El equilibrista: Cómo integrar tu vida y tu trabajo (Spanish Edition)

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In his conceptualization, the Baroque ethos can be easily interpreted and translated to political terms. It becomes a strategy of resistance against capitalist modernity, and within the negative form of life, it is conditioned by this very same modernity. And with this hope, opens the likelihood of finding a way out of the capitalist system of modernity.

Not only as a romantic utopian projection that will never be attained, but as a concrete social praxis whose radicalization contains a real revolutionary potential. It is evident that this no-more-capitalist or post-capitalist modernity, as a revolutionary projection, remains quite vague in his texts. But what is relevant is the fact that his concept "Baroque ethos" not only reintegrates the Baroque into modernity as one of its strategies of survival, but also presents a manifest attitude of resistance towards capitalist modernity, with the promise of a concrete access to another kind of modernity.

His theory of the Baroque ethos is indeed linked to the Americanist discourse. With Alejo Carpentier, the essayist, for instance it shares its roots in a typological approach, such as proposed by Eugenio D' Ors. One of these possible chronotopes is Latin America, for which he sets the terminus post quem within the inception of the Iberian colonial enterprise. Bringing his re-conceptualization of the Baroque "home" to Latin America and articulating its bearing on the ongoing discourse of Latin American constructions of identity. His intervention in this discourse is quite original in so far as he rejects any essentialist position, at the outset.

Cultural, social as well as political collective identities are not pre-given substances, permanent and stable contents, and cannot be derived from instances that are not products of human processes. Thus, the Baroque does not constitute a Latin American identity per se, as he states quite clearly when he writes:.

Baroque ethos can be nothing other than the beginning of an ordering of the life world [ To substantiate Latin Americans' uniqueness, happily folklorizing them as "Baroque," "magical realists," etc. Insofar as the Baroque ethos has to do with Latin American identity, it is not substance but process. As we have seen, ethos refers to an attitude, to a behavior, to a strategy and brings about the "ordering of the life world.

And the Baroque ethos develops a very particular dynamic in Latin America, because it is tied into the process of miscegenation. Within the process of colonization, the dominant European culture destroys the indigenous culture, but the descendants of the colonizers, in order to survive far from their respective metropolis, have to integrate the ruins of the very same indigenous cultures into their behavior, thus transforming their own European identity.

Viewed from the perspective of the colonized: in order to survive in the hostile context of cultural destruction and domination, indigenous people are obliged to adopt and reproduce European codes of behavior, they devour the identity of the dominating other, thus transforming it decisively. Miscegenation [ The singular and concrete sub codifications or configurations of that which is the code of human kind seem to have no other way to coexist in themselves other than devouring one another; that of destructively striking at the core of the constitutive symbolization they have before them, appropriating and integrating, submitting themselves to an essential alteration, the surviving living remnants of itself.

Thus, miscegenation is a double survival strategy in which both, colonizer and colonized, view their respective identity as different cultures radically transformed. The few that were published have long since gone out of print. The only collection of poems that is still somewhat accessible is a volume entitled Cuenta de la lavandera.

Antenas Siderales. Unlike many of his Galician contemporaries, Goy de Silva wrote and published exclusively in Spanish. The book includes a well researched and informative introduction as well as personal and critical bibliographies. Understandably, the latter consists primarily of newspaper articles or entries on the author in various dictionaries of literature. I propose that we look for the answer to this question elsewhere, namely in the poems themselves. It is as though the poet were writing them only to gain the approval of a literary audience, and not because he genuinely felt the need to express himself in this manner.

University of Rhode Island. Anyone who has attempted to edit a series of monographs on a figure as complex and as widely studied as Luis Cernuda, has confronted a number of classic problems: how to pick the contributors to the edition? Should they be generalists or specialists, mature scholars or emerging voices in the profession? The organization of the text is equally problematical: if the author is conversant in more than one literary form, as is Cernuda, should the material be organized by genre?

Or if there is formal evolution in the work, which is also the case here, should the textual order replicate such evolution? What of the matter of textual strategies? What are the advantages of privileging a single critical voice or methodology at the expense of R. And finally, the most harrowing problem of all: the risk of superfluousness, or even worse, of superficiality. How does this particular collection differ from, add to, or modify existing scholarship in the area? Does it shed new light on the subject, or does it cloud an already densely populated field?

The utility of this introduction is undeniable. The second part of the introduction changes direction and proceeds with an introduction to an evaluation of the diverse essays included in the edition. This list is not exhaustive. Interestingly enough, several of the studies speak to one another intertextually. Furthermore, both essays reach beyond the margins of the text.

In conclusion, there is really something for everyone in this book, and not only for the Cernuda specialist, as I have tried to demonstrate. In fact, The Word and the Mirror represents a model of responsible scholarship, and an indispensable contribution to contemporary Hispanic poetics. Loyola University Chicago.

Feminists and scholars of contemporary Hispanic prose will delight in the opportunity to have so many articles on Rodoreda by American and European colleagues available to them. The intimate nature of this volume and the unique qualities of the contributions make its appearance a special event in Rodoreda studies.

The studies are followed by a bibliography of works, translations into English, articles and interviews.

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This handsome volume contains intimate memorabilia as well, including photographs of Rodoreda and some of her drawings, which are interesting parallels to her writing. Rodoreda, universally admired, became available in the U. Several articles are dedicated to studies of each, examining the feminist fable or myth through feminine narrative consciousness, symbols, language, and the female imagination in exile. This volume is a fine contribution to 20th century studies in prose from numerous points of view: Feminist, Hispanic and comparative at the present; Rodoreda is rich enough to offer many aspects of study to her readers.

Momentarily surprised at the alternatives, I quickly recalled that for him, in agreement with Ortega, each human life is novelesque in character, having a plot and dramatic tension all its own, and lends itself best to narration. To complete the philosophical enterprise he needed to narrate human life in concrete terms, for in the concrete is precisely how human life exists. At first he had doubts as to whether or not he could carry it through, but soon realized he had to do it as the way to possess his own life more fully. His is simultaneously the story of a Spaniard, a friend, a believer, a traveler, a teacher, a philosopher, and a writer.

I have introduced them to illustrate his varied life and shall devote a few works to each to try to convey the almost incredible complexity of his various but interrelated activities. I shall also introduce the method of contrast to show more strikingly the changes that occurred in his life over the years in each dimension. He attended the University of Madrid but the civil war interrupted his beginning graduate studies in philosophy.

Having served in the army of the losing side, and having been imprisoned briefly after the conflict for his liberal sympathies, prevented his being granted his doctorate until ten years after the completion of his dissertation. He has returned to both North and Hispanic America periodically to teach and lecture rather than take up residence permanently outside of Spain, the inspiration of many of his writings. Four years later he turned his attention to the entire history of Spain, to show that the country was far from being unintelligible, as non-Spaniards and even some Spaniards thought.

This extraordinary study, his greatest legacy to Spanish thought, completes his previous general or theoretical studies of the structure of society La estructura social , by showing the structure of a particular or concrete society, his beloved Spain. Over the years he has made friends of all kinds of individuals young and old, male and female, Spaniards and foreigners, his teachers and his students, fellow writers and other intellectuals , and kept a great number of these friendships through discussions, visits and correspondence.

Some of his friends, along with his family, are pictured in the series of photographs included in each volume. All three are now deceased but, of course, still play key roles in his life. She has been the inspiration, especially, for two books on woman: La mujer en el siglo XX and La mujer y su sombra His thoughts on Christianity and philosophy, so unlike the traditional Thomists, were expressed in Problemas de cristianismo , second, enlarged edition What would these same Catholics have thought had they lived to see his appointment, and reappointment, by Pope John Paul II to the worldwide Pontifical Commission on Culture?

Many of his observations gave rise to essays and books. Moreover, his many trips to the U. His trips to India and Japan, societies essentially non-Western, highlighted that structure still further. His many trips to Hispanic America brought forth the conviction that all Hispanic countries -in which he includes Portugal and Brazil- need to cooperate for mutual cultural benefit.

However, he continues to give public lectures and to be as active as ever in teaching. During his second year he had Ortega as his teacher, and for every year thereafter of his undergraduate studies.


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Once he begins to write, they generally flow rapidly and continuously, for example the more than twelve hundred pages on his memoirs written, with interruption, in one year. His memoirs are informative, interesting, and inspiring -we share in a life that has spanned most of the turbulent twentieth century- and has bravely overcome very unfavorable circumstances to remain faithful to its vocation of writer. Los tres fueron conocidos como directores o actores antes de sus triunfos como dramaturgos. A la vez, han continuado con estas actividades.

Bajarse al moro , exitoso texto llevado posteriormente al cine, se centra en personajes que viven, en cierto modo, al margen de la marginalidad social. University of California, Irvine. Hemingway and Spain is a lucid and illuminating addition to an already copious bibliography.


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  • The book is not your average, dry, scholarly study but rather a very personal pursuit begun, as indicated by the author in the preface, at the age of fifteen in a public library while reading Death in the Afternoon. It is the result of eight years spent traveling in Spain, in search of the specific points portrayed by Hemingway in his major works set in the Peninsula.

    Stanton visits sites portrayed by Hemingway rather than utilize secondary sources and thus establishes a counterpoint of sorts between past and present, between Hemingway and Stanton himself. The result provides information without overwhelming and repelling. Nevertheless, Hemingway and Spain is of interest for the insights it provides between geography and literature, reality and fiction, and the Spain of the s and that of today.

    University of Texas of the Permian Basin. Recovery of the matrix also takes into account the thought of specific philosophers, though MacLachlan maintains that merely demonstrating the influence of individuals is inconclusive. Legislation, decrees, and legal codes form the most concrete manifestation of the ideas he seeks.

    For this reason he begins with an analysis of the notion of hierarchical order reflected in the Fuero Real of Here God is envisioned as a celestial monarch presiding over a heavenly court. As this model extends into the temporal realm, the ecclesia expresses an indivisible corporate unity that must be preserved by wise rulers. While thus sanctioned by God, temporal rulers are at the same time charged with meting out divine justice embodied in legal dicta. Benevolence thus becomes an operational principle of Spanish government maintained into the nineteenth century despite progressive weakening.

    Later, in the early sixteenth century, Erasmian thought introduced a challenge to these concepts. Laws, on the other hand, were not absolute but simply an attempt to interpret divine will that invited correction. Loyalty of subjects was emphasized more than obedience. The pomp and pageantry that surrounded life in Spanish America during the first centuries symbolized fidelity rather than, necessarily, a promise to obey.

    The ceremonious exchange of gifts between viceroys and municipal bodies served to establish a sense of mutual obligation. Others might not view the coming of independence to the region in quite the same terms. Political scientists and economists will find the book more exactly suited to their needs than will most literary scholars. Nevertheless, it constitutes an important reference tool for the latter.

    University of Houston. University of New Hampshire. Este plan divide el libro en dos partes casi iguales. During the late s, considerable critical attention was given to the Latin American novel of the dictator. The theoretical bases for this study are weak. Sandoval proceeds mostly by substantiating her impressions through citing other critics or the authors themselves. She regularly draws parallels between the fictional characters and the real historical dictators on which they were partially based.

    She cites no theoretical or critical studies published after Before publication, this dissertation would have been improved by updating it. Nevertheless, this is an informative introduction for the novice reader of dictator novels. University of Colorado at Boulder. Paul B. Bento Santiago, as a lawyer, personifies the patriarchal insistence on fidelity, obedience, hierarchy and honor. Dixon takes the issue of paternity which lies at the center of the novel, and applies it to a metaliterary interpretation of the text and questions the traditional authority vested in the patriarchal hierarchy of author-reader to the matriarchal non-hierarchical text-reader.

    University of Georgia. Michael Handelsman apparently sees this as an injustice. He has succeeded. Mankato State University Minnesota. Much of the study repeats arguments that have been made by others, but it is most helpful to have the more important commentaries on the language of Rayuela brought together under one cover. Moreover, Lichtblau always keeps in mind again, as many have failed to do that linguistic cleverness is not sufficient to make literary art -not that he argues that Rayuela is more clever than artful, for he correctly points out that the cleverness and the obscenities that have offended some readers are rarely gratuitous in this novel.

    Any study that seeks to elucidate and enumerate stylistic devices runs certain risks -repetition, cataloguing, etc. As might be expected, one often wishes Lichtblau had done more. He does little, for example, to clarify the problems of perspective and narrative voice in Rayuela , limiting himself instead to repeating what others have said. Overall, nonetheless, it is a most informative and useful study. A major virtue of the study is its matter-of-fact, clear approach to the heavily baroque and often obscure texts of Lezama, chiefly Paradiso.

    Lezama is seen as purposeful and clear-sighted in his pursuit of his literary project. Generous use is made of Rousseau plates to aid in the discussion. The book is generally quite readable, no small achievement considering the difficulty of its subject. Those readers not specialists in Lezama should not be intimidated by its common-sense and patient approach, and Lezama specialists should find much fruitful and provocative insight in its pages. Subsequent translation is used for the benefit of those not reading Spanish.

    The book has good notes, bibliography and index. Overall, this study is a solid contribution to the literature on a fascinating and often poorly understood writer. University of North Dakota. A bibliography of main works by chronological order and secondary sources is provided at the conclusion of each entry. The title page notes that the volume is edited by Julio A. The sketches of the individual authors and gentes are the work of slightly over seventy scholars.

    All entries are signed with the initials of their authors. Cuban writers without regard to their political affiliation and place of residence are discussed in an extremely unbiased way.

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    This is quite the contrary of the 2-volume Diccionario de la literatura cubana where writers who have broken with the Castro regime are treated as non-persons and completely ignored. The biographical data are accurate. Novels and short stories are often summarized and critically assessed both by the author of the sketch and other critics. The sketches range from two to eight pages.

    The Selected bibliographies at the end of each sketch are quite valuable, though no criteria for inclusion seem to be mentioned. In view of the fact that this volume is intended for the English-speaking user more references to material in English might have been provided. A list of contributors and their addresses follows an extensive index of authors and titles. The two compilers of the Luis A.

    They also note that he taught at SIU from to his death in He died in Carbondale, Illinois. Typographical errors would seem to be few. There exist there book-length bibliographies of Alejo Carpentier, only one is given. These are anthologies of his poems in English translation with very little of a critical nature. In only several cases is there a separate section of anthologies that contain an authors work. More attention might have been paid to English translation of Cuban authors.

    The treatment here varies. All who have worked en this biographical, critical dictionary are to be commended. The sketches appear to be accurate, the critical portions sound and valuable. It should remain the outstanding reference work on 20th century Cuban literature and is the finest work of its kind either in Spanish or in English.

    Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. However, the interest of the book does not lie in its slightly forced premise, but rather in the varied comments and reflections of the interviewees en their crafts. A very helpful introduction states clearly the purpose and main findings of the interviews and prepares the reader well for what is to follow. The centerpiece of the work is a three-part interview with Umberto Eco, by far the longest in the book, and the point of reference for other interviews and questions.

    With considerable good humor and wisdom, Eco discusses The Name of the Rose ; his literary influences, including Borges, Cervantes, Thomas Mann and James Joyce; his personal biography, and his fascination with labyrinths, libraries, and laughter. Eco articulates convincingly the notion frequently expressed throughout the volume that the end of art, broadly construed, is ethical. What makes a work interesting, says Eco, is that in the stories of others we find models of behavior for ourselves.

    These models do not necessarily have to do with good and evil, but rather they present a series of situations with which we identify and ask ourselves what to do. Thus, to Eco, the ethical is communicated through human behavior. Several themes emerge from the various conversations. First, no one interviewed regards literature and criticism as antagonistic endeavors; on the contrary, as might have been expected, all subjects consider both as complementary creative activities.

    The intent of the critic is to develop a rational argument that will convince the reader of the correctness of that single voice. The fiction writer, on the other hand, speaks in a multitude of voices; further, the fiction writer seeks to create an entire world, not to impose a single truth.

    Moreover, fiction, unlike criticism, depends on the participation and imagination of the reader, thus dispersing not only power but also responsibility. It is not surprising that the writers here represented assert that they feel more free when writing fiction than when writing criticism. This conflict is accentuated as one becomes more well known.

    The interviews are of uneven interest, as one might expect, and they are burdened at times by nonessential information, such as whether the author writes in the morning or at night, or uses a typewriter or a computer. But on the whole, Las dos caras de la escritura is a very readable and useful contribution to literary discourse by those who should know best, the writers themselves. It is divided into five chapters followed by a superficial conclusion, an anthology of verse, and a select bibliography. More could have been said about the expansion of poetic language and themes, desacralization, the use of the grotesque, and the bold evocation of socio-economic misery and ethical malaise.

    The poetic anthology would better complement the literary history if bio-bibliographic data about individual poems and authors had been included. The complete texts of the principal manifestoes need to be present also in an appendix. In Gente de pluma Romero departs from Colombian literary history in order to deal with a wider scope of Spanish American writers, via a central focus which is presented in the introduction and sustained throughout most of the other studies of the volume. This double perspective supposedly characterizes the Baroque, which Romero, like most Latin American literary critics and historians, uses gratuitously as a blanket label for all Latin American writing.

    An "enfer- medad de conciencia," as he called it, the knowledge that one's death is the end of everything forces an intensification of experience and expresses the sadistic creativity and theatricality of selfhood. In SMB, Angela functions as chronicler and narrator as well as symbolic daughter and mother to Manuel. Por lo menos, viven" Unamuno's intervention — as the person now in pos- session of Angela's chronicle — contributes to the discussion, thereby enlarging the meaning of "belief. All three live uneasily due to the ambiguity of existence, and all three question radically the taken-for- granted assumptions about the coherence of identity.

    Here, perhaps, we can establish a key point of articulation with certain modernist works that point to a "second life," life lived and perpetuated in its "other" aspects, despite their status as literary texts. According to the French phi- losopher, such explanatory theories ought to be met with suspicion or "incredulity". Angela describes Manuel's life work as both "piadoso" and "fraudulento. Interpreted more broadly, however, every primary character — including Unamuno — has, for varying reasons, redirected his or her attention from God to the mythical Manuel the notable exception, of course, is Manuel himself.

    Each has been seduced by the temptations of myth, yielding to the urge to kneel before some- thing more powerful than oneself. Along with Spain's politicai, economic and social institutions, the country's cultural activity was itself being transformed by a seculariz- ing orientation that, in the arts, dates most visibly from the Romantic era. The metaphors have their own historicity: the search for God; the "Logos"; a stable grounding; the "search for the sacred.

    Crucially, they do this at a time when ultimate truths — traditionally anchored in the transcendent — stage a steady retreat. Whether manifesting an indi- vidual or collective will, art works to remove us from ourselves, just as the fictional Augusto allows Unamuno to move beyond himself — an aesthetics drawn from a theological idiom, so to speak. XXXV 1 7 Romanticism, many have argued along with Coleridge that "[n]o man was ever yet a great poet, without being at the same time a profound philosopher" The age of faith had a purpose — that of serving God, appeal- ing to him as a source for questions of truth.

    The comfort of truth claims completes individual and coUective human identity, a fact that is attested to by the history of Western civilization and its subsequent search for a non-transcendent ground for authority — a search depen- dent on the hope that history might still have a telos.

    In this article I have pursued the to my mind indisputable relationship between the privileged status of art and the search for transcendence in a secular and materialist age. In this sense, artistic creation and aesthetics as a category generally might be viewed largely as an outlet for grief and anxiery that is, at its roots, metaphysical. I have also suggested that many works of the period frequently gravitare toward religious themes, while at the same time abusing their conventions and original significance. In any event, it is clear that many of the works of this period are inspired by more than mere "escapism," in which the author strives to turn an intolerable, boorish or incoherent real- ity into something more meaningful or more pleasant.

    Above ali, the literature of the decades surrounding the year bears the marks of both an intense questing and a wearisome struggle.

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    The privileged role of aesthetics in a world in which God has presumably retreated suggests that the artist is ideally suited to seek viable substitutes. Todas las religiones son verdaderas, en cuanto hacen vivir espiritualmente a los pueblos que las profesan" SMB Unamuno and many of his contemporaries display an astute awareness of this dilemma, both staging their own "quest for the sacred" while also inviting the reader to reopen the possibilities created by a world in which God's absence is, in a sense, still overwhelmingly present.

    Notes 1. Other forms and contexts, for example, raise the issue of reason and its relation to the irrational and madness; gender; the poUtics of the nature- culture boundary, and so on.

    Spanish to English lexicon collected from Freedict

    The concept of the subHme, particularly Lyotard's rehabilitation of the term, comes to mind. That is, the death of God is in modern times parlayed into a tireless recreation of and conversation with God For Machado, poetry cannot and ought not emancipate itself from effects of time; the poet's task is to convey the experience of time, and for this reason the poet is uniquely positioned to reproduce the sensation of reality. Most significantly, the Roman- tic sublime and Gothic fiction, with all the latter's supernatural entailments, reflected the necessity of fiUing a void created by God's absence.

    Roberts offers a succinct summary: "Modern art is the continuation of the sacred by other means" XXXV 19 le cierran el paso [. This observation is further corroborated by Unamuno's refusal to divulge how he happened upon the "document. One may take this a bit further and make a bid for the text's post- modernist qualities: in many ways it liberates itself from the requirement of great truths and avowedly engages in the play of forms particularly when Unamuno himself appears and proclaims his belief in "la realidad de este San Manuel Bueno" In other words, perhaps this is Unamuno's way of foregrounding and intensifying the work's complexities — where meaning and "truth" are contested and fragmented — or, conversely, of simply sidestep- ping them.

    After all, precisely what is the "reaUdad" of "este San Manuel Bueno"? Obras completas. Madrid: Biblio- teca Nueva, Bataille, Georges. Clive Cazeaux. New York: Routledge, Borges, Jorge Luis. Brown, Gerald Griffiths. New York: Barnes and Noble, Cardwell, Richard A. David T. Cambridge: Cambridge UP Salamanca: Universidad de Salamanca, Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Biographia Literaria. George Watson.

    New York: Dutton, Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms ofReligious Life. Carol Cos- man. Mark S. New York: Oxford UP, Hamilton, William and Thomas J. Radical Theology and the Death ofGod. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, Jasper, David. William S. Haney, Jr. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, Diario de un poeta reciencasado.

    Barcelona: Labor, Buenos Aires: Losada, Johnson, Roberta. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Machado, Antonio. Campos de Castilla. Manuel Alvar. Madrid: Espasa Calpe, Del Camino. Juan de Mairena, L Ed. Madrid: Austral, Notes Juan Carlos Ara Torralba. Madrid: Espasa, Roberts, David. Gillian Robinson and John Rundell. Diario de un poeta recien- casado. Shakespeare, William. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare.

    Shaw, Donald L. A Susan Sontag Reader. Elizabeth Hardwick. London: Penguin, Unamuno, Miguel de. Manuel Garcia Blanco. Madrid: Afrodisio Aguado, Barcelona: Vergara, Bar- celona: Vergara, Estos elementos a su vez se mezclan con situaciones de la vida cotidiana donde se refleja una realidad social. Jardines exube- rantes bloqueaban el acceso visual a la calle. Sin embargo, a nadie parece molestarle, porque en aquel lugar se crean las condiciones propicias para otro tipo de escape: el sexual.

    El soplo de los alisios azotaba los cuerpos, levan- tando oleadas de vapor y sudores almibarados. Le gusta mirar" No es entonces una coincidencia que tanto los deseos de los amantes de Gaia como las aspiraciones del Estado totalitario sean los mismos. Hay que ser cuidadoso [. En las palabras de Freud: "Sometimes one seems to perceive that it is not only the pressure or civilization but something in the nature of the function itself which denles us fiill satisfaction and urges us along other paths [.

    Man is an animal organism with like others an unmistakably bisexual disposition. Fortune, "is not to be confused with acquiescence, submission, or going along in order to avoid an argument" Para profundizar en este tema, ver Ayorinde XXXV 35 7. Ver Nagy-Zekmi Ver Obras citadas. Obras citadas Adorno, Theodor W. Aesthetic Theory.

    Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, Ayorinde, Christine. Gamesville: UP of Florida, Casa de juegos. Barcelona: Planeta, Fortune, Marie M. Love Does No Harm. New York: Continuum, Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Pantheon, Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. New York: Norton, Herrera Mulligan, Michelle. Nagy-Zekmi, Silvia. Daniel Balderston. Rabkin, Eric. The Fantastic in Literature. New Jersey: Princeton UP, GJ: Para Francia principalmente. GJ: Chilena, todo chileno. Entonces de una forma u otra ha sido siempre una forma de mirar mi entorno.

    Justo antes del plebiscito. GJ: Siempre me han molestado con amenazas. Cuando no hay un estado de derecho, hay amenazas, hay un miedo permanente que en cualquier momento te pueden hacer algo y cuando no hay estado de derecho es complicado, en cualquier momento te pueden hacer algo desagradable. El Eeyton es otra etapa de mi trabajo. En ese sentido esto pasaba como a kms. GJ: No me gusta hablar en general.

    En todas partes hay de todo. Cada uno con sus gustos. Siempre he visto esa cosa un poco malvada, un poco tierna. Ahora me acuerdo un poco del contexto. GJ: Siempre repito cuando hago entrevistas: no creo en el cine chileno. Creo que hay cineastas. Uno sabe lo que no es, pero no sabe mucho lo que es. Y hay diversidad. Si iban 5, ai cine arte, ahora hay 10, GJ: Don Augusto [Pinochet] era, po. Don Augusto era. Que no es lo mismo pero es igual. Que lo que es importante es mantener el miedo.

    Son secretos de un tirano. M: Hablamos un poco de los fondos que hay ahora. GJ: B-Happy, Amnesia. GJ: No. Hay muchas cosas indignantes. En un sentido ese fue el origen. El origen no fue ni por encargo ni por una tincada muy comercial. En menor o mayor grado, pero tienen su espacio. Hay otra magia. Hay historias que son hechos que he observado, como B-Happy. Entonces era una cosa enfermiza, una cosa delirante. Como si la amnesia se impone. De hecho, trataron La infidelidad tan anormal no es.

    GJ: Seguro, pero no escucho mucho. No me interesa. GJ: Ah, claro. No es que mi finalidad sea hacer un cine que muestre lo que es ser chileno. La gente estaba acostumbrada a acostarse a las 11 de la noche. Y como eran feos, como lo que se refleja en un "love story," pensaban que el amor no era para ellos, como gente que tiene un malestar. Caluga o menta es reflejo de toda mi experiencia como reportero, cuando filmaba las protestas.

    Livro das noivas , Livro das damas e donzelas , e do ensaio Maternidade XXXV 49 deste trabalho. Solis e Marcus V. Bento, [. Era a hora de trabalho" sic 5. Do mesmo modo, a autora registra o que acontece nos bastidores deste mundo fervilhante ao revelar o mundo feminino que domina a esfera privada. Desta maneira, a mulher encontra-se presa dentro do espelho pelo ideal imposto pela sociedade patriarcal Torres-Pou As mulheres burguesas se destacavam pela qualidade dos tecidos que vestiam em uma tentativa de distinguir-se das mulheres de estratos sociais mais baixos e de suas escravas.

    O trabalho, como vimos, era reservado ao homem. As mulheres que trabalhavam pertenciam aos estratos sociais mais baixos. Notas 1. XXXV 61 veja Telles. Peggy Sharpe publicou um interessante artigo a respeito do ensaio "Maternidade. Saffioti em A mulher na sociedade de classes: mito e realidade.

    Obras citadas Brito Broca, J. Bosi, Alfredo. Candido, Antonio. O discurso e a cidade. Duby, George. Edmundo, Luiz. O Rio de janeiro do meu tempo. Rio de Janeiro: Xenon, Gilbert, Sandra M. New Haven: Yale UP, Hulet, Claude Lyle. Brazilian Literature - History and criticism. Washington, D. Massi, Marina. Rio de Janeiro: Imago, Mello e Souza, Gilda de.

    Menezes, Magali Mendes de. Moreira, Nadilza Martins de Barros. Needell, Jeffrey D. New York: Cambridge UP, Rio de Janeiro: Garnier, n. Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno, By Sadlier. Bloomington: Indiana UP, Saffioti, Heleieth, I. A mulher na sociedade de classes: mito e realidade. Sevcenko, Nicolau. Sharpe, Peggy. Sylvia Maria von Atzingen Venturoli Auad. Soihet, Rachel. Stein, Ingrid. Figuras femininas em Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, Telles, Norma.

    Torres-Pou, Joan. Barcelona: PPU, Ventura, Roberto. The challenges of city life have many manifestations and the works mentioned above are attempts to explore the myriad experiences of the city. In Hisho que te nazca, the main protagonist learns to make use of the city's resources when she decides to abandon the role of housewife, while in Desde que Dios amanece, the city serves as the background of the housewife 's daily domestic life, reinforcing this role and limiting other possibilities.

    Lastly, Las horas vivas presents a withdrawal from city life due to the fear of a precari- ous urbanization, which becomes challenged by the introduction of a connector space. XXXV 65 occupies an advantageous positioning over the female subject. As a result, the home is construed as a place of belonging and sanctuary for the woman and the family. Often the public space is conceptualized as a labyrinth, as it is the setting for business and politics. The externai environment is volatile and expansive. It is an untamed and open terrain that is receptive to masculine agency, yet it is problematic for the feminine subject.

    Since they have identified exclusively with the domestic realm, the space beyond it is perceived as uncharted and tricky. Yet this anxiety of the city is not exclusive to women who identify with their socialized gender roles. The geographer Doreen Massey offers a vivid, personal example of this common fear women have of the city through a young girl's 'sense' of not belonging in a public space. I did not go to those playing fields — they seemed barred, another world though today, with more nerve and some consciousness of being a space-invader, I do stand on football terraces — and love it " What is most interesting about Massey's example is the signifying power of the physicality displayed on the football field.

    The acts of playing, running and manipulating the externai environment allow these boys or men to establish them- selves as subjects and owners of the field. This childhood experience illustrates the effects of the gendered externai environment on a young girl. It is also indicative of the rite of passage undertaken by the female 'invader' who wishes to access this terrain.

    As a result, women's presence in the city is highly impacted by the gender roles that have been prescribed within the private space. Ardener's theories map out the spatial politics of the private and public para- digm. As mother, house wife or daughter, the Mexican woman must decipher and heed the 'social maps' and 'ground rules' of the city.

    XXXV 67 and social mechanisms and take on the appropriate behavior in which they display a 'weak' presence in the urban landscape. An interesting interpretation of these bodily spatial politics is offered in Marianne Wex's photographic work, which exposes wom- en's gendered experience of the pubHc environment. Wex's work serves as a visual example of how the sense of belonging in public spaces is established and negotiated through the body and its movements. Her photographic investigation of 'female' and 'male' 'involuntary' or 'unconscious' body language in public spaces was based on the premise that men and women are socialized to use public spaces differ- ently as a result of gender identities and roles.

    According to Wex, this socialization serves to establish and reinforce gendered hierarchy and categories of 'weak' and 'strong. Their bodies are restricted to minimize their presence, as depicted in the foUowing description: The general characteristics of women's body posture are: legs held close together, feet either srraight or turned slightly inward, arms held close to the body.

    In short, the woman makes herself small and narrow, and takes up little space. The general characteristics of male body postures are: legs far apart, feet turned outwards, the arms held at a distance from the body. In short, the man takes up space and generally takes up significantly more space than the woman. In general, Wex explains that men have great physical freedom and this translates into advantageous positions over women.

    Moreover, women's body movement depends on the presence of men. In their absence, a woman's posture appears more relaxed, yet at the moment a man is present, there is noticeable change, her body language becomes strained. Wex also offers the following very personal and revealing account of a woman's experience using public transportation. Again, the feehngs experienced by this woman are of not belonging in this highly contested site and of being undermined by the ground rules that expect her to limit her physical presence when a male subject is near. And as in the example given by the geographer Doreen Massey, the physical dominance displayed in the public space is a strong identifier of the 'master' of this domain: The master of the world sits opposite me in the subway.

    Four men on a seat which has room for five, legs sprawled, padded shoulders, hands resting on their knees, fingers spread apart. The appropriate muscles are to be held tensed all day long. To cast off this repressive posture! To act as though I could sit unhassled with legs relaxed. In this arricie, I examine the varied ways in which the female protagonists utilize strategies to depart from a restrictive domestic space and negotiate their participation in a gendered urban landscape where cultural mechanisms inhibir women's participation.

    Also, I draw on the theories elaborated by Massey and Wex on the woman's sense of not belonging in public spaces. Wex's photographic approach to the body language displayed in public is utilized in this analysis to look at specific scenes in a similar fashion. As a result, I present "snap shots" of scenes to reveal the bodily composition of the women in the city space.

    It begins with the 'feminine' space of the home, which holds low social value, and is carried out into the public sphere where women are confronted with an unwelcoming urban environ- ment. While some female protagonists experience stress and difficulty when moving about the city, others do manage to learn the ways of the streets to become skillful urban navigators.

    My discussion begins with Hisho que te nazca, in which Oshinica develops a strategy of utilizing the city's resources when she abandons her domestic role of housewife.

    By being able to identify valuable mechanisms, such as con- nector spaces, Oshinica becomes successful in negotiating her presence in the urban environment. Angeles is skillful in trekking the city when running her errands to complete her role as housewife. She negotiates her presence by performing the feminine, whether it is through the role of housewife or of lover. Yet these strategies fali short when she steps beyond the boundaries of the ground rules and she is forced to contend with the gendered city environment. Angeles is made to see that not ali public spaces are accessible and she has limited mobility.

    Lastly, Las horas vivas presents a failed relationship with the city. By denying herself agency, Matilde demonstrares an extreme fear of the city. Despite the different strategies and outcomes, these women embody different approaches to an urban environment that is problematic for women.

    Hispania. Volume 74, Number 2, May | Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes

    In this journey to self-actualization, Oshinica will need to abandon the domestic paradigm that has stringently defined her identity and enter the city environment, which represents an unknown territory. The highly structured domestic space has been instrumental in shaping Oshinica's sense of place in her Jewish home and community. Initially, she foUows the basic societal rule that women belong in the home and not out in the street. As a result, Oshinica contends with the strong feeling of not belonging in the public realm, as theorized by the geographer Doreen Massey.

    Furthermore, Oshinca senses she is only being permit- ted a temporary pass to reach a particular destination. As a seasoned housewife, she follows the unwritten rules for the married woman when moving about the city. She is expected to safeguard her highly valued marital identity. As a result, Oshinica develops personal tactics that will enable her to comply with these expectations, which she explains in the following manner: Cuando voy sola por la calle, si me llaman o me tocan el claxon no volteo, a menos que me vayan a atropellar.

    A lo mejor es mi marido que lo hace para calarme, por eso no pelo. According to Ardener's spatial theories, Oshinica is using a social map in which women of her Jewish com- munity are generally absent in the city, while men dominate this space. Moreover, she understands and follows the ground rules that guide her behavior as a married middle-class woman. She also knows that when she is unaccompanied, she must use body language to fend off the objectification of the male gaze. Lastly, Oshinica must also con- tend with an overbearing husband who has instilled in her the sense of being watched even when out of his sight.

    At this phase in her life, the city represents a volatile labyrinth that is clearly not an appropri- ate environment for her. XXXV 71 Oshinica experiences a rift with the domestic paradigm with the introduction of a connector space, or a space similar to what the social anthropologist Teresa dei Valle terms "un espacio puente" This space bridges together the private and public spaces and allows for a fluid movement between them.

    Most importantly, this space acts as a catalyst for change and transformation, as it blurs the boundaries of the private and public paradigm For Teresa Del Valle, a woman's group best exemplifies this connector space because it brings women together outside the private space, while retaining the essential identifier of these women: the daily domestic life In Oshinica's case, the "espacio puente" is the Instituto de Cultura Supe- rior, a school for women. At first Oshinica experiences feelings of not belonging, but gradually this space is perceived as non-threatening as she meets other students who are housewives.

    However, the notion of working to earn a living is challenging and daunting. Again, Oshinica discovers another valuable connector space through the network of divorced women who have entered the world of paid work. These women serve as a tangible example of living outside the domestic ideal. One divorced woman in particular, Oshinica's cousin, challenges her to remove the veil of homemaker, an identity that had been instilled in her from childhood and which had granted her social status as a married middle-class woman.

    She encourages her to move toward that moment of epiphany when the notions of domesticity and paid work have been demystified. Con orgullo trabajas para mantenerte y ya! Oshinica reaches the decisive moment to embrace her passion and earn a living as a photographer.

    Proyectos DIY de un friki de andar por casa.

    She is now determined to succeed in the world of paid work. Lo bueno es que la cajuela del Galaxie es tan grande que caben miles de cosas. Es mi casa ambulante. With the divorce in process, Oshinica is forced to move her house- hold into an apartment on a busy commercial street. And while the children are horrified by their fali from social grace, this move to the city means that Oshinica will have improved her chances for economic independence by adopting an alternative lifestyle: 1. XXXV 73 own, thus freeing Oshinica from many activities related to mother- hood.

    Her challenge now is to unlearn the domestic ideal and with it the middle-class notions of femininity and the home. Oshinica begins to see that she can survive on her own and that the boundaries of the private and public spaces can be collapsed. The city has ceased to be an intimidating environment. It is now a valuable setting for the new life she is forging. Performing the Feminine IN THE Labyrinth In Josefina Estrada's novel, Desde que Dios amanece, the female protagonist will learn that while she has been allowed to trek the city under the guise of the housewife, she is not in any authoritative posi- tion to alter the integrity of the highly valued and guarded masculine spaces.

    Her mark of identity is that of a domes- tic manager and her sole reason for being out in the public realm is to carry out related responsibilities.

    Based on Arderner's concept of space, Angeles follows a social map that gives limited access and par- ticipation to women. Each morning, Angeles faces a day that is based on the tasks to be done for her children or for her husband. When she first steps out into the city streets she transforms into a skillful navi- gator.

    Upon leaving her house she sheds the protection of the marital home and yet is still able to dominate the externai environment to complete her errands. However, one day in particular is different from others since she is to meet with her lover. Her navigational skills fali short when facing her lover in the 'masculine' space of the business office. This is a highly revered and protected space that proves to be off limits to Angeles when she wishes to access it by performing her role as lover. Without reservations she incorporales extramarital activities into her domestic responsibilities.

    Me voy a amarrar un hilito para que no se me vayan a olvidar This gesture subverts her role as dutiful housewife and adds a comical note to a serious matter. Unlike Oshinica who questions the imposed domestic identity and abandons it when it becomes oppres- sive, Angeles is not able to take on this difficult examination.

    Instead, she embraces humor as a mechanism to cope with her domestic Hfe and with her extramarital activities. By making Hght of the situation she is able to evade the identity of Angeles the housewife and take on the persona of Angeles the lover, which is based on skillfully perform- ing the feminine. Angeles moves confidently throughout the city by negotiating her feminine presence.

    Rather than shy away from her sexual identity she exhibits it cautiously. She adorns her body with colorful clothing yet masks her identity with protective sunglasses that serve as a barrier to the intrusive gaze. She purposely attracts male attention in order to control it.

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