Pompeo Giustiniani: Maestro di campo della Venezia del sospetto (Italian Edition)

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Molto cordialmente si congeda e si dilegua. Riprendo il mio tour in giardino. Osservo alcune foto di personaggi sicuramente collegati a eventi autobiografici. Nel , in piena guerra di successione austriaca e a due anni dalla nomina a console britannico in Venezia, il banchiere, mercante, editore e collezionista Joseph Smith avrebbe commissionato al Canaletto cinque dipinti con altrettanti scorci della Roma imperiale, cinque capolavori di ampio formato verticale, tutti firmati e datati, in cui le.

Benedetto, , p. Studi in memoria di Alessandro Bettagno, a cura di B. Kowalczyk, Cinisello Balsamo, Silvana editoriale, , pp. Links, Canaletto, London, Phaidon, , p. Il trionfo della veduta, catalogo della mostra di palazzo Giustiniani a Roma 12 marzo giugno , a cura di B. Non manca qui, peraltro, un omaggio ai fortunati capricci architettonici con il Pantheon del piacentino Giovanni Paolo Pannini, il quale avrebbe rappresentato il celeberrimo tempio dalla stessa angolazione, come testimonia un dipinto risalente al disseminato di altri famosi monumenti romani tra cui la colonna Traiana e il Marco Aurelio fig.

La coppia di dipinti della Galleria Borghese, ma in particolare la veduta con il Colosseo, presentano diverse macchie di colore rosso, blu e giallo su tutta la superficie pittorica, intrisa di una luce splendente che filtra in ogni angolo della scena. Un simbolo della coscienza europea, Roma, Cosmopoli, , pp.

In , during the war of the Austrian succession and two years after the announcement as British consul in Venice, the banker, merchant, editor and collector Joseph Smith ordered to Canaletto five paintings with as much foreshortening of the imperial Rome, five masterpieces in a big vertical size, all signed and dated, in which classical architecture and modern buildings are combined and in which tiny figures, sketched by the tip of the brush, admire the greatness of the ruins and talk to each other in a natural way.

Characterized by a warm and golden light which creates almost romantic chiaroscuro effects, particularly evident in the two views with the arch of Constantine and the arch of Tito figg. What emerges most clearly from these works, but also from the twentythree drawings executed in Rome between and 5 fig. A building that was famous in the whole Europe since the 6th century and which incited important foreigner artist such as the Dutch Maarten van Heemskerck to portray himself in front of it in the mid-century fig.

John and Paul and Gregorio are grouped together 8 fig. The two paintings of the Borghese Gallery, particularly the one of the Colosseum, have some red, blue and yellow colour spots all over, characterized by a bright light which streams from any corner of the scene. Studi in memoria di Alessandro Bettagno, edited by B.

Il trionfo della veduta, exhibition catalogue of Palazzo Giustiniani in Rome 12th marchth june , edited by B. Immersi tra i padiglioni della Biennale , la domanda sorge spontanea. Di Elisabetta Badiello Redattrice. Arte o Architettura? Una visione proiettata al futuro, dove il segno architettonico supera persone, luoghi, tempo e storia. Freespace, ovvero lo spazio libero e gratuito, che si genera da un progetto, ma anche, in assenza di architettura, soltanto parlando di pensiero applicato allo spazio dove viviamo e abitiamo.

Ci si chiede se questa mostra, per vocazione dedicata agli addetti ai lavori, riesca a varcare e oltrepassare le barriere tecniche e professionali. Alejandro de la Sota afferma che gli architetti dovrebbero fare il meno possibile. Uno spazio chiuso al pubblico se non nelle rare occasioni in cui viene riaperto quel Teatro Verde costruito nel su progetto degli architetti Luigi Vietti ed Angelo Scattolin.

There is little difference between the two languages, and it is obvious that architecture often uses what art can evoke to transmit its footprint. By Elisabetta Badiello Writer. Art or Architecture? An exhibition that comes from a Manifesto, a constitutional declaration of a movement. A vision projected into the future, where the architectural sign goes beyond people, places, time and history. The bullet point explanation and the premise of the Manifesto communicate the complexity of architecture.

Freespace, a self explanatory theme, which is generated by a project, but also, in absence of architecture, by only discussing about the thought-process applied to the space where we live. The challenge is mainly for those who, by vocation, are used to plasmate the social space, thus setting the path for the development and affecting the dynamics of the contest where they intervene. The chosen theme for the exhibition is rolled out between the Central Pavillion at the Giardini and the Arsenale with 71 participants, selected by the curators because representative of all community facets.

Sorry we still under construction!

Whereas the historical pavilions at the Giardini, the Arsenale and Venice downtown host 63 Italian participants who caught and developed the Freespace theme following their own inclinations. We wonder if the exhibition, originally conceived for those in the know, will be able to go beyond the technical and professional barriers, thus capturing the interest and the attention of a vaster audience.

Paolo Baratta, Director of the Biennale, states that its role is creating desire for architecture. Architecture can be significant and useful. And the theme of the free space is surely a topic dear to many. An increasingly perceived demographic density, above all in the bigger urban areas that have become metropolitan conglomerations, combined with the constant migration of people to areas economical and socially more appealing, are factors bringing to the forefront the need of free space.

One other critical topic is the re-thinking of entire areas whilst they are being re-purposed, building on the old o intervening on the existing, linking past, present and future, building on the different layers of our cultural heritage, tying old and contemporary.

Alejandro de la Sota states that architects should do as little as possible. And the manifesto Freespace suggests to emphasise the free gifts from Nature, such as sunlight, moonlight, as well as air and gravity, materials, natural and artificial resources. The debate is now open Longobu Storie e leggende di Calabria, Longobucco, il paese degli argenti e dei telai, profuma di ginestra e di pino laricio. Longobucco, il paese degli argenti e dei telai, profuma di ginestra e di pino laricio. I popoli si insediarono inizialmente nella valle attraversata dal fiume Trionto e delimitata da due affluenti Macrocioli e Manna.

Questa grande conca doveva essere un luogo ameno e bucolico, fertile e ricco di campi coltivati. Il fiume era la via principale che univa il paese al mare. Sembrerebbe un riferimento alla fanciulla sacrificata di cui parla il mito greco. Accanto la chiesa si erge maestoso il campanile che in origine era una torre civica; alto 32 m e costruito con il tufo locale. Nel vi fu aggiunta la guglia ottagonale. Qui si conservano tra gli oggetti antichi di uso locale e domestico anche le raffinatissime coperte tessute al telaio.

Si tesse e poi si fa ancora scorrere la spola con la trama, in modo che la tela cresca con il passare dei giorni e dei mesi. I disegni sulle coperte, dai colori accesi e brillanti, derivano in parte dalla fantasia delle tessitrici, in parte dai cartoni che le famiglie custodivano gelosamente. Nei mesi estivi Longobucco ritrova gli emigranti che tornano per le ferie nel paese natale. Colori, profumi, sapori, storia e leggenda disegnano il ricordo di questo paese, che rimane impresso, lasciando acceso il desiderio di ritornare, come racconta Norman Douglas.

Le sue opere sono presenti in numerose pubblicazioni accreditate internazionalmente tra cui Faces — the 70 most beautiful photography portraits of all time, a cura di Peter Weiermair , in monografie sold-out tra cui About Skin, ed. Un libro, un film e un album che sono stati fonte di ispirazione nella creazione dei tuoi progetti artistici. Entrambi ispirati a La Tempesta di William Shakespeare. Vivere, per un artista e per un uomo, significa saperlo rielaborare. Per chi lavora con lo spazio, porsi al suo ascolto significa rispettarne la sua memoria, di cemento che lo ha edificato e di carne che lo ha abitato.

Penso a Carlo Scarpa, e penso a quanto profonda fosse la sua visione. Condizionamenti e secondi fini non sono altro che atti notiziabili, non artistici. La partita con i quattro assi in mano mi annoia; sperimentare significa, per me, innanzitutto onorare la partita. Tu ne fai parte o ti ritieni un giocatore solitario? I sistemi sono per chi ama essere incasellato… Che progetti hai per il futuro?

Mustafa Sabbagh Harmony of imperfection, psychological investigation and anthropologic study through the construction of an image and its set-up. Mustafa Sabbath focuses on contemporary art through photography and video-art. Interview by Simone Pavan Editor in Chief. Mustafa Sabbath was born in Amman, Jordan, in , and now works and lives in Italy. Half Italian, half Palestinian, he grew up between Europe and the Middle East; his imprinting is cosmopolitan, his attitude is nomadic. He has worked as an assistant to Richard Avedon and he has taught at the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design in London; after a career as fashion photographer for the most prestigious magazines in the world, since Sabbagh has been focussing on contemporary art through photography and video-art, using as a punctum the skin, because it is the diary of individual uniqueness.

He has often been interviewed and taken part into documentaries about his vision: in , Sky Arte HD included him amongst the 8 most significant artists of the present times in Italy; and in , Rai5, in its documentary The Sense of Beauty, referred to him as the privileged singer of the dark side of Beauty. As of today, Mustafa Sabbagh has been recognised by Peter Weiermair, art and photography historian, as one of the most influential photographers in the world, and one of 40 most remarkable nude portrayers internationally the only Italian. His works are featured in countless internationally acclaimed publications such as Faces - the 70 most beautiful photography portraits of all time, by Peter Weiermair , in sold-out monographes such as About Skin, now included in the Tate Gallery books of art library and in many permanent collections in Italy and around the world, including the Collezione Arte Farnesina, not to mention the inclusion of one entire project of his into the permanent collection of MAXXI in Rome [National Museum of 21st Century Art].

If I were to describe your art, I would first of all say that it is welleducated, rich of references from all types of art, not only visual. Could you name of a book, a movie and a music album that have inspired you during your creation processes? Both inspired by The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Fluxus, all round works of art, from literature to art to dance and music, each completely different despite coming from the same source.

Culture, for an artist as well as for a man, is essential to live. To live, for an artist as well as for a man, means being able to re-interpret it. Given your education in architecture, when facing one of your installations - where the hosting location is fundamental - how important is the space in the conception of the work? In such a fiercely moralistic times, art and culture have a moral duty: respect the human kind. Welcoming others makes us human, honouring it makes us messengers. When working in a space, one must sense it and respect its heritage, that comes from the cement used to build it or the flesh that used to live in it.

I refer to Carlo Scarpa and to his profound vision. Memory means respecting the past in view of the future; the tale of a vision such as mine, which works through images, cannot but honour the space that embraces it, to honour the man who will want to sense it. Within the exhibition, besides his collection of photographs and videos, an installation strictly related to the hosting city and space plays a fundamental role. Mustafa Sabbagh Onore al nero: mari Fine art print on dibond cm x ed.

I am always very wary of any self-proclaiming social or political artist, simply because art is always social or political. True art is always intertwined with humanity, and humanity has no advertised expiry date. Influences and ulterior motives are no less than advertising acts, they are not art. Video-art, together with painting and sculpting, alongside photography: how important is experimentation in your artistic research? The game with four aces in hand bores me; in my opinion, experimenting mainly means honouring the game.

Do you belong there, or do you call out? Systems are for those who like being boxed… What are your future plans? Keeping the freedom of being able to make future plans. Oltre 1. Di Anna Caldera Redattrice per il Design. It is the most famous design award in Italy, and this edition boasted candidates for the pre-selections in and Of these, only 16 were awarded, whereas the international jury awarded other 56 entries with a Honourable Mention. A vision projected into the future, where the architectural sign goes beyond people, places, time and history.

The bullet point explanation and the premise of the Manifesto communicate the complexity of architecture. Freespace, a self explanatory theme, which is generated by a project, but also, in absence of architecture, by only discussing about the thought-process applied to the space where we live. The challenge is mainly for those who, by vocation, are used to plasmate the social space, thus setting the path for the development and affecting the dynamics of the contest where they intervene. The chosen theme for the exhibition is rolled out between the Central Pavillion at the Giardini and the Arsenale with 71 participants, selected by the curators because representative of all community facets.

Whereas the historical pavilions at the Giardini, the Arsenale and Venice downtown host 63 Italian participants who caught and developed the Freespace theme following their own inclinations. We wonder if the exhibition, originally conceived for those in the know, will be able to go beyond the technical and professional barriers, thus capturing the interest and the attention of a vaster audience. Paolo Baratta, Director of the Biennale, states that its role is creating desire for architecture.

Italian Academies and Their Networks, 1525–1700

Architecture can be significant and useful. And the theme of the free space is surely a topic dear to many. An increasingly perceived demographic density, above all in the bigger urban areas that have become metropolitan conglomerations, combined with the constant migration of people to areas economical and socially more appealing, are factors bringing to the forefront the need of free space. One other critical topic is the re-thinking of entire areas whilst they are being re-purposed, building on the old o intervening on the existing, linking past, present and future, building on the different layers of our cultural heritage, tying old and contemporary.

Alejandro de la Sota states that architects should do as little as possible. And the manifesto Freespace suggests to emphasise the free gifts from Nature, such as sunlight, moonlight, as well as air and gravity, materials, natural and artificial resources. The debate is now open Longobu Storie e leggende di Calabria, Longobucco, il paese degli argenti e dei telai, profuma di ginestra e di pino laricio.

Longobucco, il paese degli argenti e dei telai, profuma di ginestra e di pino laricio. I popoli si insediarono inizialmente nella valle attraversata dal fiume Trionto e delimitata da due affluenti Macrocioli e Manna. Questa grande conca doveva essere un luogo ameno e bucolico, fertile e ricco di campi coltivati. Il fiume era la via principale che univa il paese al mare.

Sembrerebbe un riferimento alla fanciulla sacrificata di cui parla il mito greco. Accanto la chiesa si erge maestoso il campanile che in origine era una torre civica; alto 32 m e costruito con il tufo locale. Nel vi fu aggiunta la guglia ottagonale. Qui si conservano tra gli oggetti antichi di uso locale e domestico anche le raffinatissime coperte tessute al telaio.

Si tesse e poi si fa ancora scorrere la spola con la trama, in modo che la tela cresca con il passare dei giorni e dei mesi. I disegni sulle coperte, dai colori accesi e brillanti, derivano in parte dalla fantasia delle tessitrici, in parte dai cartoni che le famiglie custodivano gelosamente. Nei mesi estivi Longobucco ritrova gli emigranti che tornano per le ferie nel paese natale.

Colori, profumi, sapori, storia e leggenda disegnano il ricordo di questo paese, che rimane impresso, lasciando acceso il desiderio di ritornare, come racconta Norman Douglas. Le sue opere sono presenti in numerose pubblicazioni accreditate internazionalmente tra cui Faces — the 70 most beautiful photography portraits of all time, a cura di Peter Weiermair , in monografie sold-out tra cui About Skin, ed.

Un libro, un film e un album che sono stati fonte di ispirazione nella creazione dei tuoi progetti artistici. Entrambi ispirati a La Tempesta di William Shakespeare. Vivere, per un artista e per un uomo, significa saperlo rielaborare. Per chi lavora con lo spazio, porsi al suo ascolto significa rispettarne la sua memoria, di cemento che lo ha edificato e di carne che lo ha abitato. Penso a Carlo Scarpa, e penso a quanto profonda fosse la sua visione. Condizionamenti e secondi fini non sono altro che atti notiziabili, non artistici.

La partita con i quattro assi in mano mi annoia; sperimentare significa, per me, innanzitutto onorare la partita. Tu ne fai parte o ti ritieni un giocatore solitario? I sistemi sono per chi ama essere incasellato… Che progetti hai per il futuro? Mustafa Sabbagh Harmony of imperfection, psychological investigation and anthropologic study through the construction of an image and its set-up. Mustafa Sabbath focuses on contemporary art through photography and video-art. Interview by Simone Pavan Editor in Chief. Mustafa Sabbath was born in Amman, Jordan, in , and now works and lives in Italy.

Half Italian, half Palestinian, he grew up between Europe and the Middle East; his imprinting is cosmopolitan, his attitude is nomadic. He has worked as an assistant to Richard Avedon and he has taught at the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design in London; after a career as fashion photographer for the most prestigious magazines in the world, since Sabbagh has been focussing on contemporary art through photography and video-art, using as a punctum the skin, because it is the diary of individual uniqueness.

He has often been interviewed and taken part into documentaries about his vision: in , Sky Arte HD included him amongst the 8 most significant artists of the present times in Italy; and in , Rai5, in its documentary The Sense of Beauty, referred to him as the privileged singer of the dark side of Beauty. As of today, Mustafa Sabbagh has been recognised by Peter Weiermair, art and photography historian, as one of the most influential photographers in the world, and one of 40 most remarkable nude portrayers internationally the only Italian.

His works are featured in countless internationally acclaimed publications such as Faces - the 70 most beautiful photography portraits of all time, by Peter Weiermair , in sold-out monographes such as About Skin, now included in the Tate Gallery books of art library and in many permanent collections in Italy and around the world, including the Collezione Arte Farnesina, not to mention the inclusion of one entire project of his into the permanent collection of MAXXI in Rome [National Museum of 21st Century Art]. If I were to describe your art, I would first of all say that it is welleducated, rich of references from all types of art, not only visual.

Could you name of a book, a movie and a music album that have inspired you during your creation processes? Both inspired by The Tempest by William Shakespeare. Fluxus, all round works of art, from literature to art to dance and music, each completely different despite coming from the same source.

Culture, for an artist as well as for a man, is essential to live. To live, for an artist as well as for a man, means being able to re-interpret it. Given your education in architecture, when facing one of your installations - where the hosting location is fundamental - how important is the space in the conception of the work?

In such a fiercely moralistic times, art and culture have a moral duty: respect the human kind. Welcoming others makes us human, honouring it makes us messengers. When working in a space, one must sense it and respect its heritage, that comes from the cement used to build it or the flesh that used to live in it. I refer to Carlo Scarpa and to his profound vision. Memory means respecting the past in view of the future; the tale of a vision such as mine, which works through images, cannot but honour the space that embraces it, to honour the man who will want to sense it.

Within the exhibition, besides his collection of photographs and videos, an installation strictly related to the hosting city and space plays a fundamental role. Mustafa Sabbagh Onore al nero: mari Fine art print on dibond cm x ed. I am always very wary of any self-proclaiming social or political artist, simply because art is always social or political. True art is always intertwined with humanity, and humanity has no advertised expiry date.


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Influences and ulterior motives are no less than advertising acts, they are not art. Video-art, together with painting and sculpting, alongside photography: how important is experimentation in your artistic research? The game with four aces in hand bores me; in my opinion, experimenting mainly means honouring the game.

Do you belong there, or do you call out? Systems are for those who like being boxed… What are your future plans? Keeping the freedom of being able to make future plans. Oltre 1. Di Anna Caldera Redattrice per il Design. It is the most famous design award in Italy, and this edition boasted candidates for the pre-selections in and Of these, only 16 were awarded, whereas the international jury awarded other 56 entries with a Honourable Mention.

Who got the prize? As tradition wants, the prize went to both designers and manufacturers of the chosen objects, chosen amongst those enlisted in the ADI Association of Industrial Design Design Index for and Additional to the above, 11 career awards were handed to individuals and companies who distinguished themselves both in Italy and internationally; as well as 3 awards and 10 merit diplomas Targa Giovani.

As always, the quality of the design is at the forefront, and in actual fact it has represented the main focus of ADI for the last 60 years by selecting the objects though a permanent panel comprised of amongst designers, researchers and subject-matter journalists.

Molte delle sue creazioni sono esposte al Metropolitan Museun e al Moma di New York e in altri 70 musei nel mondo. Conosce Carlo Scarpa nel e inizia a realizzare oggetti per la casa in materiali preziosi. Fino ad oggi una lunghissima lista di creazioni tra gioielli, utensili per la casa, mobili, tappeti e persino borse e calzature. Lavora da sempre con artisti, designer, architetti, ma anche poeti, scrittori e musicisti, quali sono i motivi? Le sue creazioni sono prodotte in grandi tirature o a piccole edizioni esclusive? Sempre piccole produzioni in serie limitate, per nicchie di mercato esclusive, per pochi intenditori ed estimatori.

Gli oggetti Cleto Munari sono molto costosi? Sono fatti per durare nei secoli! Quali materiali vengono preferiti per le sue creazioni? Per tutte le creazioni, i materiali vengono scelti tra i migliori. Per i gioielli ovviamente usiamo oro, platino e pietre preziose. Mentre per i mobili scegliamo essenze pregiate come ebano, ciliegio e pero.

Si tratta di un tavolo rotondo con il piano del diametro di centimetri in marmo, nel quale i numeri disegnati sono stati intagliati e sostituiti con uguali pezzi di marmo nel colore a contrasto. Un oggetto che richiede una lavorazione accuratissima, una sorta di intarsio con i marmi. Oggetti dalla luce spettacolare. A volte passano anni prima di avere una vera grande idea per un oggetto.

Poi seguono le fasi della prototipizzazione e della produzione. Quali sono i progetti futuri? Da una decina di anni ho portato in realizzazione molte creazioni in assolo e devo dire che sono molto riuscite. Nella sua collezione personale ci sono elementi e stilemi ricorrenti, ce li racconta?

Mi fa piacere che si facciano notare i miei stilemi. Ma anche forme geometriche come dischi, cubi e poliedri. E poi il colore, grandi contrasti e toni definiti. Ha mai usato i toni del grigio? Assolutamente no! Io uso solo colori esplosivi. Ha iniziato la sua carriera a 45 anni. Mi sono preparato per fare il designer! I am unable to thank each one, but I cannot avoid expressing my special obligations to some recent publications. I am glad to be able to congratulate Dr. Scartazzini upon the completion of his learned Enciclopedia Dantesca, as well as upon the last edition i of his Edizione Minore of the text.

The invaluable Dante Dictionary of Mr. Paget Toynbee, Mr. Charles Eliot Norton and Mr. Wicksteed have been of great help. To my Wife is due the ample index, and to her is also due my warm acknowledgment of much help and encouragement. The Dowager Duchess of Sermoneta has kindly allowed me to adapt from her late husband's Tavole Dantesche, a coloured plate of the disposition of the universe.

I put forth no claim to originality, except, perhaps, as regards the form in which this work is presented to English readers. The labours of others make all that is valuable herein, and foremost among those must be ranked the Bishop of Ripon, the third distinguished churchman who has honoured me by writing an Introduction to one of the divisions of the. My own share is based upon a life-long devotion to the study of Dante's writings, many years of which were passed in his own country, and associated with those who speak his beloved Tuscan. In the words of the translator of the De Proprietatibus Rerum of Bartholomaeus Anglicus, " I make protestation in the end of this worke, as I did in the beginning, that in all that is in divers matters conteined in this worke, right little or naught have I set of mine owne, but I have followed veritie and truth, and also followed the wordes, meaning, and sences, and comments of Holy Saints and Philosophers.

October, I9oo. THE fortunes of a great work, like those of a great man, are often romantic. During the whole of the seventeenth century there appear to have been only four editions published. The ninety years which followed were more appreciative, as twenty-one editions appeared; but even this number makes only twenty-five editions in a period of nearly two hundred years.

With the age of the Revolution there was a sudden increase of public interest; for, in the last decade of the eighteenth century, no fewer than thirteen editions of the Divine Comedy were brought out. This revival of interest was not confined to Italy; for editions of the Divine Comedy began to issue from the press in France, Germany, and England. As early as I an edition had been printed in Paris, ten years later one appeared in London, and, of the thirteen editions which appeared between I and I.

Xvii b. With the dawn of the nineteenth century this revived interest was sustained, as twelve editions, about half of which were published outside of Italy, made their appearance before I8Io. From this year, the popularity of the Poet steadily rose; the number of editions issued between I8Io and I82o was twenty-six; between I and I the number of editions rose to fortyone; and between I and I to forty-three.

The total number of editions which appeared between I79o and I was I64, or six times as many as there were issued in the I9o years preceding the French Revolution. Such figures strikingly illustrate the declaration of Lamartine: " Dante semble etre le poete de notre epoque. It is even more remarkably established by the changed tone of literary criticism. Four or five generations ago, not only were editions of his works little in demand, but his genius was disparaged, and his great poem was spoken of in terms of doubt and even of derision.

Voltaire could only write of him in slighting and scornful terms. The poet whom Italians called Divine was, in his view, a hidden divinity. The Divine Comedy might indeed find a place in the libraries of the great, but it would remain neglected on the shelves. According to his experience people were ready enough to steal a volume of Ariosto, but none ever purloined a volume of Dante.

The poet, in Voltaire's judgment, would owe his reputation to the mystery which enveloped a work of which people spoke with respect because they were ignorant of it. X1X "Sa reputation s'affermira toujours, parcequ'on ne le lit guaere. There were indeed Italian scholars who assigned to Dante the first place among Italian poets; but, in the opening of the present century, Alfieri complained that, even among his countrymen, the readers of Dante were few in number. Three generations have wrought a change.

Everywhere Dante is studied, written about, translated and commented upon. The poet's life, times and works, have been submitted to searching investigation, with the result that Dante takes his place unchallenged among the demi-gods. Careful research, minute inquiry and keen criticism, have served to bring his genius into clearer light. He now ranks among the mightiest of poets. It is, perhaps, a weakness to speak in superlatives, and he hazards too much who calls Dante the greatest among poets, for Dante lacks some qualities which the very greatest should possess; but it is less hazardous to speak of the Divine Comedy as a poem which holds a lonely and unchallenged place.

He who was not the greatest of poets is yet the author, perhaps, of the greatest poem of the world. Dante, in his great work, displays many of the farreaching and varied gifts which belong to the highest order of poet-lofty imagination, quick and clear insight, close and careful observation of men and things, sound judgment, a happy sense of proportion, deep and tender feeling.

He may be said with justice. He is the close observer of men and things. He is the Dante who "saw everything. He is one to whom all the changing passions of man's nature, his doubts and misgivings, the subtle changefulness of his moods, his strange despondency, his remorse, the liberation of his spirit into joy, were worthy of the deepest reflection. Stories of human life, the quiet comedy, the startling tragedy, and the incident of unspeakable pathos, are embedded in his great poem; strange and heart-moving tales are told or hinted at in a few unforgetable words.

When we study it more deeply, the poem, we find, is full of erudition. Whatever was to be known in the learning of his times Dante knew; but, though the poem is full of erudition, it is free from pedantry. Weaker minds than his would have been encumbered by their learning; vainer minds than his would have debased their art by a vulgar ripple of ostentatious scholarship; but Dante is master of his learning; he does not clumsily drag it along with him; he uses it easily and skilfully as one who has proved it; he carries it as a warrior carries his weapon.

He is saved from the calamitous. He delights us because, though he dwells upon exalted themes, though he has an eye that pierces heaven, and an ear which can hear celestial melodies and words unspeakable, he maintains a right and level judgment. His robust good sense seldom, if ever, deserts him. He is a standing refutation of the theorists who would have us believe that genius is allied to insanity. Like all those who belong to the first rank of genius-like Shakespeare, Milton, Goethe, he possesses what Professor Dowden aptly calls a "large and wholesome sanity.

He seldom lets his judgment go. He has, for example, a zeal for right thinking in matters of belief, but he stands firm upon the ethical basis of faith. He has a reverence for the Church of God, but he opens his eyes wide to real evils. None spoke so clearly or solemnly against the corruptions of his times; none repudiated so completely the validity of mere official pardons. He can recognize the value and need of discipline, but he sees clearly that man is incapable of finally judging of man Par.

He dislikes the extravagant and obstinate pride of consistency. Jephtha had better have said " Mal feci " than have kept his rash vow Par. He hates the narrowness and nascent injustice of partizanship Par. Thus Dante's sound level sense holds its place in his great work. His greatness is the greatness, not of great imaginative gifts alone, nor of great erudition alone, nor of sound judgment alone, nor of musical expression alone; but. This means a genius which can handle with a master hand the materials at his command.

His art is not baffled by reluctant matter. To Dante " la materia" non " e sorda. For this there must be the personal human element. This personal element makes itself felt in the poem. For many readers the sweet human element constitutes the charm of the Divine Comedy. Sainte-Beuve acknowledged that the passages which awakened the quickest response in his heart were those which expressed the dear, tender, instinctive affection of Beatrice guiding and watching over the poet-traveller. These touches of simple human feeling appeal to the individual heart.

But these alone, sweet and delicate as they are, would never have given to the Divine Comedy its lasting and far-reaching interest. There is a personal element in the poem deeper than a dear human friendship-deeper and more eternal. The poem is the journey of a soul: it is the journey of one not seeking adventure but meeting it in the search for truth. It is the story of the discipline of a much tried and much troubled man.

The great " I " of personal experience gives piquancy, depth and fascination to the Divine Comedy. In this it is like Bunyan's great allegory that, beneath the form of the narrative, we may read the story of a travailing soul. The great and. Over the man Dante the heavenly powers watched in sweet and loving solicitude Inf.

He must be quickened with the mysterious and heavenly impulse Par. We meet in the poem a wide range of subjects-historical, philosophical, theological-but the main thread of its purpose is never lost sight of. The personal element in the story continues to the close. As we move from the Inferno to the Purgatorio, and pass on to the Paradiso, we read the record of the wandering, the awakening, the disciplining, and the emancipation of a soul.

The poem is the Pilgrim's Progress of the middle ages. Dante had experiences of life and people, and he expresses these with wondrous force and magnificent elaboration, but there are lessons which he wishes to teach. Beyond all else there are some deep truths which he yearns to tell. Compared with these soul truths, all the rest of his poem-to use the comparison which, as Mr.

Warren Vernon reminds us, Benvenuto da Imola employed-consists. The Divine gleam of truth is the discovery of the way man may attain to the true knowledge of himself and of God; and it is not till the Paradiso is reached that this discovery is fully made. The Inferno is the best-known portion of Dante's great poem: the Paradiso is the least known. There are attractions around the Inferno which cannot be claimed for the Paradiso. There is a sense in which evil and its consequences are more interesting to us than good and its fruit. The story of the wicked leaves more opening for dramatic fascination than the story of the final rest and peace of the good.

The steeps of the Purgatorio are thronged with those who, in their struggles and aspirations, are more akin to ourselves than the quiet saints and stately doctors of the Paradiso. But no reader can claim to understand Dante who does not go with him into the Paradiso. Here, if anywhere, we need the moral preparedness which is indispensable to the deeper apprehension of the Poet's meaning.

Dante himself warns off flippant and worldly-minded readers. Only those sustained by heavenly strength can wisely follow. Voi altri pochi, che drizzaste il collo Per tempo al pan degli Angeli, del quale Vivesi qui, ma non sen vien satollo, Metter potete ben per 1' alto sale Vostro navigio. The visions here disclosed cannot be told in the lan. We are not surprised therefore to find ourselves in the midst of altered conditions. The toil of the Purgatorio is left behind: there progress was effort; in the Paradiso it is no longer due to human exertion, but to a Divine impulse: the traveller has but to surrender himself to the happy conditions around him, and a celestial power carries him on.

To move upwards is now as natural to the transfigured pilgrim as the fall of water downward was natural on earth: Non dei piu ammirar, se bene estimo, Lo tuo salir, se non come d' un rivo Se d' alto monte scende giuso ad imo. The power thus to enter the new conditions depends upon the change in the pilgrim. The man with the risen soul can rise.

The spiritualized being mounts instinctively Godward, drawn by that love to which it bears such sweet and strong affinity:S' io era sol di me quel che creasti Novellamente, Amor che il ciel governi, Tu il sai, che col tuo lume mi levasti. The pilgrim so transfigured can traverse the wonderful realm that is full of light, music and smiles. Light dwells there: and the light of that day is sevenfold: but it is light which displays itself in such sweet. There is rest there, but it is not stagnation: it is the active rest of happily harmonized powers.

There is music there: the air thrills with it, but it never bewilders: it steals upon the ear in modulated and well-discriminated harmony. Everywhere the heaven seems to smile:Ci6 ch' io vedeva mi sembrava un riso Dell' universo- Par. This is not surprising, for it is the realm where love apparels itself in smiles:O dolce amor, che di riso t' ammanti. And all things there take on an outward beauty, because filled with the pure love and unalloyed goodness which is at the heart of things. This is the region into which Mr.

Warren Vernon seeks to lead his readers: as a help to which he has made this new contribution to the literature of Dante. Dante literature, in the view of an eminent publisher, is now so voluminous in England that no new book has a reasonable prospect of success, unless it has either a great name or exceptional intrinsic merit to recommend it.

The problem to-day is not to find a good book on Dante, but to choose one: selection, not discovery, is the difficulty which confronts the student. In this task Mr. Warren Vernon comes to help us. He brings the two con. He bears a name long known and reverenced by Dante students, both for his father's sake and his own. Few men have devoted more time to his self-chosen task: few have laboured more patiently and modestly to guide the footsteps of students.

The value of his works is not merely in the careful and loyal devotion which they display: it lies also in the happy art with which he labours. He is a teacher, earnest to make his pupils understand what they are reading. The student is not allowed to be slipshod; difficulties are not ignored: they are faced and discussed, but discussion never degenerates into prolix disquisition; the course and movement of the poem is not forgotten in a desultory excursion into side issues; the reader is being constantly brought back to the mid-stream of the Poet's thought.

And when some of us, who have long been students of Dante, remember the character and quality of the books which awaited the beginner a quarter of a century ago, we are tempted to be envious of the young student of to-day, who can make his first excursion into the realms which Dante opens, under the well-skilled and enthusiastic guidance of Mr. William Warren Vernon, who in these pages gives us the fruits of the long diligence with which he has studied the Poet's works. O degli altri poeti onore e lume, Vagliami il lungo studio e il grande amore Che m' ha fatto cercar lo tuo volume.

THE whole system of cosmography, upon which Dante based his visionary journey through the three regions of departed spirits, is so knit together, that it is not easy to avoid repetition in treating of it as applied to one region only. I find myself, therefore, compelled to repeat pp. Before readers of the Divina Commedia can form a just comprehension of the many allusions Dante makes to the structure of the universe, it is necessary for them to have some notion of the system of cosmography that prevailed in his days.

This was known xxix. To this system Dante added certain creations of his own, and we shall find that he has linked the astronomical, or, as they were then called, the astrological, doctrines of the Schoolmen with an allegorical system that is mainly the fruit of his own imagination. The Earth is supposed to be stationary in the centre of the universe, and the planets to revolve round it, within concentric spheres, and in the following order: i the Moon; ii Mercury; iii Venus; iv the Sun; v Mars; vi Jupiter; and vii Saturn.

In addition to these seven spheres, there are three others still more vast, namely, viii the Starry Heaven; ix the Primum Mobile or Cielo Cristallino; and last of all x the Empyrean, or Cielo Quieto. Besides these, there are two spheres supposed to belong to the Earth itself, namely, the Sphere of Air, and the Sphere of Fire. The Empyrean, or Cielo Quieto, is motionless, but the other nine spheres revolve in their respective orbits, their movements being directed by as many choirs of Angels, whom Dante styles Intelligenze Celesti, and who are of a greater or less hierarchical order, corresponding to the precedence of that particular sphere of heaven which they set in motion.

Quegli altri amor, che intorno a lor vonno, Si chiaman Troni L' altro ternaro, che cosi germoglia Prima Dominazioni, e poi Virtudi; L' ordine terzo di Podestadi ee. Poscia nei due penultimi tripudi Principati ed Arcangeli si girano; L' ultimo e tutto d' Angelici ludi. We shall see in it that the sciences of the Trivium and the Quadrivium, the philosophical and the theological sciences, are severally represented in the ten separate heavens which in their concentric orbits surrounded the earth.

The Sphere of Fire. The Heaven of the Moon 2. The Stellar Heaven 9. The Crystalline Heaven, or Primum Mobile o1. Astrology Natural Science. Moral Science. The general characteristics of each planetary heaven, and its occupants, are as follow:The First Heaven, moved by Angels Angeli , emblematical of Grammar Grammatica , is that of the waxing and waning Moon, and is tenanted by Spirits, whose wills were imperfect through Instability, and failed to keep their holy vows Spiriti Votivi Mancanti. The Second Heaven, moved by Archangels Arcangeli , emblematical of Logic Dialettica , is that of Mercury, "more veiled from the Sun's rays than is any other star" Conv.

The Fourth Heaven, moved by the Powers Potestati , emblematical of Arithmetic A ritmetica , is that of the Sun, the chief material light, and the middle Planetary Heaven. It is tenanted by the Spirits of those who loved Wisdom, the great spiritual and intellectual lights of Divinity and Philosophy Spiriti Sapienti. The Seventh Heaven, moved by the Thrones Troni , emblematical of Astrology Astrologia , is the cold orbit of Saturn, and is tenanted by the Spirits of Monks and Hermits who lived in the contemplation of holy things Spiriti Contemplanti.

Here all the Elect have a place. None of the nine heavens is the true abode of any spirit. The spirits appear in these heavens to meet Dante, but their real abiding place is the Mystical White Rose, and here they are seen in their true forms sitting on thrones which constitute the petals of the glorious flower of Heaven. The Rose includes both a horizontal and a vertical division.

The horizontal division is seen half way up; all the blessed below that line are those who died in infancy, all above it they who died in matured life. The vertical division is seen at the two opposite points of the half circumference, the Spirits on the left being those who in life had looked forward to Christ Coming, while the Spirits on the right are they who in life had looked backward to Christ Come.

Not all the thrones in this right-hand division are occupied, but the number of places still unoccupied are not many in number. Up in the farthest heights are manifested the glory of God Himself, the mystery of the Blessed Trinity, and the union of the Divine with the Human Nature of the Son of God. Much has been written about the conjectural dimensions of Dante's Hell and Purgatory, but no attempts have ever been made to compute the limits of his Paradise.

Immensity is the key-note of all Dante's conceptions, and his Paradise extends into the undefined and boundless expanse of the most distant regions of the universe. The probable dates between which Dante began and ended his composition of the Inferno and the Purgatorio are the subjects of many treatises, but of the Paradiso we have had but scant information. In Readings on the Inferno, vol.

He had doubtless arranged a skeleton form, the dry bones of which he may from time to time have clothed with flesh. Perchance all the episodes and all the similes of the Commedia had been collected together like so many rare gems to form a diadem, which he only put together in the last- eight years of his life. Witte Forschungen, vol. I39 expresses a strong belief that Dante's dedication of the Paradiso to Cangrande Ep. He sees no reason to disbelieve the statement of Boccaccio, that the last thirteen Cantos of the Paradiso were only discovered in a secret hiding place after the death of their author.

Some portions of the Paradiso, beyond a doubt, became known during Dante's life, for Cecho d' Ascoli, a poet who was burnt alive at Florence in , in his poem L' A cerba, makes more than one allusion to passages which he must have seen in Dante's Third Cantica, e. Whatever be the truth as to when the Paradiso was begun, and when ended, I cannot believe that it was only composed and written in the closing days of Dante's life.

There is in it no trace of haste, nor is it the work of an author whose best style had passed away, and who wrote in the evening of his life. It displays a vigour which renders such a supposition impossible, and the soaring flights of Dante's lofty conceptions reach in his Paradiso a sublimity that seem to carry his readers through the radiant portals of Heaven itself.

All in it is Light-glowing, flashing, dazzling Light-Light in the bright regions through which he passes-increasing as he is conveyed higher and higher to one sphere more radiant than another. He says himself that the composition of his great poem had been the labour of many years. XXXVll We read at the end of the Vita Nuova that this poem was to be the great object of his life, that in it he might speak of his Beatrice as never woman was extolled before, and we can hardly believe that that part of the poem in which her Apotheosis is specially mentioned would have been left to the last.

Of course, from the time of the death of Henry VII in I to Dante's own death in I32I, much would have to be filled in or altered, but it seems plain to me that the outline and principal episodes had been written long before, and indeed that they were not altogether unknown to Dante's contemporaries. The most valuable and thoughtful discussion of this interesting subject, I find in a treatise by Professor Francesco D' Ovidio of Naples, entitled Tre Discussioni Dantesche Naples, I , one of which is La data della composizione e divulgazione della Commedia, and I am glad that Prof.

D' Ovidio has emphasized the separation between the composition and the publication. He thinks with Witte that Boccaccio's story is quite credible, and that Dante had been struck down by death before he had made a complete publication of the whole Commedia. But says Prof. D' Ovidio that does not mean that part of the poem may not have leaked out, to friends, to admirers, or to patrons of the poet.

It cannot be too strongly pointed out that in those days the issue of works did not leave between the published and the unpublished that gulf which printing has introduced in our time. There was not such a considerable difference between the sending to a friend the transcript, or part-transcript, of a book, and the sending out many transcripts. Let us remember that Boccaccio, in order to bring Petrarch to condescend to read the Commedia at all, felt himself obliged to send him a copy written by his own hand.

Let us remember that in those days there was no such thing as copyright, or at all events not copyright as at present understood; and also that the poor exile would no doubt feel himself obliged every now and then to send to his protectors an occasional specimen of his genius, lest they might think that his mind was a barren soil.

We have learned in the precious correspondence between Dante and Giovanni del Virgilio that the latter was acquainted with the passage in the Inferno where Dante describes himself as one of the six poets in Limbo; also of the part assigned to Statius, and about the river Lethe, in the Purgatorio. Allusion, too, is made to the comic recitations that were being made by street singers of the satirical hits that had become known, and Dante, we read, promises Giovanni del Virgilio to send him ten Cantos of the Paradiso; alluding at the same time to the Inferno and Purgatorio as works completed and published.

Most significant is the following:" quum mundi circumflua corpora cantu Astricolaeque meo, velut infera regna, patebunt, Devincire caput hedera lauroque juvabit. D 'Ovidio paraphrases thus: " It will be my delight to crown myself with laurel when in my verses shall have been unveiled the revolving bodies of the universe and the companies of the Saints, as have already been unveiled the realms below, that is,.

Giovanni del Virgilio takes Dante to task for casting such pearls before swine, as to allow the solemn contents of his poem to go forth to the lower orders in the common dialect of the country, instead of retaining it sacred for students in Latin, the language of the cultured literary world. All this indicates that parts of the Commedia were so well known at the time, that the very street singers had got hold of them. Petrarch seems to have written very contemptuously to Boccaccio about it, sarcastically compassionating Dante for being read among idiotic people in the taverns and open squares, tossed about by the breezes of popular applause, the delight of washerwomen, of tavern-keepers, and corporals sic.

There are two sonnets of the Venetian poet Giovanni Quirini, in one of which he sends, as a loan to a friend, li libro di Dante, begging him to take great care of it; but it is not clear from it whether Dante was still alive. In the other he supplicates some great personage, most probably Cangrande, to come to a decision, and publish to the world Dante's third Cantica.

The following are the lines:" Io sono un vostro fedel servidore bramoso di veder la gloria santa del Paradiso ch' el poeta canta;. Lo qual intese, et so ch' intende ancore, che di voi prima per lo mondo spanta agli altri fosse questa ovra cotanta. The words so ch' intende ancore rather point to Quirini's friendly presumption of being himself the safe interpreter of Dante now that Dante is dead. The words imply: " He intended when he was alive, and my heart tells me that he still has the same intention up there in heaven, that you should be the publisher of his third Cantica.

In short, one may gather from this episode that, when Quirini wrote his sonnet, perhaps in sorrow for the quite recent death of Dante, and in intense anxiety lest Italy should lose the completion of his great work, the Inferno and Purgatorio were widely known, if not actually published; so that the anxiety of Quirini, as an admirer of Dante, must have been for the literary fate of the Paradiso alone. D'Ovidio scouts the idea promulgated by certain learned authorities, that Dante only sat down to write his poem after the death of Henry VII.

In that case the many years piui anni of study, devoted to the Sacred Poem, which, in his words Par. The work in its entirety certainly did not issue till after Dante's death, but it is evident that he allowed passages here and there, even of the Paradiso, to become known; and it is certain that it could only be after the year I that the finishing touches could have been put to either of the three Cantiche. The Paradiso has the name of being, and is, by far the most difficult and obscure of the three parts of the Divine Comedy. Ordinary readers are arrested in their progress by the number of metaphors and allegories; by the arrangement of the Heavenly Spheres according to the now obsolete Ptolemaic system, and more than all, by philosophical and theological expositions.

Even Dante's own son Pietro seems to have shrunk from solving some of the intricate problems discussed by his father, for in his own commentary on the Commedia, at the end of Canto ii of the Paradiso, he remarks: " Alia per te vide, immo omnia, quia nil vidi, nec intellexi. For these latter, as Dante himself tells us Par. But these are not the only excellences of the Paradiso, and the non-philosophical reader will find in it passages of rare and matchless beauty. Among others we may mention, what Mr. Gardner Dante Primer, p. The Saone does not flow into the sea, but into the Rhone, and is not therefore what Dante Purg.

Francis compared with the cherubic light of St. Dominic, and the beautiful description of the life of the former Canto xi ; Dante's ascent into the Heaven of Mars, and the Warrior Spirits in the form of a Heavenly Cross Canto xiv ; the noble Canto of Cacciaguida and the description of ancient Florence Canto xv ; the old families Canto xvi ; Cacciaguida's prediction of the sorrows of Dante's future life Canto xvii ; the evil rulers of Europe reprehended by the mouth of the Eagle Canto xix ; Pier Damiano's description of his Monastery on Monte Catria Canto xxi ; Beatrice compared to a bird watching for the dawn, the glorious Vision of the Triumph of Christ, and the Apotheosis of the Virgin Canto xxiii ; the lines of infinite pathos and beauty in which Dante expresses his supreme hope that the recognition of his great poem may some day earn for him a recall from banishment Canto xxv ; the exquisite hymn sung by the Heavenly Host in the Stellar Heaven, and St.

Peter's denunciation of his unworthy successors Canto xxvii ; the reprehension by Beatrice of the preachers of Dante's time and of the sale of Indulgences Canto xxix ; the Empyrean, the River of Light, the Heavenly Rose, and the empty throne awaiting Henry VII Canto xxx ; Beatrice's return to her seat in the Rose, and the glory of the Blessed Virgin Canto xxxi ; and finally St. Bernard's beautiful prayer to the Virgin, and Dante's sublime vision of the Holy Trinity. There is little reference to time in Dante's third Cantica which can be spoken of with any certainty.

We believe that he returned from Eunoe at noon on Wednesday in Easter week, and that he and Beatrice began to ascend from the Earthly Paradise into Heaven at that same hour. There are two references to time, but of a rather doubtful nature, in Par. Dante is thought by some to have taken twenty-four hours to ascend through the Spheres into the Empyrean, and to have awakened from his vision on the morning of Friday in Easter week in our world, thereby taking seven days for the time supposed to have been occupied by him in making his mystical journey through the three Realms of the unseen world.

In reading the Divina Commedia, one is constantly met with references to the life and feelings of the Poet himself, which merit respectful attention. These references have many illustrations in the traditional stories relating to Dante, which enlist our sympathy and approval. There are two classes of writers on. My own preference is with those who display a tender regret in abandoning any long-cherished tradition or episode, where close and impartial investigation has failed to convince them of its authenticity.

Their gentle handling of the subject contrasts pleasantly with what one may be tempted to call the note of brutal exultation with which the other class of writers, both English and foreign, are apt to trumpet their success, if able to throw doubts upon some hitherto well-established belief, when following Dante through the hidden paths of his exiled life. How much posterity owes to Dante's sorrows! The man, who had so sorrowed himself, has left in his writings comfort and consolation to many a sorrowing heart, among those who read him in modern times.

And while our feelings of wrathful indignation are on the one hand aroused against that unnatural Florence, which dealt so hardly with the greatest of her sons; yet, on the other hand, we find that Dante's own eager yearnings after the city of his birth, to which, up to the moment of his latest breath, he still hoped to return, have made us love that Florence for his sake. As I often remarked in these volumes, one leading fact, too often lost sight of, should always be kept in view, namely, that Dante was a Florentine, and wrote for Tuscans. Their beautiful language, with its boundless wealth of idioms and matchless grace of pronunciation, was that of his Divine Comedy.

Every word of his great poem had a set purpose, and must be investigated from the Tuscan point of view, rather than from that of the poorer language of Piedmont and Lombardy. The most homely utensils of domestic furniture in Tuscany were brought in to serve the purpose of his similes. Take one instancethe familiar conca, the earthenware pan for containing lye, so well known in every Tuscan household, the almost conical shape of which serves him to describe the shape of Hell Inf. Take the rosta, the wattle-screen on the Pistojan hills, which guards the chestnut crop in the woods from being swept away by a sudden mountain flood, but which in the Forest.

These are but two instances taken at hazard, the one from the domestic life of the townspeople, the other from that of the peasantry of Dante's ever remembered, ever regretted country. In Inf. This simile is not borrowed from the kitchens of great people. Dante did not write for such as Lucullus and Apicius only, and his comparisons had to be taken from the most common objects. Again, when describing the grievous torment these shades were undergoing from the irritation of skin disease, he likens their frantic efforts to get relief, to the curry-combing of a horse by a groom, or to the scaling of a fish by a cook.

The familiar aspect, existing to this day in Italy, of blind beggars sitting on the ground outside the doors of the Churches, leaning against each other, comes back to his mind when in Purg. The malaria of the Tuscan Maremma, and the futile attempts of those days to cure it by drainage, are cited; as is in another place the insalubrious valley of the Chiana, whose sluggish course formed marshes so pestiferous that, in Dante's time, not only had branch hospitals to be established all-over the district,.

In Purg. But the Divine Comedy is Dante himself. If there exists a work from which it is impossible to separate for one instant the presence of its author, it is indeed this one. Dante is unceasingly present-he is indeed scarcely absent in a single line-he is at the same time the hero and the chief actor in its scenes. It is with him that we undergo the glare of the flames of Hell, with him that we shiver in the icy blasts of Cocytus. Were once his presence removed, in an instant the illusive image, which had kept our hearts and minds in subjection, would vanish likewise.

It is among the torments of Hell and the penances of Purgatory that we see Dante in all his humanity. In Purgatory, too, we see Dante's humanity even more strongly exhibited. There is one quality that he exhibits in himself, which is a singular contrast to the character tradition gives him of having fought as a brave soldier at the battle of Campaldino, and that is, his pusillanimity if the expression is not too strong whilst journeying through Hell and Purgatory.

He is always afraid; he is continually relating his fears. He clutches hold of Virgil in frantic terror, he hides himself behind his shoulders. We must not forget that the Divina Commedia is all fiction, and that probably Dante's assumed cowardice is merely an artist's device to intensify the horror of what he describes. Two curious pictures he gives us of the barbarous punishments of his times. The one, where he minutely describes the custom then prevalent of binding a robber to a stake, and afterwards planting him head downwards in a hole dug for the purpose; and how the friar bent down to hear the confession of the inverted malefactor, before the moment when the hole would be filled up and the victim choked.

The other picture is when Virgil, in obedience to the call of the Angel, urges Dante to walk through the zone of fire which alone separates him from the stairway to the Earthly Paradise where he is to meet Beatrice. All Dante's horror-struck feelings are aroused to the highest degree, and his highly-wrought imagination recalls the ghastly and sickening details he has witnessed of criminals being burned at the stake; nor must we forget that his mind would have.


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  • It is a beautiful and touching incident of his life, that when he had already attained to the first rank as a man of letters; when his learning and science had earned for him a world-wide reputation, he could yet, in those lines of infinite pathos and beauty Par. In comparison with the joy of being re-admitted into his native city-but readmitted without dishonour-all earthly distinctions in his eyes were valueless.

    He had apparently travelled in foreign countries, without however contracting any love for foreign nations, i. His world is Italy-his State is Tuscany-his city is Florence. Of the many pictures and busts which claim to represent Dante, there are but two which can be regarded as likenesses of genuine authenticity. These are a the death-mask in the Museum of Florence, and b the portrait by Giotto in the Bargello.

    The former will be found as the frontispiece of my Readings on the Inferno, the latter forms the frontispiece of my Readings on the Purgatorio. It is with this latter that I am chiefly concerned.

    Table of contents

    The most competent observers have come to the conclusion that the resemblance of the portrait to the cast is unmistakable. Filippo Villani, in his Life of Giotto, says that in a painting on the walls of the chapel of the Bargello, then known as the Palazzo del Podesta, Giotto had introduced portraits of himself and of Dante, but he does not mention the circumstance in his own life of Dante. The only one of the early biographers who does allude to it is Landino, who, after naming two portraits of Dante, one in Santa Croce, and the other in the Cappella del Podesta, says of the latter "resta ancora.

    These passages in Villani and Vasari aroused much attention with the revival of Dante studies in Italy at the beginning of the last century, and both Moreni about I8oo, and Missirini in I, made prolonged though ineffectual search for the portraits. They obtained permission from the authorities to clear the chapel of the Bargello and remove the plaster, and had associated with them-most unfortunately as it turned out-a certain Antonio Marini, an unsuccessful painter of Pisa.

    For a long time their labours were in vain, for the walls were so thickly covered with plaster that they could only remove it very slowly and carefully. At last, on the 2ISt July, I, they came upon the painting, and saw Dante's face with all the freshness of youth upon it, and before sorrow and disappointment had marked their indelible traces upon his noble countenance. He is represented as the middle figure in a group of three, while the other two figures seem to bear out the statements of F.

    Dante's dress appears to be the ordinary civil costume of the upper classes, and is similar to his attire in Michelino's portrait of him in the Duomo. His hair is entirely concealed by the cap, so that one cannot verify the tradition of its having been auburn-tinted in his youth. He carries. It has been thought that these symbolize the three Kingdoms of Hell, Purgatory and Paradise. As Kirkup secretly made a copy of the portrait of Dante in a small book before it had been irreparably damaged by Marini, it will be interesting to hear his own remarks about it.

    These have been very kindly furnished me by Colonel William Gillum, who is the actual possessor of the little book with Kirkup's original coloured copy. He often showed me his copy of the Convivio, with the Bargello portrait of Dante painted on the inside of the parchment cover Both in and during the three years we were in Florence from to i he talked over and over again of the Bargello portrait.

    Kirkup had made a contract with Marini to clear the chapel in the Bargello then a prison. It-had been divided in two, and used as a pantry for the prisoners. Kirkup took his little copy of L' Amoroso Convivio Convito and holding it in his hat, made an outline sketch. Iv third visit he coloured it; at a fourth he finished it. Once he got himself locked in while the workmen went to dinner, got on the scaffolding, and made a tracing. From this, and from the coloured drawing in the Convivio, he made the drawing for Lord Vernon, which was reproduced by the Arundel Society.

    He drove two large beams into the wall, but this having been forbidden by Kirkup, trestles cavalletti were used. Crowds flocked to the chapel when it was known that the frescoes were discovered. After about six months, Government took the work up which Kirkup had begun, paying Marini 40 scudi. When first the hole which destroyed the eye was seen, Marini said it was a nail.

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    It may have been put in by some prisoner to hang things on. At first it was small, but Kirkup declared that fingers had been put in, with the remark 'v'e un buco. Kirkup was refused re-admission. Marini wished to make and engrave a copy of the fresco. The vest of the original was green, but authority-troppo gelosa -for political reasons, would not allow the red, white and green the Italian national colours to remain, and ordered Marini to alter the dress into a chocolate colour, as had been done to Michelino's picture in.

    The new eye is too small, and too near the nose. The nose of the restoration is too aquiline, and the face altogether different. Giotto's fresco might now be restored by carefully applying a wet cloth and probing carefully. Three pomegranates in Dante's right hand denote the three Kingdoms.

    There is a crown on the top of the pomegranate 'pomo coronato'. One day Kirkup told me the pomegranates were there when he made the sketch; but as his object was to draw the face, he did not draw them then, and Marini destroyed them. I obtained from Professor D' Ancona of Pisa a letter of introduction to the Sindaco of Ravenna, the Marquis Rasponi, to whom I wrote offering a proof of the Arundel portrait of Dante for his town, and well deserving it, whilst Florence is so disgracefully indifferent to his memory.

    The print is really a fine work of art, both for its beauty and its great correctness, for which I can answer. There is nothing of my own. I refused to restore the eye which Mr. Marini destroyed by pulling out a nail, and I left the hole as I found it at the time as a pledge of the authenticity of the rest. Ivii told me of, or the sarcophagus in his chapel I daresay there are not many alive who saw it in the short time it was visible, before it was so badly repainted by a wretched dauber, who was sent away from Pisa for his incapacity, and obtained this job from the favour of Cavalier Montalvo, who has ruined most of the best works in the Pitti palace and the Uffizi, which were in the most perfect condition.

    He also had a hand in destroying all the monuments of Dante in Florence, and the grand font of the Baptisteria [sic] of Pisa; in Florence the portrait by Giotto, and that by Michelino, the house, the Sasso, the Villa, the tomb of Guglielmo Berardi [who fell at the battle of Campaldino], the bust at the Studio, all since I arrived in Florence in Rossetti's coment [sic] is at Vieusseux's Library you say.

    He dedicated it to me for finding Giotto's fresco. Is there no chance of recovering that? They have owned they are afraid of O. A little water is all that is wanted, applied with caution and delicacy-it ought not to cost more than 10 dollars. Soon there will be no one alive who ever saw the original. You know from my sketch how different it was in I to the present daub-and the Arundel tracing is a facsimile.

    What other city could boast such monuments as these few treasures of Dante? The ignorant fools will neither preserve them nor let others do it. Think if we had such memorials of Shakespeare, what care would be taken to save them! II riproduce fedelmente 1' opera antica, prima che i restauri praticati nel dipinto 1' anno 1' avessero non poco alterata, rifacendo 1' occhio sinistro con parte della guancia, e variando la forma del cappuccio e il colore delle vesti. L' occhio fu. II cappuccio originalmente era bianco ma soppannato in rosso, rossa la cappa e soppannata in bianco, di sotto alla quale scorgevasi un farsetto di color verde che ora non pii si vede.

    Dal che apparisce che il bianco, il rosso e il verde erano i simbolici colori, ne' quali solevasi Dante rappresentare, non altrimenti che la sua Beatrice da lui descritta nel Purgatorio: 'Sotto candido vel cinta d' oliva Donna m' apparve sotto verde manto, Vestita di color di fiamma viva. From this original drawing now at Sudbury Hall, Derbyshire, was made the Arundel reproduction. The photograph, which is the frontispiece of the Album Volume of the Vernon Dante, was taken by Lord Vernon's son, William Warren Vernon, from the original drawing at the beginning of Rimasto cosi lungamente occulto e dimenticato, fu finalmente ricercato e scoverto per opera dei Signori Bezzi e Wilde, nel , dietro gl' indizi loro dati dal Seymour Kirkup sui ricordi lasciatine dal F Villani e dal Vasari.

    Canto I. Easter I. Immediately after Dante's return from the holy water of Wednesday, Eunoi Purg. Dante, like Beatrice, is able to gaze upon the Sun's rays Dante, awe-struck at the extraordinary increase of sunlight around him, is informed by Beatrice that he is swiftly rising from earth into heaven Canto II.

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