It is my view that the postmodern is less a distinct, new, or surpassable period than the modern, in various ways, coming up against its limits. It is just possible, for example, that like the postmodern, the modern also surfaces other than as an era. Don Barry et al. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Philosophical Perspectives 17 otherness , relationships, and responsibility. It seems to me that Marion would agree with at least part of this approach, and that he can be well situated within it.
Structuralism and Poststructuralism What, then, is poststructuralism? By this name are partly characterised those theoretical movements that might be seen as responding to, or coming after, structuralism. Structuralism emerges from an analysis of language that emphasises its functioning as a system. To give a very simple example, structuralist analysis of the literary genre of fairytales yields a certain number of functions that are represented by various characters across all fairytales.
An analysis of a newly uncovered fairytale would be carried out in terms of those functions. It is possible to see from this example why psychology developed in some ways as a type of structural analysis. Particular human behaviours could be understood in terms of more general, underlying, subconscious structures that would determine them. One of the advantages of structuralism is that it enables us to think of meaning in terms of relationships, rather than essences.
But by the time that Marion reached university, poststructuralism was in the ascendancy. Where structuralism emphasises the predetermined, poststructuralism tends to swing the other way, resisting this limitation of meaning by focusing on the irreducibly 12 While Saussure never wrote a book, his lectures were collected and published as Ferdinand de Saussure, A Course in General Linguistics, trans. Roy Harris, eds. Halls London: Routledge, Marion frequently refers to the history of metaphysics and gives very detailed analyses of metaphysics in various modes, but here we basically follow the sketch of three metaphysical moments from the opening chapter of In Excess.
In any overview of metaphysics it is common to begin with Aristotle, although of course much Greek philosophy prior to Aristotle had concerned itself with the question of the ultimate nature of reality. Philosophy for Aristotle is the science of being onta in so far as it is being hence, ontology , but in particular, it has to do with knowledge bearing on ultimate and unchanging being—the divine. On the other hand, essence, which is used to signify what something is, tends to connote static Platonic form, and is eventually rendered meaningless.
Simon Critchley and William R. Philosophical Perspectives 19 ousia itself, because of its close links with parousia, comes to mean presence, a point also noted by Marion. The transphysical things are discovered by the process of analysis, as the more common are discovered after the less common. John P. Rowan, vol. I, II vols. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, God has frequently been thought as the foundation of being, or as the highest being.
Metaphysics as it emerges in modernity relates to the priority of epistemology, that is, to dependence on the thinking subject and its capacity to found knowledge of what is. The former famously uses methodological doubt to establish the certainty of the ego—which he thinks substantially—even if he still uses God to guarantee the existence of the world. But even Kant can be pressed to think in excess of the system, as his work on the sublime illustrates.
Western philosophy is metaphysics in any number of guises. As it becomes more and more aware of its epistemological limits, however, and as regional sciences take over so much of the ground once considered to be its domain, philosophy enters a new phase of crisis. Before undertaking an analysis of the possible problems of metaphysics, we turn to consider, at some length, aspects of this latter path.
Some of these shifts have only become apparent with the posthumous publication of much of his work. Husserl abandoned along the way as many routes as he took. William P. Boyce Gibson, vol. Edward G. Ballard and Lester E. Nauwelaerts, xx—xxi, ff. See Kockelmans, A First Introduction xxii—xxiii and xxiiin. In a particular sense, phenomenology can be seen to overcome the dichotomy of realist and idealist perspectives, since it is a systematic focus on the nexus of consciousness and world.
Lived experience is the experience of consciousness, and within consciousness, the world is given as my lived experience. To effectively study the world, I must take into account the way that it appears in my lived experience. This does not mean that the reality of the world is denied, since it remains simultaneously both that within consciousness and that which transcends consciousness. Husserl does not want to explain the data of consciousness in terms of psychic elements, that is, in terms of individual psychological events in the mind of the thinker.
That position is what he rejects as psychologism, which is a type of empiricism. Findlay, vol. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Intentionality Consciousness is structured by two features. In fact, apprehension is a second movement. Moran, in Introduction to Phenomenology If Husserl values most highly the presence of the thing itself, more especially the presence of mental objects as a result of insight, he is not taking into account that this presence can never be the presence of anything more than a sign. In other words, Husserl does not acknowledge that ideas are signs, which are re-presentations rather than presentations.
What role does presence play in Husserlian phenomenology, and what is the relationship of presence to evidence? Husserl recognises that the presence of a sense object in contrast to an object of categorial intuition will always be imperfect, that is, subject to a succession of intuitions that are only partial and that therefore might affect the quality of evidence. As Ricoeur points out in his discussion of the Cartesian Meditations, this suggests that the focus of phenomenology may in fact be on the object rather than its noematic correlate.
At the same time, however, Ricoeur argues that this tension is ultimately resolved in favour of transcendental consciousness. See also the translation from p. How can the unity of the object be anything other than a claimed unity? Is the originary, the adumbration, presented at each instant? The thing is present itself. Time-Consciousness The second overall structural feature of consciousness is the consciousness of time.
Yet cf. James S. Churchill The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, Introducing Phenomenology 31 impression, it takes on a difference from it only in the mode of its givenness, which becomes past. Static and Genetic Phenomenology; Active and Passive Genesis Two of the particular problems that emerge for explication by Husserl are how the ego constitutes itself, and how another person is constituted in experience.
Static phenomenology refers to the basic intentional analyses carried out by phenomenology, where what is under examination is considered relatively simply in terms of its manifestation and authentication. Under the general heading of genetic phenomenology, Husserl has in mind two forms of genesis, active and passive. See Bernet et al. The intention in thus regarding them is to clarify the sense and validity of these objects by means of regressing to their systems of manifestation … and authentication … within the consciousness by which they are primordially given ….
Self-Constitution It is now possible to return to the question of how the ego constitutes itself. Yet Husserl nevertheless maintains the importance of being able to identify the ego in its unity, and being able to distinguish it from other egos. The reduction to the sphere of ownness involves bracketing even these experiences, so that I am left with nothing more than experience which is exclusively my own, including experience of myself as belonging to nature through having a body.
It is these other monads who actually make the experience of an objective world possible. Husserl argues that we never directly experience the other as another ego. See Chapter 9 of the present text for a discussion of Marion on this point. In addition, the alter ego is recognised as such in conjunction with the experience of the other as a body that does not coincide with mine here but coexists with it over there. How Marion deals with this and other problems in phenomenology will be observed in later chapters. A virtue has to be our invention, our most personal defence and necessity: in any other sense it is merely a danger.
Convictions are prisons. The end of the moral interpretation of the world, which no longer has any sanction after it has tried to escape into some beyond, leads to nihilism. Metaphysics fails because the framework for ultimate reality that it provides can be shown to be nothing more than a construction, a construction in which we have heavily invested. The attempts of philosophy or religion to give meaning to life are, for Nietzsche, entirely empty, futile expressions emerging from fear in the face of an indifferent universe.
Hollingdale Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, — Walter Kaufman and R.
Hollingdale New York: Vintage Books, 7. To a metaphysical cosmos ordered by truth, the real, and a reasoned moral framework, Nietzsche brings the chaos of judgement and perspective, chaos that at times threatens to be overwhelming, given the vitriolic style with which it emerges in his work. It is he who admittedly, in the name of being protests the thinking of God as highest being— most substantial, causa sui, most present, ultimate ground. The philosophy against which Heidegger writes asserts the dominance of an apparently objective, theoretical understanding; the potency but isolation of the subject; and the hardening of things and relationships into what can be manipulated and controlled.
The phenomenological method that he inherits and then develops seeks to take into account what it means, instead, to be situated always and already as part of the world. For Heidegger, to be human is to be caught up in a network of relationships that is without beginning or foundation, and whose end lies beyond the realm of experience. And while we may judge that Heidegger does not escape metaphysics entirely, his way of thinking opens up in many respects the space for questions that might be called postmodern.
In the work of the early Heidegger, it is not metaphysics as such but the way that metaphysics has been undertaken, and particularly its epistemological dimension, that comes under attack. Metaphysics, i. Metaphysics addresses four main questions: 1. Postmodern Imperatives 37 and his whole purpose is to elaborate a thinking of being that is otherwise than according to traditional metaphysics. But all these remain uninterrogated as to their Being and its structure, in accordance with the thoroughgoing way in which the question of Being has been neglected. My references are to the Macquarrie and Robinson translation unless otherwise noted.
Albert Hofstadter, Rev. Hofstadter does not distinguish Sein by using a capital. Any quotations included in this text will follow the style of the source. Other references will utilise only the lower case. Nevertheless, this is a phenomenology very different from that of his teacher, Husserl. Heidegger claims that Husserlian phenomenology is too focused on the ontic in terms of the essence 11 Heidegger, Being and Time On Heidegger and the logos, see Heidegger, Being and Time Postmodern Imperatives 39 of the object, objectness instead of the ontological being as being.
Being and the structure of Being lie beyond every entity and every possible character which an entity may possess. In the work of Derrida and Marion there are lingering doubts about whether Heidegger has overcome metaphysics, and in Derrida, even doubts about whether it is at all possible to overcome metaphysics entirely. If we compare the two thinkers in broad terms, Husserl is interested—at the micro-level—in ideational essences, or the ways in which meanings are presented, whereas Heidegger is interested in meaning-structures, and only to the extent that they point towards the macro-level of meaning as a whole.
To claim that Husserl is still involved in a metaphysical enterprise is to say that he is still searching for what is as essence, even if not substance, and on the basis of an intending and constituting subject. In contrast, Heidegger is often engrossed with the question of that—what does it mean that it is? And in his response he resists attempting to answer why, which is one of 17 Heidegger, Being and Time Walter Kaufman, Existentialism from Dostoyevsky to Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufman, Existentialism from Dostoyevsky to Sartre. This time he fears that the reduction to being has been made absolute, with a consequent lack of attention to what resists or exceeds being, most particularly the other person.
Paris: Vrin, , parts of which are translated as Discovering Existence with Husserl, trans. Richard A. Cohen and Michael B. Postmodern Imperatives 41 constituted by the call of the other rather than self-constituting. At this point it becomes pertinent to reintroduce more explicitly the work of Derrida, whose early writing was devoted to the extensive critical examination of Husserl. For Derrida, there is little doubt that Husserl exhibits many of the tendencies of metaphysical thought.
His critique of Husserl has two main thrusts. The reduction, therefore for Derrida, cannot capture, within temporal lived experience, the absolute constituting source: genesis. Leavey, Jr. David B. In the lackluster guise of a technique, the Reduction is only pure thought as that delay, pure thought investigating the sense of itself as delay within philosophy. To restate the famous example from Being and Time, a hammer has meaning for us not as a heavy piece of metal, in a particular shape, attached to a handle, but as that which hammers when we take it and use it.
This does not mean that there can be no novelty, but that even novelty requires a pre- interpretative context if it is to be appropriated. According to Heidegger, the genius of the artist lies in his ability to elicit, in a new 32 Derrida, Speech and Phenomena 4—5. To appreciate the painting requires not only the ability to recognise shoes as such, but also an understanding of the context of peasant life of the era in which the painting is set. Text refers us to a whole system of meaning. To say that there is nothing outside the text is, therefore, to say that it is not possible for a human being to stand outside the human system of meaning.
We are always and already implicated in that system, which is what Heidegger suggests by the hermeneutic circle. But to say that there is nothing outside the text is also to say that we do not have access to reality apart from our engagement in language. In other words, reality is always and already mediated: we inhabit a symbolic order.
There are several important implications to be drawn from this understanding of textuality. Meaning depends on signs being repeatable, or iterable. What is different from cat is always implied in it as a trace. I will never be able to separate the word from all the structural differences it implies. The meaning of the word will always depend on the context, and since I cannot foresee all contexts in advance, I can never, strictly speaking, fence off all the possible shades of meaning that it might invoke. This has fascinating consequences. The terms are mutually exclusive, and in any given context usually one is privileged over and against the other—we are forced to choose between terms.
The attempt to make male normative and absolute, for example, is always unsettled by the ghost of female which is needed in order for male to be male. Similarly, presence is never the full presence of metaphysical dreams. It is always interrupted by absence, by a withdrawal or removal that forbids us from seizing it and grasping it. Presentation is always re- presentation; meaning is never absolute for us, even if it is for God. Barbara Johnson, Dissemination, ed. Postmodern Imperatives 45 language hence the problem with a commitment to a realist ontology, where the beyond can actually only be posited within a continuous horizon of being.
This is simply another way of saying that any appeal to a ground must remain only that— an appeal. Unless we are to sink into the most empty cynicism, this would be an absurd gesture to make. On the other hand, if it were to be recognised, not that there is no meaning, and not that there is every meaning, but that making meaning involves judgements, choices, and decisions, then deconstruction could bring us to the point of discerning the ethical and appreciating the nature of faith. Deconstruction would have an ethical dimension in our seeking to uncover choices that had been made, and subsequently, voices that had been repressed.
There is nothing outside the text, but the text is constantly exceeded by what cannot be reduced to reason or to measure or to a ground. Does Derrida thereby overcome the problems of metaphysics? There is a particular sense in which this is the wrong question to ask: Derrida uncovers the metaphysical presuppositions of texts while at the same time recognising that in writing or speaking, or thinking we never entirely free ourselves from some kind of metaphysical commitment. Metaphysics is interrupted rather than overcome. It is to step into the abyss of what is undecidable, on the basis of a judgement or an assent.
Deconstructive critique would never offer advice on which choice to make, but neither would it deny that such a choice was often necessary, nor forbid that such a choice be made. It is for this reason that the simple opposition of deconstruction to Christian faith is not very helpful. In its attempts to think its own ground—usually God or the self—it is confronted by the falseness of its sense of security, since the God it invokes and the self it names can be seen to be nothing more than empty projections of the will.
And yet if we look closely, metaphysics is constantly haunted by the other. The problem of how to think otherness without turning it into more of the same is relevant, too, both for phenomenology and for theology, in so far as they can be implicated in metaphysics. In the remainder of the present text, we basically follow the strategies Marion employs in order to think alterity. In this regard, he makes use of four basic theological motifs: distance, the icon, love, and the gift.
God enters into thought as distance, gives Godself to contemplation in the icon, is only to be known as and through love, and this more particularly as a gift of love. Drawing from Chapter 4, metaphysics founders because none of these foundations can be absolute for thought, because each relies on the presumption of a presence to consciousness a coincidence between being and meaning that cannot ultimately be sustained. This fracturing of presence highlights the way in which the world is constructed or mediated by language, rather than described by it. In other words, does the theology that Marion develops repeat the moves of metaphysics or subvert them?
At the most basic level, distance seems to refer to the absolute difference between God and humanity. In other words, distance operates to mark the non-coincidence of God with any concept of God. But because it is a spatial metaphor, this marking does not always work to best effect: it can seem to suggest that God and humanity are at either end of a continuum. This is so in the examples that will be considered shortly. At the same time, however, he will often suggest that distance can be recognised, and it frequently comes to be recognised in his work as God. See also The Idol and Distance Brian McNeil, vol.
III: Creator Spirit, 4 vols. The creature does not run up against God as its proper limit, but turns in the horizon of its own presensing [sic]. Allison Peers, 3rd rev. Graham Harrison, vol. IV: The Action, 5 vols. II, at pp. Aidan Nichols, Rev. Eerdmans, 12— In the loving obedience that leads the Son to extreme abandonment, the most radical reversal takes place: there is a passage from death to eternal life, from extreme distance to extreme nearness. Eerdmans, However frightening the alienation contained in the sinful distance of the world from God may be, it can be annulled, and this can take place only in the difference of the divine hypostases.
So we read that desire for the other as Other: … has another intention; it desires beyond everything that can simply complete it. It is a generosity nourished by the Desired, and thus a relationship that is not the disappearance of distance, but a bringing together, or—to circumscribe more closely the essence of generosity and of goodness—a relationship whose positivity comes from remoteness, from separation, for it nourishes itself, one might say, with its hunger.
Emphasis added. Like Balthasar, Marion also refers to the distance that constitutes the trinitarian relations. Distance is also explored in relation to sexual difference. Yet frequently, this distance is misunderstood: time serves to put humanity at a distance from the distance that is the condition of all relations with God. But it is also that capacity and that participation. Distance which is love can only be received and never conceived ….
This is essentially the question that was raised at the beginning of this chapter. What this means for the disciples is that manifestation only ever coincides with disappearance. Disclosure is only ever offered subject to a distance that forbids recuperation. This is the paper and subsequent debate at Villanova. A Theology of Distance 57 Once again, our key question must be brought to bear on the text, although here in reverse.
Since distance is seen to function only in withdrawal or interruption , how are we to identify God there at all? We will be able to speak of it only if we come from it and remain in it. To speak of distance: concerning it, and also starting from it. But what language can be suitable to distance? It is not a question of speaking the supreme Being within a predication of which it would be the object. Nor is it a question of letting the supreme Being, as absolute subject, state a predication about itself and by itself. It is a question of designating the advent of a withdrawal to us.
No being, even supreme, gives itself to be grasped, since the gift surpasses what any being could here give. Doubly unspeakable, this stake is characterised no less by the very conditions of its ineffability. As a censure and as a condition, distance requires one to think the doubly unthinkable according to excess … and according to lack …. But it is this very characteristic of excessiveness that both refers us to God in distance and yet simultaneously forbids absolute reference. Not simply subject or object at the other end of a spatial continuum, God might nevertheless be thought excessively as the spacing itself.
In other words, distance is grace. When viewed in this way, some of the features of the earlier articles fall into place more readily. What is given in the divine—human relationship is distance grace as the possibility of receptivity, grace as our participation in God, grace as Goodness. It exceeds our ability to conceptualise, and though it is the Name, it eludes our naming with its many names. Further on in the chapter on Denys in The Idol and Distance, it is not such a surprise, then, to read: The distance of the Ab-solute precedes every utterance and every statement by an anteriority that nothing will be able to abolish.
Anterior distance escapes every conception. But precisely, must distance be conceived? Anterior distance conceives us because it engenders us. Distance is not given to be understood, since it understands us. Anterior distance demands to be received because it more fundamentally gives us [the chance] to receive ourselves in it. Distance, precisely because it remains the Ab-solute, delivers the space where it becomes possible for us to receive ourselves … We discover ourselves, in distance, delivered to ourselves, or rather delivered for ourselves, given, not abandoned, to ourselves.
This means that distance does not separate us from the Ab-solute so much as it prepares for us, with all its anteriority, our identity. It denotes, therefore, the positive movement of the Ab-solute, which, through its being set in distance, is ecstatically disappropriated from Itself in order that man might receive himself ecstatically in difference. This is the true knowledge of what is sought; this is the seeing that consists in not seeing, because that which is sought transcends all knowledge, being separated on all sides by incomprehensibility as by a kind of darkness.
But one must always, by looking at what he can see, rekindle his desire to see more. Malherbe and E. Ferguson, Gregory of Nyssa. The Life of Moses. We do not perceive distance, but are held in it and by it. It is neither subject, nor object: it is not any thing. Marion then goes on to compare distance to ontological difference.
See also Derrida, Given Time Samuel Weber, Religion, eds. Ilse N. But it is also that which protects those relationships from totalisation, that is, it prevents us from reducing the other divine or human, or even work of art to our own dimensions. However, distance is used in its strongest sense to mean God, or grace, the self-giving of whom resists comprehension even while pointing towards the origin of such excess. Yet if that is the case, our key problem again emerges: if distance absolutely refers us to God, then the very transcendence it is designed to protect is betrayed.
Sections of those texts will be highlighted in later chapters. Chapter 6 The Icon, Love, and the Gift The examination of distance in the previous chapter was undertaken in some detail. A shift is evident in how Marion conceives the idol and icon, for example, as his work becomes more explicitly phenomenological. Issues surrounding love and the gift will therefore only be noted in a preliminary way.
Similar material sets up the approach in God Without Being. An idol becomes so only because it functions as such in the eye of the beholder, and is there subject to the limitations of that perspective. Ideas also function as idols in this way. Nevertheless, Marion argues that in making this reference, the icon does not thereby contain it.
The background to his thinking on this issue is found in the work of John Damascene, Apologia Against Those Who Decry Holy Images, in which comments by many other patristic writers are also drawn together, including observations by Basil of Caesaria, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, and Denys. I do not worship matter; I worship the Creator of matter who became matter for my sake … Never will I cease honouring the matter which wrought my salvation!
I honor it, but not as God. Another important resource in this regard are the decisions of the Eastern Quinisext Council of See Leonid Ouspensky, Theology of the Icon, trans. Meyendorff Crestwood, NY: St. John of Damascus: On the Divine Images 7—12, 8—9. Power is not divided, nor is glory separated. Just as He who rules us is one power, so the homage He receives from us is united, not divided, for the honor given to the image is transferred to the prototype. Therefore, the One whom the image materially represents is He who is Son by nature. Just as the likeness of a corresponding form is made by the artists, so also in the divine and unconfused nature, union is accomplished by divine indwelling.
If, therefore, the Word of God, in providing for our every need, always presents to us what is intangible by clothing it with form, does it not accomplish this by making an image using what is common to nature and so bringing within our reach that for which we long but are unable to see? First, in the same way that Marion refers to conceptual idols, he also thinks more broadly than the visual by referring to conceptual icons, and this will form the basis of much of his theology. In response to the problem of how to think God without falling into idolatry, Marion maintains that it is possible, not through the traditional metaphysical route that focuses on being, but through the mystical route of love, which is explored in God Without Being.
What is made visible in the icon is the gaze of the invisible other, who looks at my gaze, or whose look crosses my gaze. While this might seem to be an obvious understanding, it is rarely expressed in the literature. To come before the icon is to allow oneself to be overcome by the irreducible, inconceivable other who gazes upon me. There is a relationship between the icon and distance. Nevertheless, while Baggley goes on to say that the face is in communion with the beholder, he also comments that the eyes of the icon look inward, away from the world My thanks to Lawrence Cross for his insights on the centrality of the eyes for iconographers and defacing the eyes for the iconoclasts , as well as on the links with Palmyran art.
In this way, the invisible interrupts or subverts the visible. Nevertheless, we need to ask to what extent the reference to invisibility by way of the icon is absolute for Marion: if the icon reduces the invisible to visibility, then we risk thinking it as visible or conceivable. Marion goes some way towards addressing this question in an examination of the functioning of the Cross, which serves both as an icon in its own right icon of Christ and, in turn, icon of God and as a measure of all icons. For every human face is an icon.
Beneath all the masks, all the ashes, every human being, however ravaged he or she may be by his or her destiny … carries within him or her the pearl of great price, this hidden face. During the liturgies in an Orthodox church, when the priest censes the people, he censes every individual Christian, and in every individual Christian he censes the possibility, the opportunity, of the icon, in some sense or other, the chance of the ultimate beauty, of true beauty.
See also my discussion in Rethinking God as Gift — Marion argues that the cross is an icon of Christ, and in that way invokes a more focused point of withdrawal to invisibility. Love constitutes the content as well as the advancement of faith …. In fact, that is the question of central concern throughout our investigation. What does theology know and how does it know it? Bourg Paris: Cerf, The Icon, Love, and the Gift 67 homogeneous with Love? The unthinkable, as the distance of Goodness, gives itself—not to be comprehended but to be received. It is therefore not a question of giving up on comprehending as if it were a question of comprehending, and not of being comprehended.
It is a question of managing to receive that which becomes thinkable, or rather acceptable, only for the one who knows how to receive it. It is not a question of admitting distance despite its unthinkability, but of preciously receiving the unthinkable, as the sign and the seal of the measureless origin of the distance that gives us our measure. If love reveals itself hermetically as distance which is glossed by cause and goodness in order to give itself, only love will be able to welcome it. It has to do with being comprehended rather than comprehending. Marion makes use in the former of the work of Pascal, for whom love provides a way beyond metaphysics.
Yet the saints, on the contrary, when speaking of things divine, say that we should love them in order to know them, and that we enter into truth only through charity. In God Without Being, it is love that enables us to go beyond not only metaphysics, but also beyond ontological difference.
As we will see, here love is thought of in terms of the gift. The Icon, Love, and the Gift 69 Without Being concerning the priority of Love as the divine name, but there is one further comment that is worthy of note. But this is not to say, Marion argues, that the will thus abandons itself to irrationality.
To this extent, it dazzles the beholder. In proportion to our love, our gaze can open, be it only by blinking, to the evidence of Love. In this proportion also, bedazzlements can become evidence …. In terms of our guiding question of whether what is given is given absolutely, that is, without the need for a hermeneutics, two further comments from Marion are instructive. Here there is no claim for the absoluteness of the given phenomenon in terms of the capacity of the one who receives.
A preliminary investment of love is required in order to see at all, and seeing involves an interpretation. See Marion, Prolegomena This weight is experienced as an always-prior injunction that exposes and obliges me. The Icon, Love, and the Gift 71 constitutable object—it is necessary to resort to charity. Charity in effect becomes a means of knowledge when our concern is with the other, and no longer with objects …. These features are intrinsically related to his other theological motifs: distance, the icon, and the gift.
While Marion claims that loving is not a type of intentionality, he nevertheless maintains that it is a type of knowing, and while it is a knowing that does not have an object, it involves a certain personal recognition. This is, perhaps, the point at which we might continue to question him. But perhaps this is precisely the issue.
Ironically, while it is a constant in his theology, it remains largely unthematised as such in theological contexts. Conley and D. Poe Bloomington: Indiana University Press, The eucharistic gift orders the present according to both past memorial and future advent , making a gift of each moment according to charity, and dispossessing the primacy of the metaphysical here and now. The obvious absence of the giver is not an obstacle to the gift, but a path between the gift, the giver, and the recipient.
Caputo and Michael J. Scanlon Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 54—78, See also ff. The Icon, Love, and the Gift 73 giving in withdrawal can in some ways be compared to Heideggerian Ereignis. Distance again arises in this context as that which is given without thereby being taken over. See also God will always be named, Marion argues, improperly, with a name that cannot appropriate or present God but that functions only pragmatically in prayer. With each of these motifs distance is ultimately invoked as a guarantee of their excessiveness; this places them, more explicitly than we might otherwise observe, within the framework of his attempt to do theology without reinscribing it in metaphysics.
Without this use of distance it is questionable as to what degree each motif can function without its reference to God being in some way made absolute. Having made an initial appraisal of these ideas, we now turn to examine two major texts where Marion claims to overcome metaphysics by way of theology. These works— especially the volumes on Descartes—are not only numerous, but highly specialised and incredibly detailed, often taking the form of very close examinations of particular texts.
Daniel Garber and Michael Ayers, vol. He then uses the theology of Pascal to illustrate the possibilities for overcoming Cartesian metaphysics. In other words, given that metaphysics comes to be understood in different ways, he seeks a measure of metaphysics that can be applied in spite of these different understandings. Reciprocally, beings in their Being can be grounded in their mode of production by the being that excels at accomplishing the Being of all beings.
The Being of beings as such maintains a relation of reciprocal grounding with the being par excellence—though, in each case, the modes of grounding differ …. While it is possible to have an idea of God, which suggests that God, too, is subject to the ego, this is an idea that for Descartes must always remain incomprehensible.
A positive response to this question is prompted by the recognition that Descartes not only thinks being as being known, but also being as being caused. Parkinson London: J. Dent and Sons, This does not mean that its existence has only a successively momentary character, since it is given unity by the duration of thought, a duration that is again understood in terms of the present. Nevertheless, Marion notes that this presence functions to contradict both the event-character of the past and the possibility of the future. In order for the ego to be free, the past and the future must be possible rather than necessary.
With regard to the past, the mind suspends evidence in the present through inattentiveness. Since we are interested not only in the way Descartes exceeds metaphysics, but also and especially in the way he thinks God, we will follow this chapter in some detail. Marion also incorporates a fourth formula, from the Responsiones, which I do not introduce here, for the sake of clarity. Marion again sees these terms as super-eminent, rather than negative.
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He is also working in Latin and French, noting certain discrepancies in translations. These factors mean that it is sometimes not as clear to the English-speaking reader how he has arrived at a particular interpretation of the formulae. Incomprehensibility will even become the surest sign that it is indeed God that the cogitatio knows, in accordance with the rule that nothing divine can be thought except as incomprehensible, and that nothing truly incomprehensible can be offered to the cogitatio without it in the end concerning God.
He proposes to do this by way of two procedures. I, IV. The designations [A], [B], and [C] appear only subsequently in the text. Are the divine names—approached by way of the proofs—ultimately compatible? Marion argues that they are not. Cottingham, The Cambridge Companion to Descartes, ed. Cottingham Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, —99, , This demotion can be compared to the parallel and contemporary abandonment of the doctrine of the creation of the divine truths. This excludes incomprehensibility from God and His creation. The order of the body is transgressed by metaphysics, that is, by thought, the order of the mind.
Yet metaphysics must also be transgressed. Metaphysics can bring about knowledge, but never the perspective of love. These are articulated in terms of its destitutions of truth, being, and philosophy, all of which provide a critical link with issues addressed in contemporary thought as they were outlined earlier in the present volume.
- Fury (The Ghost Wars Saga Book 2)?
- The Wise Man in the Checkered Shirt.
- Il ribelle (Italian Edition).
And with the reduction to charity thought solely on the basis of a religious commitment, we have to wonder how it can be recognised as such, without itself being implicated in the onto-theo-logy it hopes to overcome. While it is evident in a number of texts, here we will examine it in his most well-known and probably most controversial book, God Without Being. Sections of God Without Being concerned with the icon versus the idol, as well as the theme of distance, have already been considered.
In fact, Ward makes the charge in relation to the text we are about to consider, God Without Being. God Without Being sets up this issue more clearly. Marion follows Heidegger in relation to the thinking of God in metaphysics, rather than the thinking of being as such. As observed earlier, Marion argues that the concept of God has been thought idolatrously in modernity both as causa sui and as source of morality. Nevertheless, while the Heideggerian critique helps to expose the idolatry of 3 Marion, God Without Being xxi—xxii.
Thinking Outside Ontological Difference For Heidegger, metaphysics has failed to think ontological difference, the difference between being and beings. Instead, he thinks being as what brings beings into view, but which itself withdraws in the process. God is, exists, and that is the least of things. Marion, he claims, asserts that Heidegger only thinks God within the horizon of being as what ensues from being, a thinking of God that is reductive. Yet Hemming argues that in conceding that God exists, Marion thinks God as a being while at the same time attempting that thought beyond the ontological difference.
When they occur, it is as if they serve only as a grudging concession to the uninitiated, as a bracketed acceptance of the ontological assumptions of theology made solely in order to bring the reader past that point and to the threshold of what really matters. Does Marion succeed in thinking outside ontological difference? Can God be thought outside ontological difference without necessarily being thought as being or as a being, and hence brought back within its scope? In an important passage, Marion explains: The danger that this critical demand may in fact render thought on the whole immediately impossible cannot be minimized.
Indeed, to think outside of ontological difference eventually condemns one to be no longer able to think at all. But precisely, to be no longer able to think, when it is a question of God, indicates neither absurdity nor impropriety, as soon as God himself, in order to be thought, must be thought as … that which surpasses, detours, and distracts all thought, even non-representational. God Without Being 93 meet no theoretical space to his measure, because his measure exerts itself in our eyes as an excessiveness.
But is there then to be a thought of God or not? Is love going to involve a destitution of all thought or simply a new way of thinking? The passage just quoted has many levels of resonance. Nevertheless, the work of Pascal remains troubling in that context, since Pascal claims to render thought destitute by way of charity. Richardson, Heidegger: Through Phenomenology to Thought, 3rd ed. New York: Fordham University Press, Finally, liberation from Being does not mean that one claims to criticize it or revoke it—for that discourse still supposes a logos and a site from which to set it into operation, hence prerogatives of Being.
To go where? Toward what region? To stay on what ontological plane? According to metaphysical theory of discourse, there are only two possible ways. So what exactly is the meaning, the status, the legitimacy of the third way? In this sense it is both possible and impossible: the aporia can be named but not solved. If it exceeds ontological difference, it is because it functions to interrupt that matrix from within, that is, immanently. God Without Being 95 vain for Marion in the light of Revelation. In this sense thought is exposed as foolishness or meaninglessness, or certainly as no longer important in view of the commandment to love.
If ontological difference is exceeded from this perspective, it is because it is no longer a relevant question. Yet we are still left to wonder how a Revelation that exceeds thought and renders it vain is to be given to thought at all. Both perspectives potentially place theology—or theology as it is often understood— in an invidious position.
Better, it becomes clearer that faith is less an exercise in theological certainty than in hermeneutical risk-taking, and that there is a world of difference in between. Within God Without Being, that overcoming is largely undertaken from a theological point of view, where all thought is considered ultimately to be in vain. Nevertheless, as we will see, Marion still invokes a thought of God. There are two questions to be considered. It is to these questions that we now turn. Marion questions the priority given to being as a name for God, preferring to speak of God as love, or loving, rather than being.
They argue that while he certainly names God esse, he never considers God an ens, or even ens in the sense of the created being that beings have in common, ens commune. Marion refers to a range of texts by Thomas, but here he refers to the Summa Theologica, Ia, 13, 11 and Ia, 5, 2. This raises the question for Marion about whether ens is therefore to be understood analogically or univocally of God, since we are thinking of God starting from a human construct.
While Heidegger accuses Thomas of thinking God as being where being is reduced to the being of creatures , and of thinking God as the highest being amongst beings, Caputo makes the observation that neither of these accusations is correct. But it is a genuine being in its own right, because the similitude which it has of the divine being inheres intrinsically in it sibi inhaerens. The created esse formally belongs to the creature. But it originates in God, who is at once the source of all esse principium and the exemplar of all esse, the being which is esse, purely, subsistently, perfectly ….
God is, not an ens, but esse subsistens. Caputo, Heidegger and Aquinas. And secondly, I want to show that for St. Martis examines the Thomistic understanding of analogical predication, where words that refer to God are used neither univocally nor equivocally but analogically. God Without Being 99 name for God. That destitution is expressed in a rethinking of God as the gift of love. Only God can call the nonbeings from death to being: God calls the nonbeings as if they were already beings, not taking into account the difference.
Here God is seen to choose the lowly, the nonbeings, in order to confound the beings. In this passage both sons get to enjoy the property ousia of the father, yet both effectively seek to claim it as their own possession. We see this occurring in different ways in the story: the younger son claims his share of the property while he is young, while the older son works diligently in the expectation that what is rightfully his will come to him in the future.
The crossing of these two lines decidedly distorts the play of being by withdrawing it from Being, by undoing being from the rule of Being. This crossing traces a cross over ontological difference, a cross that abolishes it without deconstructing it, exceeds it without overcoming it, annuls it without annihilating it, distorts it without contesting its right. First trans. God Without Being difference, Marion has in fact already stated his conclusions much earlier in the text: God can give himself to be thought without idolatry only starting from himself alone: to give himself to be thought as love, hence as gift; to give himself to be thought as a thought of the gift.
Or better, as a gift for thought, as a gift that gives itself to be thought. But a gift, which gives itself forever, can be thought only by a thought that gives itself to the gift to be thought. Only a thought that gives itself can devote itself to a gift for thought. But, for thought, what is it to give itself, if not to love? It seems that the theological destitution of thought metaphysics, but also the thought of ontological difference still requires, for Marion, a thought that is not in vain—the thought of the gift.
How does this thought function? Yet how are we to be brought to the point of recognition of the gift of love? Marion tells us that we glimpse the crossing of being by love only rarely.
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Following an analogous path to Heidegger in Being and Time, Marion observes that particular moods offer us different perspectives on the meaning of the world. The world can strike us as completely meaningless or vain, for example, from the perspective of boredom or from that of melancholy. Now, the contrary of moods such as these is love, for love is a complete investment in meaning, whereas boredom or melancholy open upon a complete absence of meaning. Nevertheless, love itself can strike the world with vanity, in that all meaning comes to be bound up in the loved one and the lover becomes completely indifferent to the delights or otherwise of the world: Vanity covers as much what love includes in its exclusionary logic as what is excluded by this same love.
The difference does not at all pass between beings and nonbeings … it passes between love itself and the world—being—by itself. But once again, how is this not just to overcome metaphysics by a Nietzschean movement of the will? It thus appears as an assertion of a new foundation that risks reincorporation into metaphysics. It is evident that such an overcoming of metaphysics only has a conditional legitimacy. Without a commitment of faith, it remains inaccessible. Further, because it relies on a commitment of faith for its essential moves, it is always subject to the philosophical suspicion that it involves some kind of theological sleight of hand, remaining susceptible to the pressure of a dogma uncomplicated by hermeneutics.
And to some extent, the motifs of which it makes use remain un-thought in a broader context, not yet entirely subject to critical examination. It took twenty years for me to hope to succeed, at least in part. It should be apparent from previous chapters that as a theologian, Marion accords Revelation authoritative priority.
This is in the sense that he accepts Christian Revelation as given and in a sense, as given absolutely through [the interpretation of] the Church, which can be hermeneutically problematic , and as determinative for theology. What he attempts to do as a phenomenologist, however, is to show that there is also a way of thinking philosophically about the revelatory phenomena that form the foundations of belief, even though as phenomena of Revelation they are inaccessible to philosophy because of the necessary interpretative gap of faith. The border between metaphysics and phenomenology runs within phenomenology—as its highest possibility, and I stick with the phenomenological discipline only in search of the way that it opens and, sometimes, closes.
That horizon instead, he claims, is properly givenness. It is given anamorphically, which means that it will only appear as such from a particular perspective. Marion frames this second study with a consideration of the possibility of phenomena. Both Kant and Husserl make use of this fundamentally Leibnizian approach. Intuition without concept, though still blind, nevertheless gives material to an object, while the concept without intuition, though not blind, sees nothing, since nothing has yet been given it to see.
In other words, thinking from givenness allows primacy to be shifted from intention concept to intuition content , which in turn allows for a variation in the degree of intuition in phenomena from a minimal to an immeasurable maximal level. In terms of the horizon, he utilises the Kantian categories of quantity, quality, and relation to argue for a phenomenon that exceeds the horizon, at least in the usual sense. It could not be measured in terms of its parts, since the saturating intuition surpasses limitlessly the sum of the parts by continually adding to them. Before this excess, not only can perception no longer anticipate what it will receive from intuition; it also can no longer bear its most elevated degrees.
Here the relationship with the horizon becomes paramount. The saturated phenomenon thus appears as a counter- experience: … confronted with the saturated phenomenon, the I cannot not see it, but it cannot any longer gaze at it as its mere object. It has the eye to see but not keep it. What, then, does this eye without gaze see? The intuition of the phenomenon is nevertheless seen, but as blurred by the too narrow aperture, the too short lens …. We also observed ways in which that grounding has been called into question.
Scanlon Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Returning, then, to the context of Being Given, who or what experiences the paradox? In fact, in that light, power, force, and every actual form of energy never arrive. For if they expose themselves before me, even for a moment, how could I ever rejoin them? Simon Critchley, The Religious, ed. Caputo Oxford: Blackwell, — With the name witness we must understand a subjectivity stripped of the characteristics that gave it transcendental rank. Relieved of its royal transcendental status, it no longer precedes the phenomenon, or even accompanies it any more as a thought already in place.
Since it is received from what it receives, it does not precede it and especially not by a visibility prior to the unseen of the given. Renewals of Phenomenology This decisive description can be correlated with earlier attempts by Marion to characterise the one who precedes the subject. In Being Given, it is the receiver who is the locus of manifestation for the given. The impact will be radicalised into a call, and the receiver into the gifted.
For a discussion of the problems associated with the call, see Rethinking God as Gift 98ff. Anne A. Reception implies, indeed, passive receptivity, but it also demands active capacity, because capacity … in order to increase to the measure of the given and to make sure it happens, must be put to work ….
This is because some of the criticisms of Being Given relate to the questionability of the semantic linking of givenness, gift, and given, but also and especially to the impression that Marion seeks to think all givens as gifts of a giver , rather than all gifts as givens. For Derrida, there cannot be a phenomenology of the gift because for him phenomenology attempts to reduce to presence, and a present gift, losing its essential characteristic of freedom, would no longer be a gift.
For Marion, on the other hand, phenomenology can deliver the gift, since the phenomenological reduction to givenness operates to remove the gift from the schema of causality that implicates it in metaphysics. It is removed from the cycle of metaphysical causality either because it loses its giver through the reduction of its transcendence, or because it loses its object-ness and is no-thing as such, or because it ultimately has no recipient determinable by the giver.
While Derrida requires these three conditions to operate simultaneously, Marion demands that only one or two of the three is operative at any given moment. There is essentially no advance in the debate between Derrida and Marion in the later text. Renewals of Phenomenology Where the discussion becomes particularly interesting, however, is when we place it in the context of the possibility of a divine gift.
If God were to give Godself which is at the heart of a Christian theology of grace , then what would this mean in terms of a nominally phenomenological approach? We have seen above that the given, especially the saturated phenomenon, inevitably invokes a hermeneutics. If the gift is paradigmatic of the given, then it, too, requires interpretation, and the interpretative process happens at all three points of the gift triangle. Put another way, because each of the elements of giver, gift, and gifted ultimately defy presentation, all three are called into question and put at risk.
In his rethinking of phenomenology, Marion argues that it is not limited to the presentation of objects but opens onto phenomena that exceed our capacity to conceive of them. What I see of them, if I see anything of them that is, does not result from the constitution that I would assign to them in the visible, but from the effect that they produce on me. Saturated Phenomena uttered. The origin, which refuses itself, does not nevertheless give itself in penury Derrida , but indeed in excess, determining in this way the regime of all givens to come. While the present chapter picks up on themes introduced in Chapter 6, I will at this point cease to consider idol and icon together, in order to follow the descriptions and analyses given with In Excess.
This is due in large part to the extraordinary passages dealing, on the one hand, with the unrelenting wash of visibility, and on the other, with particular works of art. With them he makes an important contribution to a phenomenology of art—one in which an ethical component has an important place. At the same time, he raises the problem of the representation of the other person, which eventually leads to a consideration of the icon—not in an explicitly religious sense, but as the face of the other.
A work of art functions as an idol in that it brings visibility to a maximum, making visible what has hitherto remained unseen invu , and becoming the measure of many gazes. It is the idols that, in each era, reign over the natural visibles, over the appearance of constituted objects, and that oblige us to see everything starting from the paradigms that their fascination imposes. In this way my idol exposes the span of all my aims—what I set my heart on seeing, and thus also want to see and do.
No, a Revolution! Four articles present practical classroom ideas related to language instruction, including 1 a children's circus production; 2 a language-learning game using the French Revolution as its theme; 3 a play using the French Revolution as its theme; and 4 definitions of terminology used in language teaching. Four articles present ideas for classroom French language teaching. Topics include the semantic distinctions between the French words for nation, state, and country; historical events in the 10 years following the French Revolution; class creation of a newspaper during the French Revolution; and exercises focusing on the Eiffel Tower.
Four ideas for French language classroom activities are described: an exercise in listening to popular songs; a film scenario rewriting exercise; a technique for teaching the subjunctive mood; and a paired or small-group activity to enhance understanding of advertising. Four activities for the French classroom are described, including vocabulary development games using pictures of animals and a puzzle of the Eiffel Tower, simulation of the conflict over the Eiffel Tower's construction, and a reading comprehension exercise using Spanish, French, nonsense Spanish and French, and cloze versions of a text.
Four French language classroom activities are suggested, including an exercise sensitizing students to the structure of poetry, a group of games centering on the Eiffel Tower, a series of activities exploring attitudes toward the Eiffel Tower, and a vocabulary and cultural awareness development exercise using the terminology of painting. L'integration des savoirs theoriques a la pratique par l'analyse reflexive: Formation a la gestion de classe The Integration of Theoretical Knowledge with the Practice of Reflective Analysis: Formation of Class Management.
Explores whether reflective analysis promotes integration of theoretical knowledge presented in a course on motivation, with the practice of classroom management during a practice teaching round. Analyzes narrative accounts of practice where subjects recorded observations and reflections of experiences. Results indicate the presence of principal…. Four ideas for use in the French language classroom are presented, including a card game about regional France; activities using tape recorders and music to improve oral reading; a true-false quiz about food to develop vocabulary and comprehension; and an exercise in deciphering French using a bad copy of a document.
Fiches pratiques : Geographie, coup d'envoi; Face a l'epargne; L'Europe; Gerez vous-meme une societe! Fiches Pratiques : Mots Four class activities for French language instruction are described, including a crossword puzzle exercise emphasizing French culture, use of films for developing a variety of language skills, techniques for helping students discuss others' ideas, and an exercise promoting discussion through photographs of older adults engaged in various….
Fiches pratiques : "Comme ils disent Four classroom activities for French instruction are described, including an exercise in contextual grammar, lessons in interpretation of charts and graphs, an exercise in extracting cultural information from text, and practice in calculating in French and applying basic economic concepts. This course was held to review research and investigations undertaken in Europe, their significance for the practice of adult education, and the possibility of cooperative action in the future.
Delegates reached conclusions calling for the general review of European adult education, bibliographic services, general and joint research, cooperation,…. Four ideas for French language classroom activities include creation of a parody horoscope, reenactment of household scenes from a comic strip, an exercise in memorizing grammatical rules through children's chants, and analysis of a videotape's content, aural, and visual components.
Four activities for classroom French instruction are described: a board game for children's vocabulary development; a sentence and dialogue construction exercise using comic strips existing or student-made ; a discussion of the treatment of the notion of "event" in different journalistic contexts; and an exercise in debating skills and language.
Ceci expliquerait en partie la persistance de cette pathologie. Un Projet d'actions educatives binational? Une pratique de communication interculturelle liee a l'amenagement de nouveaux espaces educatifs A Binational Educational Action Project? A program involving one French and two German secondary schools in an interdisciplinary program featuring a bicultural teaching team is described and a project focusing on habitat and lifestyle is used for illustration. Issues of program administration and coordination are also discussed. Actes du colloque sur la didactique des langues aujourdi'hui: Pratiques et realite.
September October 1, ]. Fiches pratiques : Le jardin d'epicure; Information sante; Quand la grammaire voit "rouge" Four ideas for French language classroom activities are described, including an exercise highlighting creative use of language in daily commercial life, a language activity focusing on acquired immune deficiency syndrome; a grammar lesson using a French song about colors; and a game designed to teach French names. Four French language class activities are described, including a game using proverbs to review animal names and encourage comprehension; videotaping a class debate in French, to promote both exchange of ideas and student confidence before a group; a role-playing exercise in which a television news program is created; and a specialized activity to….
Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including exploration of the relationships between the perfect, imperfect, and pluperfect tenses; an introductory French geography activity; vocabulary development through creation of new words; and exercises to enhance comprehension of the titles and subtitles of newspaper articles. Four ideas for language classroom activities are presented, including an exercise in oral discourse analysis, a newspaper-reading activity using the holistic approach, the use of slight phonological changes to turn a title into a joke or play on words, and an exercise looking at varieties of language style.
The resilience of teachers working in deprived environments: How reflection on personal teaching practice can help to overcome adversity - Teaching in deprived areas presents many challenges. There have been several studies of teachers' resilience in this context, and some have shown that professional skills are an essential protective factor for teachers working in such environments.
Some reports also show that reflection on one's personal teaching practice can help to develop these skills. This doctoral study sought to explore the relationship between the resilience of teachers in deprived areas and their reflection on their professional practice. It involved twenty-three teachers from seven very deprived primary schools in Montreal, who were asked to complete a questionnaire on the quality of their working lives and keep a self-evaluation diary of their day-to-day stress levels. They then took part in a semi-directed personal interview. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data identified four resilience profiles in the subjects, and described how they reflected on their teaching practice, taking account of the process and content of the reflection.
A comparison of the two extreme cases in the sample, the most and least resilient teachers, showed significant divergences in terms of reflection. The discussion highlights the relationship between resilience and reflection, and ways of encouraging the development of such resilience. Fiches pratiques : Pour ne pas perdre le nord Four ideas for language classroom activities are presented, including a counting and calculation game, an exercise for developing familiarity with the parts and style of a newspaper article, an activity to help adolescents anticipating travel in a French city, and analysis of the textual structure of a current events circle.
Thomas1, A. Miffre1, G. David1, J. Cariou2, P. In this contribution, we present a new methodology, called OCS-lidar, to remotely evaluate trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere B. Thomas et al, , as well as the first methane concentration measurements using this methodology. As displayed on figure 1, an Acoustic Optical Programmable Dispersive Filter is coupled with spectrally broadened femtosecond laser pulses to achieve the optical correlation between the emitted laser pulse and the methane absorption cross-section.
In a first time, statistical and systematical errors of the OCS-lidar methodology have been evaluated thanks to a numerical model. The detection noise, interfering trace gases, temperature and pressure variations as well as laser pulse-to-pulse fluctuations have been considered. OCS-lidar simulations for methane concentration measurements have been achieved for background concentration 1. Results show that background measurements are possible in the hour range while sources assessment and localization can be achieved in 10 minutes range up to 3 km range. Then, first methane concentration experimental measurements by using the OCS-lidar methodology will be presented.
The laser source is an Oscillator Parametric Amplifier with emitting wavelength from 1. Experimental results on background methane concentration and on remote point source measurements will be presented, showing the achieved sensitivity and accuracy in both geophysical conditions. Scheme of the OCS-Lidar principle. In the atmosphere, these two emitted laser pulses, which undergo different absorptions due to the target gas presence, methane in our case, give rise to the output OCS-Lidar signals P1 and P2, after collection by a Lidar receiver and detection on an optical detector D.
Reported are the results of a multicentre study involving 40 laboratories that was carried out in France to assess all the currently available methods used for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. For this purpose 10 batches of control sera were prepared with titres in the range IU per ml. These sera were tested in nine laboratories using immunofluorescence methods; in three laboratories using dye tests; in forty laboratories using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; in four laboratories using direct agglutination and haemagglutination; in seven laboratories using the high-sensitivity IgG agglutination test; and in three laboratories using the latex agglutination test.
In this way, 70 series of titrations were carried out using seven procedures and the results were compared with those obtained using the WHO reference serum in 15 cases, with the French national E6 serum in 16 other cases, and in 39 cases using 15 reference sera supplied by the reagent manufacturers. Rigorous comparison of the tests was not possible in all cases because one aim of the study was to ensure that the tests were carried out under the usual working conditions that prevailed in the participating laboratories.
The results obtained indicate that the serological tests currently available for toxoplasmosis are acceptable for its serodiagnosis. Presentation of the titres in IU has advantages; however, caution is required since the definition of IU varies according to the test and reagents used. It is therefore essential that the conditions and limits for a positive reaction be carefully defined in each case, especially for commercially available kits. Laboratoire de Glaciologie C.
Girard, A. Rado and G. Ricou C. Gillet, C. Rado, Laboratoire de Glaciologie G. Marec, M. Perrin and G. Bigler, D. Hauden, S. Four activities are offered for French second-language classroom use: an exercise to aid comprehension of indicative and subjunctive mood; a lesson in making bread and jam, designed for young children; a study of narration within a novel, using a Guy de Maupassant story; and an exercise in discourse analysis. Four French language instructional activities are described, including an exercise in use of the subjunctive mode, based on an advertisement; a simulation for use in business French; an examination of intonation and meaning in conversation; and an exercise in forming questions.
Four ideas for French language instruction are described, including an exercise on modals, an activity focusing on the use of noises for expression, a listening comprehension exercise, and a lesson on humorous possibilities in language using material from the theater of the absurd.
Fiches pratiques : "Oui, je viens de Taiwan"; L'habit ne fait pas le moine; Objets inanimes avez-vous donc une ame? Four ideas for classroom instruction are presented, including an approach to teaching foreign nationals or immigrants, a lesson in clothing and its terminology, an explanation of the symbolism and language of the French Revolution, and a description of how to use radio programs about economics. Fiches Pratiques Four ideas for French language instruction are described, including a class recording of a famous French poem, a contest about the French Revolution, study of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and a list of 39 definitions forming the basis of instructional language.
Bilinguisme et biculturalisme: Theories et pratiques professionnelles. Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Theories and Professional Practices. The conference papers from a colloquium on issues in bilingualism and biculturalism include: "Le bilinguisme et biculturalisme: essai de definition" "Bilingualism and Biculturalism: Attempt at Definition" Francois Grosjean ; "La variation individuelle dans l'acquisition d'une langue seconde" "Individual….
Fiches pratiques : Si on jouait a la famille Dubois Four activities for French language classroom use are presented, including a simulation of the relationships and communication within a family; pronunciation instruction through phonetic transcription; cultural awareness through students' analysis of their own and their parents' specific memories; and analysis and comparison of a literary text and….
Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a comprehension game based on the cow's digestive system, a group journal exercise using current events, an economics vocabulary development activity, and a grammar exercise focusing on the use of determiners in news articles. The sound includes clips from Patron Searching. Le partage du champ scolaire au Quebec: Reconversion et invention de domaines de pratique au sein de l'organisation scolaire, The Division of the School System in Quebec: Reconversion and Invention of the Spheres of Practice within School Organization, O.
Offers a historical analysis of the system of educational and professional counseling in Quebec and the separate role of the school inspection system as they relate to important changes going on currently in Quebec society.
- Love is a Secret: (previously published as [email protected]).
- The New Italian American Songbook.
- jeune afrique algerie malia web - international currency!
- Aïe Aïe Aïe !.
- All Of Grace.
- Security and Privacy in Smart Grids.
Considers the role of both counselors and school inspectors--as intellectuals--in cultural mediation…. Convergence, Volume 20, Nos. The language classroom activities described include work with TV programs interviews, cooking demonstrations, scenes without soundtrack ; exercises with passe compose and passe simple verb tenses; descriptions of available French cassette programs; and use of texts on scientific subjects to build reading for meaning. Normes de pratique , Code de deontologie, Guide d'introspection. Partners in Quality is a research and development project sponsored by the Canadian Child Care Federation and its affiliates to explore how child care providers, parents, and other partners can work together to support and improve quality in child care.
This booklet, in both English and French, supplements a series to support child care providers…. Four French-language classroom activities are described, including some winning exercises in a French-language teachers' contest, a reading exercise on Brazil, an activity for practicing verb tenses, and the use of songs to teach difficult pronunciation to students. Four instructional ideas for use in the French second-language classroom are described, including an exercise in the temporal aspect of French past tenses; part of a series on simulating a French village community; a verb tense drill set in the context of a murder mystery; and an exercise in current French street slang.
In a Kit; Keys to an Exhibition. Four French classroom activities are described, including an introductory exercise in French for special purposes business administration , a cultural exploration activity using a commercial audiotape, holiday card-writing, and an exercise in interpreting an art or other exhibition.
Fiche pratique : Anaphores et enchainements; B. Ideas for French instruction are offered, including a grammar exercise on pronouns; exploration of a comic strip's language and culture; use of a taped program on fashion; and an activity to help French language teachers cope with unfamiliar discipline-specific texts, whose topics but not language are familiar to their students.
Federal Register , , , , Ulipristal is an emergency contraceptive for the FDA intends to make background material available to the public no later Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO Dunham, Stephen Dupont De Nemours Laboratoire De Chimie Moleculaire Univ. Procedures for Separations within Batches of Values, 1. Biological Characterization of HIV Hauden, G. Wedge filter imaging spectrometer. Bibliographic Control Division.
Sections on Bibliography, Cataloging, and Classification. Part 2. Le traitement des donnees linguistiques non standard. Actes des Rencontres Besancon-Neuchatel Neuchatel, janvier, Papers from the conference on linguistic anomaly include: "La definition interactive de la deviance en situation exolingue et bilingue" "The Interactive Definition of Deviation in Exolinguistic and Bilingual Situations" Bernard Py ; "La negociation ratee: pratiques sociales et methodes interactives du traitement de la….
Les fibres en quartz, non protegees par un courant de gaz et placees au contact du tissu, peuvent etre utilisees pratiquement indefiniment grace a un "autonettoyage" et une "regenera-tion". Elles provoquent des lesions tissulaires semblables a celles obtenues avec les fibres conventionnelles. A Review of the Psychological Literature.
Ballard, E. Canadian prime ministers: Complexity in political crises. Discours oraux--discours ecrits: quelles relations? Pratiquer le syllogisme pour apprendre a argumenter Is Socrates a Cat? Interaction, This collection includes four quarterly issues of "Interaction," a publication of the Canadian Child Care Federation. RI II -K1. The activity was about 5. The key comparison reference value KCRV has been recalculated to include this new value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity for the three participants measured in the SIR and the KCRV are presented in a table and graphically.
Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. In order to derive flux information, this system has been set up with coherent detection, which allows to combine CO2 density measurements with wind velocity measurements. In this study, we first report on state of the art measurements obtained with the current coherent DIAL system before presenting expected results for a similar laser transmitter equipped with MCT APDs. Idrissi-Benzohra, M. Akani, C. Benouis, M. Evaluation of Motor Gasoline Stability.
Potential Gum. A highly sensitive broadband seismic sensor has been developed successfully to be used in beam focusing systems of particale accelerators. The sensor is completely insensitive to extremely strong magnetic fields and to hard radiation conditions that exist at the place of their installation. A unique remote sensor calibration method has been invented and implemented. The methods used for the measurement of the total beta activity and for the radiochemical separations and determination of the elements isolated are described for milk and vegetables.
The activities found in milk, vegetables, and animal skeletons are given in tabular form. Water in the Gas Phase. RUIZ c. Laboratory animal medicine — Needs and opportunities for Canadian veterinarians. Laboratory animal medicine is a growing field of veterinary practice that emphasizes animal welfare and refinement of research animal care. Numerous continuing education and post-graduate training opportunities exist in Canada for veterinarians interested in pursuing this specialty.
From metallurgy to modelling of electrical steels: A multiple approach to their behaviour and use based on physics and experimental investigations. Research on SiFe is a busy field which corresponds to the main soft magnetic materials interests of the Laboratoire d'Electrotechnique de Grenoble. Three mutually enriched areas are being explored: metallurgical research towards the production of cube textured sheets, instrumentation research allowing precise measurements of magnetic properties under extreme conditions, and models of magnetization vectorial laws or loss prediction to be included in computer aided design.
Book of Abstracts. After, we show two possibilities, using. Surfaces and Interfaces of Ceramic Materials. Gonzalez Mozuelos and M. Ziya Akcasu Volume 2. Inter-Noise 91, Sydney december Tel: 33 1. Robot Programming. Paris, France, June, , Latoinbe, J. RE Busnell. Laboratoire de Physiologic. I Jouy-en-Josas France, WW and KJ Snyder Welton, PJ, Mde Billy. Small, AM and. Consiglio del Kiistri propasta IRS! Aristide Briand, Meudon The increase of the variability of a.
Nuclear Forensic Field Exercise 1. Ottawa; novembre R2MR concepts, especially stress management and Cognitive Restructuring skills. A secondary objective was to examine the effects of providing Methodologies nouvelles pour la realisation d'essais dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis. Le present memoire en genie de la production automatisee vise a decrire le travail effectue dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis du laboratoire LARCASE pour trouver les methodologies experimentales et les procedures de tests, qui seront utilisees avec les modeles d'ailes actuellement au laboratoire.
Les methodologies et procedures presentees ici vont permettre de preparer les tests en soufflerie du projet MDO Architectures et technologies deformables pour l'amelioration des performances des ailes, qui se derouleront durant l'annee D'abord, un bref historique des souffleries subsoniques sera fait. Les differentes sections de la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis seront decrites en mettant l'emphase sur leur influence dans la qualite de l'ecoulement qui se retrouve dans la chambre d'essai. Ensuite, une introduction a la pression, a sa mesure lors de tests en soufflerie et les instruments utilises pour les tests en soufflerie au laboratoire LARCASE sera presente, en particulier le capteur piezoelectrique XCQ Une attention particuliere sera portee au mode de fonctionnement, a son installation, a la mesure et a la detection des frequences et aux sources d'erreurs lorsqu'on utilise des capteurs de haute precision comme la serie XCQ du fournisseur Kulite.
Finalement, les procedures et les methodologies elaborees pour les tests dans la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis seront utilisees sur quatre types d'ailes differentes. L'article New methodology for wind tunnel calibration using neural networks - EGD approch portant sur une nouvelle facon de predire les caracteristiques de l'ecoulement a l'interieur de la soufflerie Price-Paidoussis se trouve dans l'annexe 2 de ce document. Cet article porte sur la creation d'un reseau de neurones multicouche et sur l'entrainement des neurones, Ensuite, une comparaison des resultats du reseau de neurones a ete fait avec des valeurs simules avec le logiciel Fluent.
Once the flow develops the state of stress is a function of the rate of FLASH hydrodynamic simulations of experiments to explore the generation of cosmological magnetic fields. Scopatz, A. In these experiments, a long-pulse laser illuminates a target in a chamber filled with Argon gas, producing shock waves that generate magnetic fields via the Biermann battery mechanism.
The simulations show that the result of the laser illuminating the target is a series of complex hydrodynamic phenomena. MOEMs devices for future astronomical instrumentation in space. Based on the micro-electronics fabrication process, Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems MOEMS are under study in order to be integrated in next-generation astronomical instruments for ground-based and space telescopes.
Their main advantages are their compactness, scalability, specific task customization using elementary building blocks, and remote control. At Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, we are engaged since several years in the design, realization and characterization of programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy and micro-deformable mirrors for wavefront correction. First prototypes have been developed and show results matching with the requirements.
Thirty years of hydrogen spectroscopy in Paris. This paper gives a review of the experiments performed since the s at the Laboratoire Kastler Brossel in Paris on two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Bumps and the shape of the nonlinearity: We want, in this section, to show how bumps or some Preliminary results on the NPE experiment. Our main motivations were: to evaluate and compare the capabilities of detection and location of the two types of the so-called alpha stations which composed the Experimental International Seismic System i.
As laser radiation Les mesures de. Barbieri, C. Sessions , Poster Sessions. For the compressible fluid case, Ramirez -Leon et al With regard to Eq 2 , the right-hand side of. Mazars and Z. Bazant, Schockey, D. Some measurements of time and space correlation in wind tunnel. Results are presented of research obtained by means of an apparatus for measurement of time and space correlation and of a spectral analyzer in the study of the longitudinal component of turbulence velocities in a wind tunnel downstream of a grid of meshes.
Application to the case of a flat-plate boundary layer is illustrated. These researches were made at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de l'Atmosphere de l'I. Le cas des observatoires d'Alger et de Bordeaux. Instability patterns in a miscible core annular flow.
Experiments are performed with two miscible fluids of equal density but different viscosities. The fluids are injected co-currently and concentrically into a cylindrical pipe. The so-obtained base state is an axisymmetric parallel flow, for which the ratio of the flow rates of the two fluids monitors the relative amount and so the radius of the fluids. Depending on this relative amount and on the total flow rate of the fluids, unstable axisymmetric patterns such as mushrooms and pearls are observed.
We delineate the diagram of occurrence of the two patterns and characterize the instabilities. Pluriannual variability of sedimentation on mudflats in a macrotidal estuary. At many Canadian universities it is now common to publicly acknowledge Indigenous lands, treaties, and peoples. Yet, this practice has yet to be considered as a subject of scholarly inquiry. How does this practice vary and why? In this paper we describe the content and practice of acknowledgment, linking this content to treaty relationships or lack thereof.
We show that acknowledgment tends to be one of five general types: of land and title British Columbia , of specific treaties and political relationships Prairies , of multiculturalism and heterogeneity Ontario , of no practice most of Quebec , and of people, territory, and openness to doing more Atlantic. Based on these results, we conclude that the fluidity of acknowledgment as a practice, including changing meanings depending on the positionality of the acknowledger, need to be taken into account. Dans ce projet nous regardons comment les reconnaissances varie par institution et pourquoi.
Static and dynamic micro deformable mirror characterization by phase-shifting and time-averaged interferometry. The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems MOEMS , based on mature technologies of micro-electronics, are essential in the design of future astronomical instruments. One of these key-components is the microdeformable mirror for wave-front correction. Very challenging topics like search of exo-planets could greatly benefit from this technology.
In order to measure the surface shape and the deformation parameters during operation of these devices, a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer has been developed. Static characterization is made by phase shifting interferometry and dynamic measurements have been made by quantitative time-averaged interferometry. Tcm comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes NMI that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs.
A graphical presentation is also given. Simultaneously, packaging still represents a significant part of detectors price. Reducing production costs would contribute to keep on extending applications of uncooled IRFPA to high volume markets like automotive. Therefore LETI develops an onchip packaging technology dedicated to microbolometers. The efficiency of a micropackaging technology for microbolometers relies on two major technical specifications.
First, it must include an optical window with a high transmittance for the IR band, so as to maximize the detector absorption. Secondly, in order to preserve the thermal insulation of the detector, the micropackaging must be hermetically closed to maintain a vacuum level lower than 10 -3mbar. This paper presents an original microcap structure that enables the use of IR window materials as sealing layers to maintain the expected vacuum level.
The modelling and integration of an IR window suitable for this structure is also presented. This zero level packaging technology is performed in a standard collective way, in continuation of bolometers' technology. Therefore LETI is developing an on-chip packaging technology dedicated to microbolometers. This monolithic packaging technology is performed in a standard collective way, in continuation of bolometers' technology.
Tous les utilisateurs Guideline on Scenario Development for Distributed Simulation Environments Guide en vue du developpement de scenario dans le cadre de simulation distribuee. Le changement comme tradition dans la recherche et la formation a la recherche en biotechnologie et en peripherie Etude de cas en sciences de la sante, sciences naturelles et genie. Le champ de la recherche scientifique et de la formation a la recherche est traverse depuis quelques dizaines d'annees par plusieurs courants et discours associes au changement, mais peu de travaux empiriques permettent de comprendre ce qui change concretement.
C'est la contribution originale de cette these au champ de l'education, plus specifiquement a l'etude sociologique de l'enseignement superieur ou sont concentrees les activites liees a la triade thematique du programme doctoral dans lequel elle a ete produite : recherche, formation et pratique. L'enquete-terrain a ete realisee en et aupres de repondants affilies a 60 etablissements au Quebec et a produit un vaste materiau de nature mixte donnees quantitatives et qualitatives. Un portrait de la nebuleuse biotechnologique qui touche les secteurs des sciences de la sante, des sciences naturelles et du genie a ete realise.
Ce domaine concerne des dizaines de disciplines et se revele de nature transdisciplinaire, mais les pratiques n'y sont pas davantage marquees par le changement que celles d'autres domaines connexes. Les dynamiques sociales ont fait l'objet d'analyses comparatives dans quatre contextes: le choix des programmes, des objets et des methodes, le financement, la diffusion et la planification de la carriere.
Les resultats indiquent que les echanges entre les agents traditionnellement situes au coeur des activites de recherche dominent ces dynamiques dans tous les contextes etudies. L'etude des representations au fondement des pratiques a revele l'existence de trois ecoles de pensee qui coexistent dans le champ scientifique: academique, pragmatique et economiste. Ces ecoles permettent de categoriser les agents en fonction des zones de fractures qui marquent leurs oppositions tout en identifiant ce qu'ils ont en commun.
Les representations et les pratiques liees a la formation temoignent d'un habitus plutot homogene, alors que les contradictions semblent plus souvent ancrees dans des. With the help of Air France Consulting and the MEAH, three cancer centers in Angers, Lille and Villejuif worked together on the implantation of experience feed back committees CREx dedicated to the registration, analysis and correction of precursor events.
After two years, we report the centre Oscar-Lambret experience in Lille and try to get the recommendations for generalisation of the process. This seems now to be compulsory for security management in oncology. On discuto des implications pratiques de ces Bellan K. Detection de la fin de la compaction des anodes par le son. L'objectif de ce projet etait de developper un outil de controle en temps reel du temps de compaction en se servant du son genere par le vibrocompacteur pendant le formage des anodes crues.
Ainsi, une application a ete developpee pour l'analyse des sons enregistres. Des essais ont ete realises avec differents microphones pour une meilleure qualite des mesures et un a ete choisi pour la suite du projet. De meme, differents tests ont ete realises sur des anodes de laboratoire ainsi que des anodes a l'echelle industrielle afin de mettre en place une methode pour la detection du temps optimal necessaire au formage des anodes. Les travaux au laboratoire de carbone a l'Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi UQAC ont consiste a l'enregistrement de son des anodes fabriquees sur place avec differentes configurations; et a la caracterisation de certaines anodes de l'usine.
Les anodes fabriquees au laboratoire sont reparties en deux groupes. Le premier regroupe les anodes pour la validation de notre methode. Ce sont des anodes produites avec des temps de compaction differents. Le laboratoire de carbone a l'UQAC est unique et il est possible de produire des anodes avec les memes proprietes que celles des anodes industrielles. Par consequent, la validation initialement prevue a l'usine a ete effectuee avec les anodes de laboratoire.
Le deuxieme groupe a servi a etudier les effets des matieres premieres sur le temps de compaction. Le type de coke et le type de brai ont constitue les differentes variations dans ce deuxieme groupe. Quant aux tests et mesures a l'usine, ils ont ete realises en trois campagnes de mesure. La premiere campagne en juin a servi a standardiser et a trouver le meilleur positionnement des appareils pour les mesures, a regler le logiciel et a faire les premieres mesures. Une deuxieme campagne en mai a fait l'objet d'enregistrement de son en classant les anodes selon differents temps de compaction.
La troisieme et derniere campagne en decembre a. The objective of the study was to make an economic evaluation of in vitro fertilization and to determine the impact of some factors on its cost, particularly the choice between recombinant follicle stimulating hormone r-FSH and urinary FSH u-FSH for ovarian stimulation. Costs were calculated in a Public Health view, by studying two phases: the stimulation cycle including down-regulation and the pregnancy including the neonatal period.
The calculation has included the side effects and the frozen embryos transfers. FSH costs were computed according to the currently marketed products, i. The annual cost of ART reaches approximately million Euros in France, for the cycles only, and million Euros when including the pregnancy costs. For one complete year, in France, the potential over cost of recombinant products reaches 24 million Euros when considering only the cycles The IVF per baby cost can be. Data obtained by the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire's ultraviolet spectrometer onboard the OSO-8 spacecraft were analyzed in an effort to dynamically model the solar chromosphere as an aid in enhancing knowledge of the dynamical processes themselves and of spectral line formation in the dynamic chromosphere.
Repeated spectral scans of strong, optically thick resonance lines formed in the solar chromosphere were examined for indications of oscillatory velocities and intensities among other indications of velocity which were studied, the blue peak is reasonably well defined, and the position of a parabolic filter fitted by the least squares method was used to define it.
Observed chromospheric oscillation periods are discussed as well as the variations in altitude of the emitting region which result primarily from the motion up and down during the oscillation. Gas discharges and applications. Goudonnet his work on surface studies and on the use of tunneling electron spectroscopy for the chemical analysis of surfaces. Magneto-chiral anisotropy of the free electron on a helix. The free electron on a helix as a simple model of a molecular chiral conductor is considered.
In the presence of a static magnetic field parallel to the helix axis, it is found that both ballistic and diffusive electrical transport along the helix show a conductivity that depends linearly on the current and the magnetic field and on the handedness of the helix. These results agree qualitatively with the recently experimentally observed electrical magneto-chiral anisotropy in carbon nanotubes [V.
Roth, M. Burghard, K.
Kern, G. Distribution of Leptospira serogroups in cattle herds and dogs in France. A retrospective study was conducted to identify and describe the distribution pattern of Leptospira serogroups in domestic animals in France. The population consisted of cattle herds and dogs with clinically suspected leptospirosis that were tested at the " Laboratoire des Leptospires" between and The laboratory database was queried for records of cattle and dogs in which seroreactivity in Leptospira microagglutination tests was consistent with a recent or current infection, excluding vaccine serogroups in dogs.
This inventory of infecting Leptospira serogroups revealed that current vaccines in France are not fully capable of preventing the clinical form of the disease. Sciences for Exoplanets and Planetary Systems : web sites and E-learning. Roques, F. These resources are directed towards undergraduate level. They will be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. In the future, we will translate some contents into English and create e-learning degree courses. Calibration of imaging plates to electrons between 40 and MeV. In the calibration process, the energy spectrum and charge of electron beams are measured by an independent system composed of a magnetic spectrometer and a Lanex scintillator screen used as a calibrated reference detector.
It is possible to insert IPs of different types or stacks of IPs in this spectrometer in order to detect dispersed electrons simultaneously. GEANT4 simulations are used in order to analyze our measurements. Witchcraft illness in the Evuzok nosological system.
The Evuzok nosological system is structured with respect to two frames of reference, one designating illness as an empirical reality descriptive subsystem , the other designating it according to its religious, magical and social significance etiological subsystem. The articulation of these two subsystems is brought about in the process of diagnosis.
Having examined this system as a whole, the author devotes his attention to a particular set of etiological categories, those which associate illness with witchcraft nocturnal illnesses. He attempts to define their distinctive traits and, from this, to determine their common elemental structure. II - In-flight performance and preliminary results. Bonnet, R. By means of the instrument, an absolute pointing accuracy of nearly one second was achieved in orbit during real-time operations.
The instrument uses a Cassegrain telescope and a spectrometer simultaneously observing six wavelengths. In-flight performance is discussed with attention to angular resolution, spectral resolution, dispersion and grating mechanism spectral scanner stability, scattered light background and dark current, photometric standardization, and absolute calibration. Real-time operation and problems are considered with reference to pointing system problems, target acquisition, and L-alpha modulation.
Preliminary results involving the observational program, quiet sun and chromospheric studies, quiet chromospheric oscillation and transients, sunspots and active regions, prominences, and aeronomy investigations are reported. At EPSC , the prize will be presented for the third time. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level. MIGA: combining laser and matter wave interferometry for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy.
Canuel, B. The Matter-Wave laser Interferometer Gravitation Antenna, MIGA, will be a hybrid instrument composed of a network of atom interferometers horizontally aligned and interrogated by the resonant field of an optical cavity. This detector will provide measurements of sub Hertz variations of the gravitational strain tensor. MIGA will bring new methods for geophysics for the characterization of spatial and temporal variations of the local gravity field and will also be a demonstrator for future low frequency Gravitational Wave GW detections.
MIGA will enable a better understanding of the coupling at low frequency between these different signals. The detector will be installed underground in Rustrel FR , at the " Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit" LSBB , a facility with exceptionally low environmental noise and located far away from major sources of anthropogenic disturbances. We give in this paper an overview of the operating mode and status of the instrument before detailing simulations of the gravitational background noise at the MIGA installation site. This new camera achieves subelectron readout noise and very low clock-induced charge CIC levels, which are mandatory for extreme faint flux imaging.
The performance of the camera is discussed and experimental data with the first scientific data are presented. Remote sensing helps to assess natural hazards and environmental changes in Asia-Pacific region. The application of satellite imagery at a wide range of resolutions, from meters to 50 centimeters, was a unifying approach in many of the studies presented.
The recent arrival of a new generation of satellites with extremely high resolution 50 centimeters has improved scientists' ability to carry out detailed studies of natural hazards and environmental change. Background reduction of a spherical gaseous detector. It consists of a large spherical volume filled with gas, using a single detection readout channel. It will be also show the radon measurement of pure gases Ar, N, Ne, etc which are used in the underground laboratory for the low background experiments.
Recent results on laser wakefield acceleration in tailored plasma channels have underlined the importance of controlling the density profile of the gas target. In particular, it was reported that the appropriate density tailoring can result in improved injection, acceleration, and collimation of laser-accelerated electron beams.
To achieve such profiles, innovative target designs are required. For this purpose, we have reviewed the usage of additive layer manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, in order to produce gas jet nozzles. Notably we have compared the performance of two industry standard techniques, namely, selective laser sintering SLS and stereolithography SLA. The study of adverse pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers is complicated by the need to characterise both the local pressure gradient and it's upstream flow history.
It is therefore necessary to measure a significant streamwise domain at a resolution sufficient to resolve the small scales features. To achieve this collaborative particle image velocimetry PIV measurements were performed in the large boundary layer wind-tunnel at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de Lille, including: planar measurements spanning a streamwise domain of 3. Details of the measurements and preliminary results will be presented.
An imaging system based on laser optical feedback for fog vision applications. Optical feedback set up allows the creation of images on roadsigns. To create artificial fog conditions we used a vibrating cell that produces a micro-spray of water according to the principle of acoustic cavitation. To scale the sensitivity of the system under duplicatible conditions we also used optical densities linked to first-sight visibility distances. Among oligosaccharides, trehalose seems to be unique in nature as a bioprotector in drying and freezing processes. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the unusual bioprotective properties of trehalose in comparison with other disaccharides, the low-frequency dynamics of aqueous H2O and D2O mixtures of homologous disaccharides, trehalose, and sucrose has been studied by neutron scattering measurements carried out using the Mibemol spectrometer at the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin LLB, Saclay.
GEISA spectroscopic database system related information resources: current status and perspectives. This paper presents the recently developed information content diffusion facilities, e. GEISA individual lines file involves 42 molecules 96 isotopic species and contains 1,, entries, between 0 and 22, cm GEISA also has a catalog of cross-sections at different temperatures and pressures for species such as chlorofluorocarbons with complex spectra. The current version of the GEISA cross- section databank contains 4,, entries related to 23 molecules between and cm Observations of chromospheric lines from OSO Observations were obtained with the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire spectrometer at spectral resolutions of 0.
The Lyman alpha profiles are found to be highly variable according to spatial position with the intensities of the three lines well correlated, and confirm previous observations of the quiet solar chromosphere. Data suggest that the quiet chromosphere is a dynamical phenomenon whose description in terms of a static model atmosphere is only qualitatively valid at best. RF-K9: International comparison of thermal noise standards between An international comparison of thermal noise-power measurements has been carried out among five national metrology institutes between Four transfer standards were measured.
A short description of the two standards is given. The transfer standard was a pressure balance equipped with a piston-cylinder assembly that has the same characteristics as the standard of the Laboratoire National d'Essais LNE. The results obtained from 30 kPa to kPa showed a systematic relative difference of 12 parts in between the two standards.
These results are analysed in this paper. Atmospheric and meteorological Lidar: from pioneers to space applications. The 'Light Detection and Ranging' technique, or Lidar, is a laser application to remote sensing. Lidar was in the laboratory stage in the s and in less than 40 years it became a serious candidate for space applications at the turn of the 21st century. Over the years, the Lidar community made significant contributions to Lidar sciences and advancing the technique that makes Lidar an inevitable partner in geophysics and Earth observation.
To cite this article: P. Flamant, C. Physique 6 Modern large observational programmes produce important amounts of data from various origins, and need high level quality control, fast data access via easy-to-use graphic interfaces, as well as possibility to cross-correlate informations coming from different observations.