What attracted me in those images was the compression of a chronological sequence different generations within one family, for instance into a single image, thereby turning time into space, or as linguists would say diachrony into synchrony. As you may have guessed, I immersed myself once again into my obsessive ruminations about morphology and history. But there was also something else. They were used for a long time as diagrams representing family relations: but since the early 19th century they were used by philologists as a metaphor to represent the genealogical relationship existing between different manuscript versions of the same text.
Image 5. Image 6. The answer is simple. On the one hand, you have a sequence related to reproduction in a biological sense: members of the same family, who may belong to different generations. On the other, reproduction in the material sense: different manuscripts copying the same text.
For a long time biological reproduction worked as a metaphor for mechanical reproduction. The point is clear: an error in the archetype a word bound to become a fundamental tool, with different meanings, among philologists will be propagated by its descendants. Somebody might ask: what does all this have to do with the topic I started from, i.
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Therefore, I will try to approach my topic using the techniques of textual philology, as described by Paul Maas in his Textual Criticism , a short, dense book which has become an indispensable reference ever since it first appeared for anybody working in the field of textual philology. It can proved [Maas wrote] that two witnesses B and C [witnesses, i. Maas , 43 9. This idea, which had already inspired the editorial practice of Poliziano, the fifteenth century humanist as Timpanaro has shown , gave birth to modern textual philology Timpanaro , Textual philology tries to reconstruct an most often lost original text, most frequently one that has been lost and which has usually been corrupted by copyists in its transmission.
My aim in analyzing the traditions related to werewolves is completely different. I am not trying to reconstruct an original set of beliefs: I am interested in the ways in which some ancient possibly lost forever beliefs have been reworked and modified over the course of centuries and millennia.
I should have recalled what Giorgio Pasquali, the great philologist, had written in his book Storia della tradizione e critica del testo : recentiores non deteriores , that more recent manuscripts can preserve an uncorrupted version of a passage from an old text Pasquali , My genealogical tree, therefore, will present a series of formal connections, disregarding both chronology and geography traditionally regarded as the two eyes of history.
Is the asterisk pointing to a single event or to a series of independent innovations, followed by a hybrid combination of different traits? Will this diagram be the conclusion of my argument? Only temporarily. From morphology I will have to go back to contexts, to actors, to history. Basingstoke — New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Canfora, Luciano. Contini, Gianfranco.
Breviario di ecdotica. Milan — Naples: Riccardo Ricciardi Editore. Duni, Matteo. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Ginzburg, Carlo. I benandanti. Stregoneria e culti agrari tra Cinquecento e Seicento. Turin: Einaudi. In Miti emblemi spie.
Morfologia e storia , Storia notturna. Una decifrazione del sabba. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. New York: Pantheon Books.
Planeswalker's Guide to Innistrad: Kessig and Werewolves
Historia nocturna. Un desciframiento del aquelarre. Barcelona: Munchnik Editores. History, Rhetoric, and Proof.
Frankfurt — Main: Suhrkamp. London: Legenda. Bentley, Sanjay Subrahmanyam and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, Cambridge: Cambridge Universiy Press. Stockholm: Stockholm University Press. The more I thought about that, the more I actually gravitated to something that was like, super Canadian, but in a way that was actually representational of a reality that nobody has articulated all that much. Ashley: Nelson, my producer, and I were definitely talking about the film canon in Canada when we were making Werewolf. Getting off the island, going to Toronto. Maybe, they might not even get out of their town to go see the highlands of Cape Breton, let alone go to Toronto and live that dream of a road movie.
Werewolves Beyond Humans
Kevan: I have a question for you. Where did the genesis of Werewolf come from? Did you find there was a bigger idea or was it more based on character? Ashley: I knew you started on a more conceptual level and I think I do the opposite. I start on the microscopic level.
I guess all my films start by being inspired by particular people I know or meet or see or get to know. But at some point, I usually start working my own personal stuff into that? With Werewolf , the original genesis was that I actually saw a couple in my town pushing a lawnmower around. Then, they walked into the house and there was an altercation with someone inside. I was super intrigued and I wanted to know who those people were and what their everyday life was like. Kevan: I remember you telling me about that at Talent Lab in !
A lot of what is in the film is what you told me about, way back then. Ashley: Laughs Yeah. I started to really write the role for him because I was excited by that idea. They always end up intertwining in all these ways. The day I came home to Cape Breton, I got a phone call. Because this friend of mine was struggling with a lot of issues that were similar to the characters in Werewolf and the day I came from TIFF, I got a phone call that he had taken his life.
Ashley: It was the beginning of this moment where this project stood still for a few months. But I think it solidified having to tell this story at that particular time. All the male leads in your films always seem like this kind of quiet observer in this masculine, normative world. Are the lead characters in your film surrogates for you?
Kevan: No, for sure! It is someone who is immersed in this very heteronormative culture, but they have this kind of perspective Even my films are too straightforward narratively to be really embraced by the real cool kid, arthouse guy. And they are too patient, expressive and driven by bigger ideas to be appreciated by -. I think it gets challenging sometimes when you are trying to reach out to festivals. That is a horrible experience. Ashley: Yeah, it can totally pollute your mind. Even in the edit, we were more than careful with Werewolf to show the cut to only a few people.
Who is this for? Ashley: With my female characters , with Nessa, in Werewolf , I have an insecurity about how quiet they often are. And I think the reason they are so quiet is that they often are surrogates for me. Definitely when I made Werewolf. So I've been looking at werewolves and I realized that there are no non-human werewolves.
So ive been wondering: is it possible for a non human to become a lycanthrope? Elves seem pretty viable, but could, let's say, a Viashno or a merfolk become a werewolf? Private Mod Note :.
Conjunctive Anomalies: A Reflection on Werewolves
Rollback Post to Revision RollBack. Terrible Bad at Magic since Resident Planeswalker. I thought the only race exist in Innistrad were humans. Also what happens when a werewolf gets vampirized? Droppin' the Orb Since Ascended Mage. Archmage Overlord. Small case, but Greater Werewolf and Lesser Werewolf disproves this. There were at least werewolves in Dominaria. Experienced Mage. It depends on the nature of Vampyrism. If its a curse, then yes the two curses counter each other out and whichever is stronger survives.
If it's an infection Like some stupid virus then I'd imagine a Werewolf's heightened animal immune system would overpower it. If it's undeath, then I imagine Werewolves could become Vampires, since Werewolves are still alive, though I imagine the end result would be neither a werewolf nor a vampire.