pp.

    Althusser, L. Lecercle, J. Wokler, R. Miller and L. Siedentop eds. West, E. Baumol, W. Marx on business, morality and the social interest', The American Economist 61 1. For Rawls see 'Rawls and Marx'. Adler, M. Kamenka, E. Levine, Andrew 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8, pp. Howard, D. Hoffman, P.

    Nielsen, K. Booth, W. Beiner and W. Woei Lien Chong Karatani, K. Negt, O. Lukacs, Georg [] 'Reification and the consciousness of the proletariat', part 2 'The antinomies of bourgeois thought', in his History and Class Consciousness. Adorno, Theodore [] Problems of Moral Philosophy , tr. Adorno, Theodore [] 'Subject and object', in A. Arato and E. O'Connor ed The Adorno Reader Humboldt, W. Geuss, Raymond History and Illusion in Politics , pp. Chomsky, N. Guerin, Anarchism: From Theory to Practice.

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    Lukes, S. Levin, M. White, J. Garaudy, R. Mader, J. Becker, F. Rockmore, T. Shen, Z. For alienation in Hegel vs. See the Hegel's critics page of the Marxist Internet Archive for a collection of online appreciations and critiques of Hegel by Marxists. Cooper, R. Nichols Colletti, Lucio [] Marxism and Hegel , tr. Althusser, Louis [] For Marx , tr. Arthur, Christopher J. Boger, G. Rosenthal, J. Postone, Moishe 'Lukacs and the dialectical critique of capitalism', section 3, in R.

    Albritton and J. Simoulidis eds New Dialectics and Political Economy. Cole, A. Chitty, Andrew 'Hegel and Marx', in S. Houlgate and M. Baur eds A Companion to Hegel. Marx and Engels [] The Holy Family. Marx [] The Poverty of Philosophy , ch. Marx [] Afterword to edition of Capital volume 1. Burns and I. Fraser eds The Hegel-Marx Connexion , Chitty and M. With thanks to James Furner. Savigny, F. Wesenberg Savigny's Marburg lecture notes. Hugo, G. Jhering, R. Kantorowicz, H. Wieacker, F. Allen, C. Jones, J. Toews, J. Whitman, J. Brutti, M. See ' A Hegel bibliography : 'Savigny and Hegel'.

    See also 'Sate and law in the early political writings '. For Gans and Savigny see 'Gans'. See also 'Law in the early political writings'. Marx [wr. Marx [Oct ] 'Debates on the law on theft of wood', CW1 pp. Marx [] Grundrisse , 'Forms which precede capitalist production' Penguin edition pp. Marx, Ethnographical Notebooks. Vigouroux, C. Jaeger, H. Landau, P. Paul, W. Kelley, D. Levine, N. Stahl, F. Riedel ed Materialien zu Hegels Rechtsphilosophie Wiegand, C. Drucker, P. Including Gans-Savigny relation. Gans, E. Braun, J. Waszek, N. Texte und Documente. Hoffheimer, M. Breckman, W.

    See also 'Utopianism and Marx'. See also A political philosophy bibliography : 'socialism and communism'. Engels, F. Tucker, R. Rihs, C. Gregory, D. Levitas, R. Engels, Friedrich [] 'The progress of social reform on the continent'. Hess, Moses [] 'Socialism and communism', review of L. Avineri, How Fourier's social theory exerted a significant and problematic influence on the formation of Marx's anthropology and social critique', British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21 6.

    See also 'Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx'. Harris, A. Molnar, T. Altman, A. Geoghegan, Vincent 'Marxism and utopianism', Utopian Studies 1. Geoghegan, Vincent ] Utopianism and Marxism , 2nd ed. Webb, D. See also Ralph Dumain's Young Hegelians bibliography. Brazill, W. Massey, J. Jaeschke, W. Macintosh, R. Stuke, H. Studien zur Verwirklichung der Philosophie bei den Junghegelianern und wahren Sozialisten. Cesa, C. Sass, H. Massey, M. Essbach, W. Hellman, R. Marcuse, Herbert Reason and Revolution , part 2 ch. Hook, Sidney From Hegel to Marx , 2nd ed.

    Solomon and K. Higgins eds Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume 6: The Age of German Idealism. Marcuse, L. Reeves, N.


    Kouvelakis, S. Strauss, D. George Eliot, ed. Hodgson Massey Harris, H. Cieszkowski, A. Stepelevich ed The Young Hegelians Liebich, A. Stepelevich, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, Two excerpts in L. Bauer, Bruno [spring ] Die gute Sache der Freiheit und meine eigene Angelegenheit [The good cause of freedom and my own affair], Aalen, Bauer, Bruno [early ] The Jewish Problem , tr. Lederer, Abridged as 'The Jewish question' in L. Bauer, Bruno [] 'The capacity of present-day Jews and Christians to become free', Philosophical Forum 8 , Trejo Stepelevich ed The Young Hegelians attack on Feuerbach.

    Schacht Sass a collection of Bauer's articles from to For Marx's 'On the Jewish Question', see that. Barnikol, E. Reimer and H. Sass, van Gorcum, Essen. Pepperle, I. Moggach, Douglas. Waser, R. Philosophie des Rechts , ed. Reichelt, Stepelevich ed The Young Hegelians. Walter, S. Feuerbach internet archive is the best source of online Feuerbach texts in English. Ralph Dumain's Feuerbach bibliography has some items not included here. Ludwig-Feuerbach-Gesellschaft Ludwig Feuerbach Society website has links and a bibliography of recent German-language literature on Feuerbach.

    International Society of Feuerbach Researchers website has some online articles on Feuerbach. Feuerbach, L. Thies, Frankfurt, Butler ed Hegel: The Letters. Massey, Bayer"' review of K. Leo's attack on Hegel as unChristian; his last text to defend Hegelianism. Stepelevich ed The Young Hegelians , also in Z.

    Hanfi ed The Fiery Brook Reiff, The Beginning of Philosophy , in Z. Vogel , reprinted with introduction by T. Wartenberg ; also in also in Z. Hanfi ed The Fiery Brook , Hanfi translation available online. Cherno