Boxer, The Golden Age of Brazil, Boxer, Portuguese Society in the Tropics, The chair was created in under the aegis of the Union Coloniale Frangaise, a powerful colonialist lobby. Likewise, in the first issue of the Journal of African History he published his programmatic articles on the Bakuba, laying the methodological foundations of oral history research in African stud- ies. Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna, Birmingham, Trade and Conflict in Angola. Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna. Birmingham, Trade and Conflict in Angola, Vansina, Kingdoms of the Savanna, 13, , , Birmingham, Trade and Empire in the Atlantic, See note The book is the printed version of his Doctorat de Troisieme Cycle presented in at the Sorbonne.
The thesis was criticized by the jury, mainly by Braudel, for the long quotations of documents without analysis or comments. In fact, Verger received the degree assez bien equivalent to cum Iaude , then the lowest citation for the French doctorate personal testimony of Frederic Mauro, another member of the jury. Braudel reviewed C. Of the 10,, enslaved individuals who arrived in the Americas from the beginning of the sixteenth century, 2,, disembarked between and , mostly in Brazil 1,, , Cuba , , and the French Caribbean , Sovereign and Revolution in the Iberian Atlantic.
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Paris: Perrin, Cabral de Mello, Evaldo. Rio de Janeiro: Nova Fronteira, Caillet-Bois, Ricardo R. Calafate Ribeiro, Margarida. Salvador: Tipografia Beneditina, Canabrava, Alice P. Sao Paulo: Universidade de Sao Paulo, Canizares-Esguerra, Jorge, and Benjamin Breen. Canny, Nicholas, and Philip Morgan. The Oxford Handbook of the Atlantic World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, Cardoso, Luis. Chamosa, Oscar. Chandler, Charles L. Inter-American Acquaintances. Chaunu, Pierre. Coates, Timothy. E-Journal of Portuguese History 3 1 , Conde, Bertho.
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Paris, Eannes de Zurara, Gomes. Chronica do descobrimento e conquista de Guine. Preface and notes by Viscount de Santarem. Eltis, David. New York: Oxford University Press, Eltis, David, and David Richardson. Atlas of the Transatlantic SlaueTrade. Ernoult, Fr. Les Spiritains au Congo : De a nos jours. Paris: Congregation du Saint-Esprit, Febvre, L. Ferreira, Roquinaldo. Frankfurt am Main: Otto Lembeck, Figueiredo, Manoel. Hidrographia, exame de pilotos, no qual se contem as regras que todo pilot 0 deveguardar em suas navegafies.
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Rio de Janeiro: Jose Olympio, Games, Alison. Garrido, Luiz. Lisbon: Academia Real de Sciencias, Gershenhorn, Jerry. Gilroy, Paul. Rio de Janeiro: Editora 34, , Gonsalves de Mello, J. Gosselin, Gabriel. Les nouveaux enjeux de Panthropologie, au tour de G. Goulart, Mauricio. Sao Paulo: Martins Fontes, Gray, Richard. Greene, Jack P. Morgan, eds. Guran, Milton. Hair, P. Halperin Donghi, Tulio. Histoire contemporaine de TAmenque latine. Paris: Payot, War and Prices in Spain, Hawthorne, Walter.
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Lois, Carla, and Joao Carlos Garcia. Annaes da Bibliotheca Nacional 25, Rio de Janeiro, Lowe, Christopher C. Lucio de Azevedo, Joao. Cartas do pe. Antonio Vieira. Histo'ria de Anto'nio Vieira. Luiz Alves, Joao. Rio de Janeiro, Magalhaes Godinho, Vitorino. Documentos sobre a Expansao Portuguesa. Lisbon: Gleba, Route de Guine'e et route du Cap. AEconomia dos descobrimentos henriquinos. Lisbon: Sa da Costa, Fontes quatrocentistas para a geografia e economia do Saara e Guine'. Sao Paulo: Ind. Jose de Magalhaes, Histo'ria economica e social da expansao Portuguesa. Lisbon: Terra Editora, Maino, Elisabetta.
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Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagos Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Mansur da Silva, Douglas. Rio de Janeiro: Petropolis, Mariz de Carneiro, Antonio. Martins, Oliveira. Marx, K. Chicago: Charles H. Mauro, F. Berlin: De Gruyter, Medeiro dos Santos, Corcino. Brasilia: DF, Meeuwis, Michael. Meillassoux, Claude.
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Paris: Maspero, Miller, John C. Miller, Joseph C. Mogo Demaret, Mathieu. Rodrigues and Casimiro Rodrigues, eds. Moment, David. Monet, Philibert, SJ. Rouen, Moniot, Henri. Storia della letteratura del Congo-Kinshasa. Moutoukias, Zacarias. Muniz Barreto, Antonio E. Murilo de Carvalho, Jose. A Formafdo das Almas. Nardi, Jean-Baptiste. Sao Paulo: Civilisagao Brasileira, Ndaywel e Nziem, Isidore. Louvain: De Boeck Superieur, Newbury, David. Ngemba Ntima, Kavenadiambuko. Rome: PUG, Nivia de Lima e Fonseca, Thais. Pardo, Anne W.
Peterson, R. Stramma, and G. Philander, S. Steele, Steve A. Thorpe, and Karl K. Turekian, eds. London: Academic Press, Pinho Candido, Mariana. Plecard, Daniel. Polonia, Amelia. Prestage, Edgar. Correspondencia diplomatica de Francisco de Sousa Coutinho durante a sua embaixada em Holanda. Coimbra: Impr. Puntoni, Pedro. Aguerra dos ba'rbaros — Povos indigenas e a colonizafio do sertao nordeste do Brasil Sao Paulo: Huicitec, Purdy, John. Rampinelli, Waldir Jose. As duas faces da moeda — as contributes de JK e Gilberto Freyre ao colonialismo portugues. Randles, W. Annales 23 1 , , Raskin, Jonah.
Rennel, J. An Investigation of the Currents of the Atlantic Ocean. London: J. Rivington, Ribeiro da Lessa, Clado. Ripley, George, and Charles A. New York: Appleton and Company, Robertson, John. Rodriguez Molas, Ricardo. Romo, Anadelia A. Ruela Pombo, Manuel. Cinzas de Lisboa: E cos da Lusitanidade. Russell-Wood, A. Sabor Vila, Sara. Schaub, Jean-Frederic.
Schwartz, Stuart B. London: Cambridge University Press, Selcher, Wayne A. Sempat Assadourian, Carlos. Trdjico de esclauos en Cordoba: De Angola a Potosi. Cordoba: Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Severiano Teixeira, Nuno. Simar, Theophile. Smith, T.
Reeves, E. Josephson, and J. Socolow, Susan M. Souza Dantas, Raymundo. Africa dificil: Missao condenada, diario. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Leitura, Straelen, C. Missions catholiques et protesta ntes au Congo. Brussels: Societe beige de librairie, Desafios transatlantic, mercaderes, banqueros y el Estado en el Peru virreinal Sundiata, Ibrahim. Carrington, eds. New York: Peter Land, Tannenbaum, Frank. Taunay, Affonso. Subsidios para a Histo'ria do Trafico Africano no Brasil. Sao Paulo: Imprensa Oficial, Thornton, J.
Landau, ed. Madison: Parallel, Bethencourt and D. Curto, eds. Warfare in Atlantic Africa, Tomich, Dale. Ramirez, ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood, Torre Revello, Jose. Torres Ramirez, Bibiano. La Compahia Gaditana de Negros. Seville: Escuela de Estudios Hispano-Americanos, , Van Damme-Linseele, Annemieke. Frangois Bontinck: The Hague: Clingendael Institute, Vansina, Jan. Kingdoms of the Savanna. Vansina, Jan, and H. Chicago: Aldine, Varnhagen, F. Histo'ria geral do Brasil. Capistrano de Abreu and R.
Garcia, eds. Sao Paulo, Vellut, Jean-Luc. His review concerns vol. Verger, Pierre. Vidal, Cecile. Vieira, Fr. Vilar, P. Voyage de Francois Pyrard-. Contenantsa navigation auxlndes. Walvin, James. Econocide Revisited. Warrin, Donald. So ends this day — The Portuguese in American Whaling Watjen, Hermann. Das Hollandische Kolonialreich in Brasilien.
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The Hague, Reprinted as 0 dommio colonial hollandez no Brasil, trans. Uchoa Cavalcanti. Weber, Max. General Economic History. Mineola, NY: Dover, Weindl, Andrea. West, Michael O. London: Tamesis, Weyland Usanna, Karin. Whitehead, Neil L. Williams, Eric. Capitalism and Slavery. Bethencourt and A. Pierce, eds. He can be reached at luiz. To do so, it focuses on the political, military, and commercial exchanges between the northeastern Bra- zilian captaincies and Angola during theyears and Here we will examine some of the political, military, and commercial exchanges between the northeastern Brazilian captaincies and Angola during the years and To address some of these issues, we will start with a brief overview of the legal framework regulating Dutch participation in the South Atlantic trade.
Here we will pay special attention to political negotiations between the government of the wic in Brazil, its headquarters in Luanda, and the Re- public. Finally, we will examine the commercial circuits and exchanges linking these two territories. Our main goals are to highlight the role these relations played in the consolidation of the South Atlantic complex. The evidence presented here has been gathered over the past seven years via thorough research in Dutch archives. Together with travel accounts and the infor- mation available in the tstd, these source materials are key to reconstructing Dutch participation in the South Atlantic.
Let us start by looking into the Dutch legal framework for the Atlantic trade. The military character of the wic caused the disruption of many activities in these areas. For several years after the takeover of the captaincies in north- eastern Brazil, sugar production decreased, causing major losses for the sugar refiners in the Republic. To mitigate its losses, the wic granted shareholders permission to participate in the trade with Brazil and the Caribbean in In , the company also agreed to open the slave trade from Angola to Brazil, the Caribbean, and the Spanish Americas to private businessmen in the Republic.
In these early times, Dutch participation in the slave trade was minimal, as studies by Postma, Eltis, and Vos et al. Many of these businessmen did in fact combine in their portfolio invest- ments in both regions of the South Atlantic. As for the Portuguese Sephardic Jews, they were engaged not only in the Brazilian but also in the Spanish American trade, guar- anteeing the supply of an African slave labor force to these colonies and the transportation of the export commodities such as sugar, dyewood, tobacco, sil- ver, gold, and precious stones to Europe.
This notion among Dutch merchants that Angolan and Brazilian trading markets were complementary would become very clear after the establishment of the wic in , particularly in the years immediately before the takeover of the Brazilian northeastern cap- taincies in The commercial routes, practices, and logistics put in motion by the Portuguese and Brazilian merchants based in the colony since the s to operate in the South Atlantic certainly helped nurturing this growing aware- ness among wic officials of the economic complementarity between the Bra- zilian and the Angolan markets.
WIC Politics in the South Atlantic When the wic laid clear plans to occupy extensive masses of land, such as Brazil, and Angola, the board of directors 20 — also known as the Gentlemen Nineteen — did consider for the first time the idea of establishing a central government for the Dutch Atlantic, with its headquarters in the South Atlantic. In , when the company launched the second attack on Brazil, more precisely on the captaincy of Pernambuco, the board of directors, with the permission of the States General and Count Maurits of Nassau, started to prepare a document de- fining a new central government for the Dutch Atlantic settlements, including regulations concerning commercial, military, judicial, administrative, and fiscal organization — the so-called Order of Government of So, according to the Order of Government of , all posts and set- tlements taken over from the Portuguese during the s and s, namely Elmina, Axim, Shama, and the settlements of Sao Tome and Angola, were at least in theory to be under the jurisdiction of the central government of Brazil.
The reality would be quite different. The central government of the colony and the Count Maurits of Nassau as governor-general of Dutch Brazil were in fact the political and administrative bodies of the wic that devised the main plan to take over Angola and Sao Tome from the Portuguese, and to maintain the economic links between the two shores of the South Atlantic. The main reason used by Count Maurits and the central government to get the approval for the expedition by the board of direc- tors and the States General was the high demand for slave labor in Dutch Brazil.
However, the preparation and sponsoring of this huge naval and military oper- ation by Count Maurits and the central government was not, in our view, in- dependent from the underlying jurisdiction that the Order of Government of had granted Dutch Brazil over the Atlantic. This decision was taken neither lightly nor without consistent knowledge of the links between these territories in the South Atlantic.
Immediately after the occupation of Angola and Sao Tome, Count Maurits of Nassau and the central government of Brazil pleaded with the States General to bring these territories under the jurisdiction of Brazil, given the high demand for slave labor in the colony and the direct supply link between Angola and Brazil, established since To study the matter, the Gentlemen Nineteen organized a commission. According to this document, Angola should be under the direct adminis- tration of the Gentlemen Nineteen. The colony should be directly supplied from the Republic with provisions and exchange goods.
Therefore, it should be sep- arate from Brazil, as it was during the rule of the Portuguese. Besides, the voyages between Brazil and Luanda were, according to them, longer than the route be- the south Atlantic, past and present Fiiipa Ribeiro da Siiva tween the Republic and Angola. In addition, Brazil already had financial prob- lems, and administering another colony would be too costly for Dutch Brazil.
On the one hand, they pointed out, the need for slave labor in Brazil was not a solid reason to give the jurisdiction over Angola and Sao Tome to the government in Dutch Brazil, as other colonies that the wic might occupy in the future would also need to import enslaved Africans. Although the slave trade was the principal commerce in Angola, there were also other commercial branches in this area that the company wanted to develop. On the other hand, they said, Brazil could not supply Angola and Sao Tome without the supplies sent from the Republic, and time had shown that this redistribution had not functioned properly, since wic employees in Angola faced a lack of foodstuffs, ammunitions, and provisions, despite the higher quantities of provisions sent from the Republic to Brazil.
In addition, the transport of the troops from the Republic or from Brazil to Angola resulted in the same problem. The troops sent to Brazil were kept within the territory. As a consequence, Angola and Sao Tome could not afford a rotation of soldiers, and the colony failed to redistrib- ute these military to the West Central African settlements. These arguments were presented to the States General on 4 March According to the new organization, the western coast of Africa was to be divided in two districts with separate governments.
The northern district included the coastal areas between the Cape of Three Points and the Cape Lopo Gonsalves present- day Cape Lopez , while the southern district encompassed the coastal regions from Cape Lopez to the Cape of Good Hope, as well as the islands in the Gulf of Guinea. The government of the former district was based at Elmina and the latter at Luanda. Each government had jurisdiction over administrative, judicial, commercial, and religious affairs. The island was supposed to be a bridge between the two other districts.
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Supply of ex- change goods for trade and the rotation of naval, military, and civilian staff was to be ensured by various Company Chambers, according to their share in the company capital. In practice, things were not so linear. This division of jurisdic- tion and the interference of the States General in the administrative matters of the wic due to their political and diplomatic implications for the Republic made for multiple conflicts that usually ended in a loss for the governments of the posts and settlements in West Central Africa and other areas of the Atlantic.
On the one hand, the irregular supply of exchange goods to the forts in West Central Africa by the aforementioned institutions caused commercial losses. On the other hand, the insufficient supply of foodstuffs and ammunitions, as well as the deficient rotation of the troops controlled by the institutions mentioned earlier, ended in territorial losses not only in West Central Africa, but also in Brazil. Initially, the supplies to the areas were to be provided by the cen- tral government in Brazil.
In , the States General recognized that this was an enormous burden on the finances of the colony and decided that provisions should be sent directly from the Republic by the board of directors. However, the Gentlemen Nineteen did not discharge the central government in Brazil from the duty of providing help and assistance to Angola and Sao Tome.
The plea for the jurisdiction over Angola and Sao Tome submitted by Count Maurits and the central government in Brazil and the arguments used tell us much about how the governor-general and central government viewed the South Atlantic under the wic rule. What it seems to have been here at stake is a conflict between different po- litical and economic interests: those based in Dutch Brazil and Dutch Angola, which were represented by officials in these two wic settlements, and those based in the Republic, which were represented by the Gentlemen Nineteen in the Republic.
By following commercial routes and practices already in place, Maurits was indirectly encouraging a certain economic autonomy for the colony of the wic, which would help to improve the always precarious financial and economic sit- uation there. Although the board of directors did advocate in favor of making the colonies self-sufficient, it feared that the colony would become too autono- mous and eventually too powerful. The question of power — or, to be more precise, the personal power that Count Maurits had acquired in Europe prior to his term in Brazil, and his increasing authority and leverage among the naval and military officials serving in Brazil, Angola, and Sao Tome — was, in our view, another factor that led the company to dismiss the plea for the jurisdiction over Angola and Sao Tome made by Count Maurits and the central government.
The disputes and arguments exchanged between the central government of Brazil, the board of directors, and the States General are also very telling in terms of the different understanding of a same reality by officials serving in the colonies and those serving in Europe, and the knowledge of the real situation by these two groups ofwic staff. So, unlike their counterparts based in Portugal, Brazil, and Angola, who by the late sixteenth century were already operating bilateral circuits between An- gola and Brazil, and between the latter and other ports along the West Central African coast, completely separate from the European circuits, businessmen from the Republic were using bilateral routes between Europe and both mar- gins of the South Atlantic or the so-called triangular circuits, linking Europe to West Central Africa and the Americas.
After the wic gained control of Brazil, new long-distance routes were estab- lished. The latter route connecting the ports of Pernambuco to western Africa had sev- eral functions: i supplying the wic employees at Loango and Kongo with ex- change goods, foodstuffs, and weapons; 2 transporting the enslaved Africans needed for the sugar planters in Brazil; 3 shipping ivory and dyewood to be re-exported to Europe via Brazil; and 4 ensuring the communication between the local governments of the wic in the different posts and settlements.
There was also an important route connecting Pernambuco to Cape Lopez and back to Pernambuco. Cape Lopez was usually the location on the western coast of Africa where the wic vessels operating in the coastal trade in the Bight of Biafra and on the Slave Coast awaited the Brazilian fleets with enslaved Africans to be exported to the colony.
Between and , the company also promoted direct routes linking the Republic to Angola and Sao Tome. The most important circuits linked the Republic to Luanda and the port of Sao Tome. These routes had two main func- tions: to supply provisions, ammunition, and foodstuffs to the military and ci- vilian staff of the company; and to ship the African products purchased at these coastal areas to the Republic, namely Sao Tome sugar and Angolan ivory and red dyewood.
In fact, the return voyages to Europe were often done via Brazil, where the enslaved workers would be unloaded and the cargoes completed with Brazilian sugar, dyewood, and tobacco. During the wic rule over Angola and Sao Tome , Luanda became the main supplier of enslaved Africans to meet the needs of the Portuguese- Brazilian, Jewish, Dutch, and Flemish sugar-planters in Brazil.
In this way, the supply of European exchange products, provisions and ammunition, and African goods purchased in these regions was guaranteed to the consumption markets in Eu- rope and the Americas via Brazil. Military and civilian wic personnel serving in West Central Africa were also transported via Brazil. Hence, the company main- tained separate bilateral circuits to connect its different settlements in the South Atlantic. The loss of Brazil brought to an end the circuits linking that colony to West Central Africa operated by ships sailing under Dutch contract.
The circuits link- ing Brazil to Angola and the Gulf of Guinea were reactivated in the s by Portuguese-Brazilian traders. These traders took alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and some gold to purchase enslaved Africans at the trading posts of the differ- ent European powers installed on the western coast of Africa. These circuits would become of special importance during the second wic The period of the Dutch South Atlantic was over. The new routes were based on the classical triangular scheme and guaranteed essential exchanges between the South and the North Atlantic.
Conclusion The bilateral circuits between Dutch Brazil and West Central Africa, more pre- cisely Loango and Angola, played an important role in consolidating various commercial practices and social exchanges that were already taking place be- tween these two territories while they were under the role of the Portuguese, as information gathered in the tstd suggests. By drawing on the preexisting commercial links between Brazil and Angola, the presence and rule of the wic over these two territories not only stimulated circuits between the northeastern captaincies, Loango and Angola, and strength- ened the links between these regions, but also forced the Portuguese, Luso- Brazilians, and Luso-Angolan merchants pushed to the southern captaincies of Brazil, the Kwanza estuary, and the Benguela region, in Angola, to make more intensive use of bilateral circuits that started to emerge in the s.
In fact, after the Dutch conquest of Pernambuco, the Luso-Brazilian planters were forced to grow the crops farther south in Bahia and the surroundings of Rio de Janeiro. The development of local production in Brazil provided the traders with goods, such as spirits, tobacco, and later gold, which could be exchanged for African products.
The most important ports of departure for these routes were Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. Some authors, such as David Eltis, argue that there were several attempts to transport enslaved Africans from Mozambique to Brazil, and there are indeed some references to a few voyages. Alencastro, 0 trato dos uiuentes; Puntoni, A misera sorte and Guerras do Brazil, Ratelband, Nederlanders in West-Ajfika [Portuguese trans.
Gelderbloom, Zuid-Nederlandse kooplieden, , , , For further de- tails on the activities carried out by these merchants on both shores of the South Atlantic, see Ribeiro da Silva, Dutch and Portuguese in Western Africa, chap. The direction of the company was given to an assembly — the board of directors — formed by nineteen directors — the Gentlemen Nineteen — from the different chambers.
Once again, the number of directors per chamber depended on the capital and the polit- ical and economic power of the provinces and cities. Amsterdam had eight directors on the board, and Zealand had four, while the other three chambers had two each.
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A mem- ber of the States General also had a chair in this assembly. The board was chaired by the chamber of either Amsterdam or Zealand. Amsterdam held the presidency for six con- secutive years and Zealand for two. The board also had the authority to form commissions to study certain matters. The members of such commissions were chosen among the directors, and once again their number was proportional to the capital and the power of each chamber.
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