In addition, Turner-McGrievy et al. Self-selection sampling method was used. The selected sample was mostly newcomers to exercise and the time of study was in the second semester of the academic year and the designed program started before the middle of the semester at the period of first midterm exams. They were assigned into two groups in a nonrandomized way. The inclusion criteria were as follows: the participants should have online social network Instagram accounts, female students in the age range from 18 to 25 years.
The participants were excluded if they are pregnant and had any medical problems. The purpose and procedure of the study and the activity program were explained and demonstrated to each participant. Each participant who agreed to participate signed written informed consent approved by the institutional ethics committee. Anthropometric parameters including body weight, height, and body mass index BMI were measured. The participants wore simple clothing and had no footwear. Height was measured using a fixed stadiometer resolution of 0. The weight was measured with Beurer glass diagnostic scale resolution of 0.
The EMI-2 is made up of 51 items that constitute 14 subscales, which provide extensive measure of motivation to engage in physical activity. Table 1 details the lists of subscales, number of items, and sample questions. Each item was answered on a 5-point scale ranging from 0 not at all true for me to 5 very true for me [ 15 ]. This workout was lower to moderate intensity and is made for the beginners.
The participants were divided into two groups the intervention group Instagram group and the control group. The intervention group had an online social network Instagram accounts; however, control group had no such account. An email was sent to all of the participants about the date for returning the adherence sheet and only the intervention group received the study account in Instagram and was required to follow it.
A variety of techniques were used in Instagram to improve motivation for adherence to PA.
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First, a small number of pictures were posted to educate the participants about the benefits of PA such as benefits of exercise on bone density, back pain, stress, and mood. Secondly, Instagram was used as an alarm, to remind them to do the exercise sessions at each week. They asked to post their own pictures of adherence sheet when they complete the session in order to motivate other participants to do the exercise.
It focused mainly on the lower body and was also generally for all the body. It consists of a warmup, workout, and a cool down at the end of the video. This activity is designed to be performed at home without any need for any exercise equipment or registration in a gym and this type of activity was moderate intensity physical activity, minutes per week according to the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans [ 17 ].
After the period of intervention, which was 4 weeks, a feedback questionnaire was collected to investigate the flexibility, effectiveness, and motivation level for given program activity. The unpaired -test was chosen to compare adherence between the two independent groups intervention and control groups. Descriptive statistics for the motivational factors and the flexibility and effectiveness of the program were employed to analyze the data.
A level of significance was taken. Fifty-eight students completed the EMI-2 survey, and 47 of 58 were included in the intervention and control groups to test the efficacy of intervention. Table 2 shows the general characteristics of the study sample, the total number of study participants amounted to 58 unmarried females. Table 3 shows the important extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors. Table 4 reflects the difference between the two groups with regard to adherence to the exercise program, according to the number of sessions that had been done in 4 weeks. There is a significant difference between the two groups.
Music as a Prime
Table 6 shows the result of the second section of the questionnaire which reflects the nonadherence reasons. Twenty students indicate academic stress as a reason while only one student felt not motivated by the program. Previous studies suggested that the use of electronic media to improve motivation had an effect in improving adherence among participants [ 12 — 14 ]. In the present study, participants from the intervention group performed more than eight sessions compared to control group who performed sessions only; this might be referred to the motivation caused by Instagram in the intervention group.
These findings were consistent with those observed in the previous study [ 13 ], who reported increased accelerometer-measured PA in the Internet and mobile phone based PA group. Similarly, the results of a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [ 18 ] reported that the social media may provide certain advantages for public health interventions.
From the above discussion it follows that adherence is a subjective characteristic that all people have in different levels and it is affected by many social and personal factors that must be considered in any situation [ 19 ]. Similarly, disease prevention, physical fitness, body weight management, and stress management were the commonest factors reported in the previous study to improve motivation for exercise in university students [ 20 ]. In addition, females are very often concerned about body weight and being agile and this consisted in another study conducted among active college students, which observed a similar pattern of scores on nimbleness, with women considering this the most important motive for exercise [ 21 ].
Moreover, it can be said that the extrinsic factors were more often observed as motives for exercise while the intrinsic factors were more related to the sports participation [ 10 ]. Participants were asked to perform exercise sessions as they feel and want to get benefits of PA, so they could continue in any type of regular PA.
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Adherence to certain exercise programs is predicted by using of motivation in the program, and it is an effective way to encourage a person to participate in the activity [ 22 ]. In the present study, motivation by exercising at home was used. From the reported findings, it can be said that the given physical activity program was sufficiently flexible to be performed at home without the need to register with a fitness gym and use any exercise equipment, or any specific recruitments of exercise.
Therefore, exercising at home could improve adherence to regular physical activity, especially if the program is combined with a self-reported adherence sheet which can give the trainee more acceptance with and confidence in the program. In addition, there may be an encouragement for adherence to exercise due to the positive feelings related to the accomplishment achieved during the sessions. These results are comparable with the previous study who found that self-monitoring of home exercise is effective in improving exercise adherence and self-efficacy [ 11 ].
Moreover, investigating the flexibility and effectiveness of the designed home exercise program to improve adherence to PA was an objective of the current study. This may indicate that the program was effective in a motivational way to encourage participation in the activity program but for adherence it was insufficient. In the previous study, the lack of time was one of the commonly reported reasons for nonadherence [ 23 ].
Another study reported poor adherence for high-intensity PA compared to low-intensity exercise [ 24 ]. Abdul Salam and Siddiqui have investigated the social-demographic determinants of compliance among Type-2 diabetic patients and they concluded that the Saudi patients were significantly compliant with medication while non-Saudis were compliant with exercise [ 25 ].
In addition, adherence to treatment and self-care activities such as diet and exercise was also identified as adherence predictors among diabetic patients [ 26 ]. The often sedentary lifestyle of the Saudi population and the lack of a culture of exercise and deep knowledge about PA benefits were also thought to be strongly related to the previous reasons for nonadherence to PA. Previous studies reported a high rate of physical inactivity in Saudi populations [ 5 , 27 ]. Finally, it is well known that health beliefs and cultural influences are thought to be factors related to adherence levels among any population [ 28 ].
In addition, there is a causal relationship between health beliefs and the level of physical exercise [ 29 ]. Additionally, cultural influences may lead to physical inactivity among Saudi women [ 6 ]. The present study had some potential limitations. The sample size was small due to the short duration of study time. If the study had included multiple colleges on the campus, diverse findings might have emerged. The study required to receive adherence sheets about the activity program from all included participants.
In addition, sample was selected based on self-selection technique instead of probability sampling, which could affect the results. For future research, it is recommended that further investigation in this field needs to be undertaken in different colleges on the campus as well as at various universities, and with a sample which includes people with different levels of education, and increased duration of intervention to test adherence to PA program more accurately.
Home based exercise is a good motivational way to participate in physical exercise, but it was found insufficient for exercise adherence. Thus more effective modifications to this type of motivation may well improve adherence. Health providers and trainers at the health centers should activate the use of social network sites to provide guidance, instruction, and motivation to the people to maintain regular PA in order to gain a healthy lifestyle.
The adherence to PA among female college students was poor. The use of Instagram with the home exercise program as a motivational modality could be attractive and effective to reinforce adherence and maintain appropriate PA levels among these populations. BioMed Research International. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded.
Journal Menu. Special Issues Menu. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Objective. Introduction Adherence to physical activity PA leads to improvements in physical function and quality of life [ 1 ]. Table 3: Frequency and percentage of the extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors. Table 4: Difference between the participants in adherence to the activity program. Table 5: Measuring the flexibility, effectiveness, and motivation of the activity program.
References M. Morey, C. Situations and circumstances will determine which category in table 4. The first category, intrinsically stimulating, works particularly well for diverse groups of exercisers who do not necessarily have common cultural reference points e. The second category, slow tempo with strong extramusical associations, would serve individuals or small groups of exercisers with common cultural reference points e.
The key consideration is that the exerciser s do not require a great deal of bodily activation but more mental stimulation, perhaps as a precursor to engaging in a stretching, yoga, or Pilates session. Older people and introverts tend not to like highly stimulative music; therefore, the second category might be ideal for them.
The third category is for individuals or groups with common cultural points of reference who are about to engage in vigorous and demanding physical activity e. Here the goal is to activate or stimulate both the mind and body to a high degree. Younger and more extroverted exercisers tend to report a preference for more stimulative music as well.
You might wonder why there is no fourth category of slow-tempo music without extramusical associations i. It can, however, play a role in preparing people for sport see chapter 7.
Learn more about Applying Music in Exercise and Sport. Get the latest news, special offers, and updates on authors and products. About Our Products. Career Opportunities. Connect with Us. Please Sign In or Create an Account. Active Aging. Social Studies in Sport and Physical Activity. Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation. Adopting a Textbook. Continuing Education Center. Music as a Prime To overcome the almost overwhelming array of potentially negative external forces that inhibit progress toward their goals, people require tight routines, considerable self-discipline, and regular social support.
The Power Of Motivation In The Fitness Industry
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