The Musical Instrument Desk Reference: A Guide to How Band and Orchestral Instruments Work

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The publisher's website which we used for ordering is still there but not functioning. C Clarinet by Jack Brymer. The book which was originally published in the late s is now available again in the US. The book also includes a number of photos and other illustrations. C The Clarinet by Eric Hoeprich.


Yale University Press, , HB, pages. Eric Hoeprich, a performer, teacher, and expert on historical clarinets, explores its development, repertoire, and performance history.

The Musical Instrument Desk Reference: A Guide to How Band and Orchestral Instruments Work

Looking at the antecedents of the clarinet, as well as such related instruments as the chalumeau, basset horn, and bass clarinet, Hoeprich explains the use and development of the instrument in the Baroque age. The period from the late s to Beethoven's early years is shown to have fostered ever wider distribution and use of the instrument, and a repertoire of increasing richness. The first half of the nineteenth century, a golden age for the clarinet, brought innovation in construction and great virtuosity in performance, while the following century and a half produced a surge in new works from many composers.

The author also devotes a chapter to the role of the clarinet in bands, folk music, and jazz. At the end for the book are lists of instrument makers and clarinet methods published before , extensive notes, and an excellent index. Dover Publications, PB, pages. The book covers the technical aspects of clarinet playing, musicianship, teaching the clarinet, and reeds. It also includes significant chapters on clarinet history and literature. The author of The Baroque Clarinet see above presents a comprehensive study of the clarinet through the classical period, from to During the early part of this period the clarinet was transformed from a typically baroque instrument to an essential piece of the classical ensemble.

In addition to the history, this book includes chapters on playing techniques, music for the classical clarinet, the clarinet in performing groups as well as extensive notes, a detailed bibliography, and an index of classical clarinet makers.

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Note: Al Rice has informed me that this paperback edition includes some corrections. This most recent of Professor Heim's surveys of the clarinet literature was originally published in Each concerto is described in a detailed outline format. The publisher of each concerto is identified and there is an index by composer. This edition has been completely reset in an easy to read typeface and we have added information on many of the composers. Woodwindiana, Inc. The author, Professor of Music at Indiana University, is particularly well know as a teacher of clarinet instruction techniques.

Click on the book to see the full table of contents. Queen's Temple Publications, , SB, 56 pages. Covers the range of the clarinet up to triple high G. Fingerings include notations of the drawbacks of certain fingerings. Includes both half tone and whole tone trills. Handy pocket size. Click on the book to see a sample page. Except other items with free shipping. C Clarinet Fingerings by Thomas Ridenour.

SB, 51 pages. The sixth printing of this popular book. The focus is on fingerings for the altissimo notes with up to 24 alternate fingerings for each note.

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However, the strength of this book is that it is not just diagrams of fingerings but includes the advantages and shortcomings of each choice and suggests repertoire for which they are appropriate. Schott, , PB, pages. Includes sections devoted to practicing, breathing and posture, legato exercises, sound exercises, articulation, clarinet reeds and recommended reading.

This book is in English and German and covers both the Boehm and Oehler system instruments. The second book in this series by Reiner Wehle. It does not include a fingering chart but is a comprehensive course made up of short exercises and examples from the literature emphasizing various notes and fingering combination. It includes examples from the Mozart clarinet concerto for basset clarinet. In English and German and covering all fingering problems in great detail for the Boehm and Oehler systems. This book explains both the theory and practice of intonation in English and German and has many intonation exercises in duet form with a few as trios.

This is followed by 29 pages of examples from the orchestral repertoire of mostly two clarinets playing in harmony, octaves, and unison. This is a how to book for Clarinetists who want to learn how to perform "traditional" Klezmer. It includes 16 transcriptions of the recordings of Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein. Contents include: What is Traditional Klezmer?

We are pleased to present a completely reset edition of this invaluable guide to clarinet literature. It covers more than works from all periods in a detailed outline format and briefly describes an additional contemporary works. Originally published in , marks our second printing of this book. It includes the dates of death for composers who have died since the original and our previous edition and a further updated bibliography of clarinet books. The clarinet teacher and former principal of the Buffalo Philharmonic has created master lessons and etudes based on six solo works by Mozart Concerto K.

Lessons include such topics as stylistic features, ensemble problems, musical and technical problems, dynamics, etc. The author provides recommended fingerings throughout the text. A new edition of this book originally published in The clarinet sonatas of nearly composers are described in a detailed outline format. This edition has been completely reset in an easy to read typeface and includes quite a bit of additional information on 20th century composers.

C A Clarinetist's Notebook Vol. I: Care and Repair by Robert Schmidt. A detailed guide to clarinet repair with photographs and drawings. At bit dated in spots scraps of asbestos being used to align keys for soldering but has more detailed information than any other available book. This book contains a variety of resources originally used with university students including basic techniques, clarinet literature and book listings, the 24 Albert scales, and symmetrical scale and chord patterns.

Most of the technique information has two pages on one page resulting in some small print. This book has been designed as self instruction course on tempo and rhythm. This book covers the subjects of tone, intonation, articulation, the altissimo, relaxation, phrasing, practicing, some interesting articles written by Daniel Bonade in the s and more. This book is based on the author's Ph. It reports results in the areas of the Institution degrees, recruitment, ensembles , Students numbers, lessons, juries, recitals , and the Clarinet Teacher teaching loads, other instruments taught, and demographic data.

The text includes many graphs and charts. International Music Diffusion, , PB, pages. Ernest Ferron has drawn from his experience as a master instrument maker and from his contact with leading instrumentalists to produce a synthesis of his knowledge. The first 60 pages covers how a clarinet works with details on the bore, barrel, bell, mouthpiece, reeds, and tuning. The rest of the book is on the tools and techniques of clarinet repair. SS, 15 pages.

Don't let the slim size of this book fool you. It is a straightforward, well illustrated guide to finding and adjusting clarinet and saxophone reeds. Scarecrow Press, , PB, pages. Both of these books are now out of print. Here is our description of this book: This book is a treasure trove of new information on how to turn clarinetists into informed musicians, offering them the tools they need to compete in the music world. Topics discussed include technique, tone and intonation, musicianship, reeds and equipment, repertoire, musicians' health, and the music profession.

In addition, Gingras supplies extra tips on such matters as college auditions, website design, and self-marketing. The pedagogical ideas gathered in this book are the result of Gingras' more than 25 years of hands-on experience spent in the clarinet studio working with students. Advanced high school clarinetists, college-level clarinetists, and seasoned professionals will all find More Clarinet Secrets a valuable read. Learn practical and technical secrets about rapid tonguing and double-tonguing; circular breathing; sight-reading and transposition; reed fixing and repair equipment; improving tone, intonation, technique, and musicianship; contemporary techniques; classical and non-classical performance; performance anxiety; auditioning; career planning and marketability; and more.

Click on the cover image to view the Table of Contents of this book. C Clarinet Vibrato by Paul Drushler. A research article on vibrato terminology, utilization, and aesthetics. Includes bibliography. Emerson Edition, U. PB, pages. It includes a bibliography and detailed index. Interesting reading and a valuable reference. OK we cheated on our alphabetical order because we didn't want you to miss this book. While the first clarinet virtuosi book concentrated on detailed accounts of the elite of the clarinet world, the author casts a wider net here with biographical information on many many more clarinetists.

The format is inclusive covering Abel to Zwicker with citations running from two lines to several pages. It includes list of players by city, compositions with dates of performance and clarinetist, bibliography and index. A very useful source for program notes on works composed by clarinetists. This book belongs in every clarinetist's library.

C Yesterday's Clarinettists: a sequel by Pamela Weston. Emerson Edition, This book is a sequel to More Clarinet Virtuosi of the Past and follows the same format of entries of a single paragraph to several pages. There are about a thousand, of which about are new, and the rest contain additional or corrected information. Also included are a list of orchestras and their clarinetists not especially up to date and compositions with their first performance. Kendor Music, , SS, 28 pages. This book is intended for use with students to improve their ability to play in the altissimo register.

It includes exercises for smaller and larger intervals and ten etudes for practice. Some fingerings are provided. Rivernote Press, , SB, pages. This combines three Bonade educational books that have not been available for several years. The editor has corrected typographical errors and notes, rhythms, dynamics, and slur markings in the Orchestral Studies. Daniel Bonade was arguably the greatest American clarinet teacher and certainly one of the greatest orchestral clarinetists of the 20th century.

This workbook will reacquaint clarinetists with Bonade's fundamental playing concepts. It covers the tonal ideal, the study of legato, phrasing, articulation, coordination and control, conquering technical passages, Bonade's comments on orchestra excerpts, equipment reeds and ligatures , Bonade's aesthetics, and studies based on Klose and Charpentier compiled by Bonade and Lefebve. This practical guide is intended for all clarinetists with a desire to investigate music of earlier periods. It contains help on both the acquisition and the playing of historical clarinets with much advice on style, approach, and technique which combine to make up a well grounded interpretation.

The second edition of Tom Ridenour's best selling book has been expanded and improved. This book intended for anyone and everyone who is faced with the task of teaching or learning the clarinet. Richard Nunemaker, , SS, 27 pages. Rivernote Press, 10th Edition, , SB, pages. This handbook was originally designed for teachers and intermediate-level clarinetists. Stretch tuning attempts to correct this by sharpening the pitch of upper notes while flattening the pitch of lower ones. The External Instrument device is not an instrument itself, but rather a routing utility that allows you to easily integrate external hardware synthesizers, ReWire devices and multitimbral plug-ins into your projects.

It sends MIDI out and returns audio. The top chooser selects either a physical MIDI port see If another track in your set contains a multitimbral plug-in, you can select this track in the top chooser. In this case, the second chooser allows you to select a specific MIDI channel in the plug-in. The Audio From chooser provides options for returning the audio from the hardware synth, plug-in, or ReWire device. Select the audio channel that corresponds to the instrument to which you are sending MIDI.

Note that the main outputs will be heard on the track that contains the instrument. The Gain knob adjusts the audio level coming back from the sound source. This level should be set carefully to avoid clipping. Since external devices can introduce latency that Live cannot automatically detect, you can manually compensate for any delays by adjusting the Hardware Latency slider.

The button next to this slider allows you to set your latency compensation amount in either milliseconds or samples. If your external device connects to Live via a digital connection, you will want to adjust your latency settings in samples, which ensures that the number of samples you specify will be retained even when changing the sample rate. If your external device connects to Live via an analog connection, you will want to adjust your latency settings in milliseconds, which ensures that the amount of time you specify will be retained when changing the sample rate.

In this case, be sure to switch back to milliseconds before changing your sample rate. Any latency introduced by devices within Live will be compensated for automatically, so the slider will be disabled when using the External Instrument Device to route internally. Latency adjustments when routing to ReWire devices will probably not be necessary, as most ReWire-enabled programs also compensate automatically. Note: If the Delay Compensation option see Impulse is a drum sampler with complex modulation capabilities.

Imported samples are automatically mapped onto your MIDI keyboard, providing that it is plugged in and acknowledged by Live. C3 on the keyboard will trigger the leftmost sample, and the other samples will follow suit in the octave from C3 to C4. Mapping can be transposed from the default by applying a Pitch device see Each of the eight samples has a proprietary set of parameters, located in the area below the sample slots and visible when the sample is clicked. Adjustments to sample settings are only captured once you hit a new note — they do not affect currently playing notes.

Note that this behavior also defines how Impulse reacts to parameter changes from clip envelopes or automation, which are applied once a new note starts. If you want to achieve continuous changes as a note plays, you may want to use the Simpler see This was designed with a specific situation in mind but can, of course, be used for other purposes : Replicating the way that closed hi-hats will silence open hi-hats. Each slot can be played, soloed, muted or hot-swapped using controls that appear when the mouse hovers over it.

The Start control defines where Impulse begins playing a sample, and can be set up to ms later than the actual sample beginning. The Stretch control has values from to percent. Negative values will shorten the sample, and positive values will stretch it. Two different stretching algorithms are available: Mode A is ideal for low sounds, such as toms or bass, while Mode B is better for high sounds, such as cymbals. The Filter section offers a broad range of filter types, each of which can impart different sonic characteristics onto the sample by removing certain frequencies.

The Frequency control defines where in the harmonic spectrum the filter is applied; the Resonance control boosts frequencies near that point. The Saturator gives the sample a fatter, rounder, more analog sound, and can be switched on and off as desired. The Drive control boosts the signal and adds distortion. Extreme Drive settings on low-pitched sounds will produce the typical, overdriven analog synth drum sounds. The envelope can be adjusted using the Decay control, which can be set to a maximum of Impulse has two decay modes: Trigger Mode allows the sample to decay with the note; Gate Mode forces the envelope to wait for a note off message before beginning the decay.

This mode is useful in situations where you need variable decay lengths, as is the case with hi-hat cymbal sounds. Each sample has Volume and Pan controls that adjust amplitude and stereo positioning, respectively. Both controls can be modulated: Pan by velocity and a random value, and Volume by velocity only.

Volume adjusts the overall level of the instrument, and Transp adjusts the transposition of all samples. The Time control governs the time-stretching and decay of all samples, allowing you to morph between short and stretched drum sounds. When a new instance of Impulse is dragged into a track, its signal will be mixed with those of the other instruments and effects feeding the audio chain of the track.

It can oftentimes make more sense to isolate the instrument or one of its individual drum samples, and send this signal to a separate track. Operator includes a filter section, an LFO and global controls, as well as individual envelopes for the oscillators, filter, LFO and pitch.

The interface of Operator consists of two parts: the display surrounded on either side by the shell. The shell offers the most important parameters in a single view and is divided into eight sections. On the left side, you will find four oscillator sections, and on the right side from top to bottom, the LFO, the filter section, the pitch section and the global parameters.

If you change one of the shell parameters, the display in the center will automatically show the details of the relevant section. Operator can be folded with the triangular button at its upper left. This is convenient if you do not need to access the display details. Operator offers eleven predefined algorithms that determine how the oscillators are connected. An algorithm is chosen by clicking on one of the structure icons in the global display, which will appear if the bottom right global section of the shell is selected. Signals will flow from top to bottom between the oscillators shown in an algorithm icon.

The algorithm selector can be mapped to a MIDI controller, automated, or modulated in real time, just like any other parameter. Typically, FM synthesis makes use of pure sine waves, creating more complex waveforms via modulation. However, in order to simplify sound design and to create a wider range of possible sounds, we designed Operator to produce a variety of other waveforms, including two types of noise. You can also draw your own waveforms via a partial editor. The instrument is made complete with an LFO, a pitch envelope and a filter section. Operator will keep you busy if you want to dive deep into sound design!

The oscillators come with a built-in collection of basic waveform types — sine, sawtooth, square, triangle and noise — which are selected from the Wave chooser in the individual oscillator displays. The first of these waveforms is a pure, mathematical sine wave, which is usually the first choice for many FM timbres. The square, triangle and sawtooth waveforms are resynthesized approximations of the ideal shape. The numbers included in the displayed name e.

Lower numbers sound mellower and are less likely to create aliasing when used on high pitches. There are also two built-in noise waveforms. You can also select one of the built-in waveforms and then edit it in the same way. The small display next to the Wave chooser gives a realtime overview of your waveform. When your mouse is over the Oscillator display area, the cursor will change to a pencil. Drawing in the display area then raises or lowers the amplitudes of the harmonics. Holding Shift and dragging will constrain horizontal mouse movement, allowing you to adjust the amplitude of only one harmonic at a time.

You can switch between editing the first 16, 32 or 64 harmonics via the switches to the right of the display. Higher harmonics can be generated by repeating the drawn partials with a gradual fadeout, based on the settings in the Repeat chooser. Low Repeat values result in a brighter sound, while higher values result in more high-end roll-off and a more prominent fundamental.

With Repeat off, partials above the 16th, 32nd or 64th harmonic are truncated. The context menu also offers an option to toggle Normalize on or off. When disabled, additional harmonics add additional level. Note that the volume can become extremely loud if Normalize is off. You can export your waveform in. Ams files can also be loaded into Simpler or Sampler. The frequency of an oscillator can be adjusted in the shell with its Coarse and Fine controls.

This can be done for each individual oscillator by activating the Fixed option. This allows the creation of sounds in which only the timbre will vary when different notes are played, but the tuning will stay the same. Fixed Mode would be useful, for example, in creating live drum sounds. Fixed Mode also allows producing very low frequencies down to 0. Note that when Fixed Mode is active, the frequency of the oscillator is controlled in the shell with the Frequency Freq and Multiplier Multi controls. This feature can be very useful when working with sequenced sounds in which the velocity of each note can be adjusted carefully.

Part of this functionality is the adjacent Q Quantize button. If this control is activated, the frequency will only move in whole numbers, just as if the Coarse control were being manually adjusted. If quantize is not activated, the frequency will be shifted in an unquantized manner, leading to detuned or inharmonic sounds which very well could be exactly what you want The amplitude of an oscillator depends on the Level setting of the oscillator in the shell and on its envelope, which is shown and edited when the Envelope display is visible.

The phase of each oscillator can be adjusted using the Phase control in its display. With the R Retrigger button enabled, the waveform restarts at the same position in its phase each time a note is triggered. With R disabled, the oscillator is free-running. When an oscillator is modulating another oscillator, two main properties define the result: the amplitude of the modulating oscillator and the frequency ratio between both oscillators. Any oscillator that is not modulated by another oscillator can modulate itself, via the Feedback parameter in its display.

Aliasing distortion is a common side effect of all digital synthesis and is the result of the finite sample rate and precision of digital systems. It mostly occurs at high frequencies. FM synthesis is especially likely to produce this kind of effect, since one can easily create sounds with lots of high harmonics. Aliasing is a two-fold beast: A bit of it can be exactly what is needed to create a cool sound, yet a bit too much can make the timbre unplayable, as the perception of pitch is lost when high notes suddenly fold back into arbitrary pitches.

Operator minimizes aliasing by working in a high-quality Antialias mode. This is on by default for new patches, but can be turned off in the global section. The Tone parameter in the global section also allows for controlling aliasing. Its effect is sometimes similar to a lowpass filter, but this depends on the nature of the sound itself and cannot generally be predicted. If you want to familiarize yourself with the sound of aliasing, turn Tone up fully and play a few very high notes.

You will most likely notice that some notes sound completely different from other notes. Now, turn Tone down and the effect will be reduced, but the sound will be less bright. The LFO in Operator can practically be thought of as a fifth oscillator. It runs at audio rates, and it modulates the frequency of the other oscillators. It is possible to switch LFO modulation on or off for each individual oscillator and the filter using the Dest. A slider. The LFO can also be turned off entirely if it is unused. The Dest. B chooser allows the LFO to modulate an additional parameter.

The intensity of this modulation is determined by the Dest. B slider. Sample and hold uses random numbers chosen at the rate of the LFO, creating the random steps useful for typical retro-futuristic sci-fi sounds. The noise waveform is simply bandpass-filtered noise.

Tip: FM synthesis can be used to create fantastic percussion sounds, and using the LFO with the noise waveform is the key to great hi-hats and snares. The frequency of the LFO can follow note pitch, be fixed or be set to something in between. With the R Retrigger button enabled, the LFO restarts at the same position in its phase each time a note is triggered. With R disabled, the LFO is free-running. This parameter scales both the Dest.

Introduction to the Instruments of the Orchestra

Operator has seven envelopes: one for each oscillator, a filter envelope, a pitch envelope and an envelope for the LFO. All envelopes feature some special looping modes. Additionally, the filter and pitch envelopes have adjustable slopes. A rate is the time it takes to go from one level to the next. As mentioned above, the filter and pitch envelopes also have adjustable slopes. Clicking on the diamonds between the breakpoints allows you to adjust the slope of the envelope segments.

Positive slope values cause the envelope to move quickly at the beginning, then slower. Negative slope values cause the envelope to remain flat for longer, then move faster at the end. A slope of zero is linear; the envelope will move at the same rate throughout the segment. With FM synthesis, it is possible to create spectacular, endless, permuting sounds; the key to doing this is looping envelopes. Loop Mode can be activated in the lower left corner of the display.

If an envelope in Operator is in Loop Mode and reaches sustain level while the note is still being held, it will be retriggered. The rate for this movement is defined by the Loop Time parameter. Note that envelopes in Loop Mode can loop very quickly and can therefore be used to achieve effects that one would not normally expect from an envelope generator. While Loop Mode is good for textures and experimental sounds, Operator also includes Beat and Sync Modes, which provide a simple way of creating rhythmical sounds.

If set to Beat Mode, an envelope will restart after the beat time selected from the Repeat chooser. In Beat Mode, the repeat time is defined in fractions of song time, but notes are not quantized. If you play a note a bit out of sync, it will repeat perfectly but stay out of sync. In Sync Mode however, the first repetition is quantized to the nearest 16th note and, as a result, all following repetitions are synced to the song tempo. Note that Sync Mode only works if the song is playing, and otherwise it will behave like Beat Mode. Note: To avoid the audible clicks caused by restarting from its initial level, a looped envelope will restart from its actual level and move with the set attack rate to peak level.

There is also a mode called Trigger that is ideal for working with percussive sounds. In this mode, note off is ignored. This means that the length of time a key is held has no effect on the length of the sound. The rates of all the envelopes in Operator can be scaled in unison by the Time control in the global section of the shell. Note that beat-time values in Beat and Sync Modes are not influenced by the global Time parameter. These modulations in conjunction with the loop feature can be used to create very, very complex things A slider and the envelope can be turned off altogether via the switch in the pitch section of the shell.

Like the LFO, the pitch envelope can modulate an additional parameter as chosen by the Dest. B chooser. The intensity of this modulation is determined by the Amt. B slider and the main Pitch Env value. The pitch and filter envelopes each have an additional parameter called End, which determines the level the envelope will move to after the key is released. The rate of this envelope segment is determined by the release time. And, since the envelope of the LFO itself can loop, it can serve as a third LFO modulating the intensity of the first!

And, since the oscillators also provide you with the classic waveforms of analog synthesizers, you can very easily build a subtractive synthesizer with them. Operator offers a variety of filter types including lowpass, highpass, bandpass, notch, and a special Morph filter. Each filter can be switched between 12 and 24 dB slopes as well as a selection of analog-modeled circuit behaviors developed in conjunction with Cytomic that emulate hardware filters found on some classic analog synthesizers. This is available for all of the filter types. The OSR circuit option is a state-variable type with resonance limited by a unique hard-clipping diode.

This is modeled on the filters used in a somewhat rare British monosynth, and is available for all filter types. The MS2 circuit option uses a Sallen-Key design and soft clipping to limit resonance. It is modeled on the filters used in a famous semi-modular Japanese monosynth and is available for the lowpass and highpass filters. The SMP circuit is a custom design not based on any particular hardware. It shares characteristics of both the MS2 and PRD circuits and is available for the lowpass and highpass filters.

The PRD circui t uses a ladder design and has no explicit resonance limiting. It is modeled on the filters used in a legacy dual-oscillator monosynth from the United States and is available for the lowpass and highpass filters. The most important filter parameters are the typical synth controls Frequency and Resonance.

Frequency determines where in the harmonic spectrum the filter is applied; Resonance boosts frequencies near that point. When using the lowpass, highpass, or bandpass filter with any circuit type besides Clean, there is an additional Drive control that can be used to add gain or distortion to the signal before it enters the filter.

The Morph filter has an additional Morph control which sweeps the filter type continuously from lowpass to bandpass to highpass to notch and back to lowpass. Filter cutoff frequency and resonance can be adjusted in the shell or by dragging the filter response curve in the display area. Filter frequency can also be modulated by the following:. The Shaper Drive Shp. If you open a Set that was created in a version of Live older than version 9. These consist of 12 dB or 24 dB lowpass, bandpass and highpass filters, as well as a notch filter, and do not feature a Drive control.

Each Operator loaded with the legacy filters shows an Upgrade button in the title bar. Pressing this button will permanently switch the filter selection to the newer models for that instance of Operator. Note that this change may make your Set sound different. Additionally, the global display area provides a comprehensive set of modulation routing controls. The maximum number of Operator voices notes playing simultaneously can be adjusted with the Voices parameter in the global display.

Ideally, one would want to leave this setting high enough so that no voices would be turned off while playing, however a setting between 6 and 12 is usually more realistic when considering CPU power. Tip: Some sounds should play monophonically by nature, which means that they should only use a single voice. A flute is a good example. In these cases, you can set Voices to 1. If Voices is set to 1, another effect occurs: Overlapping voices will be played legato, which means that the envelopes will not be retriggered from voice to voice, and only pitch will change.

The center of the global display allows for a wide variety of internal MIDI mappings. For more information about the available modulation options, see the complete parameter list see Operator includes a polyphonic glide function. When this function is activated, new notes will start with the pitch of the last note played and then slide gradually to their own played pitch. Glide can be turned on or off and adjusted with the Glide Time control in the pitch display.

Operator also offers a special Spread parameter that creates a rich stereo chorus by using two voices per note and panning one to the left and one to the right. The two voices are detuned, and the amount of detuning can be adjusted with the Spread control in the pitch section of the shell. Tip: Whether or not spread is applied to a particular note depends upon the setting of the Spread parameter during the note-on event.

To achieve special effects, you could, for instance, create a sequence where Spread is 0 most of the time and turned on only for some notes. These notes will then play in stereo, while the others will play mono. Note: Spread is a CPU-intensive parameter. If you want to save CPU power, turn off features that you do not need or reduce the number of voices. For the sake of saving CPU resources, you will also usually want to reduce the number of voices to something between 6 and 12, and carefully use the Spread feature.

The Interpolation and Antialias modes in the global display can also be turned off to conserve CPU resources. FM synthesis was first explored musically by the composer and computer music pioneer John Chowning in the mids. In , he and Stanford University began a relationship with Yamaha that lead to one of the most successful commercial musical instruments ever, the DX7. John Chowning realized some very amazing and beautiful musical pieces based on a synthesis concept that you can now explore yourself simply by playing with Operator in Live.

The function of each Operator parameter is explained in the forthcoming sections. Remember that you can also access explanations of controls in Live including those belonging to Operator directly from the software by placing the mouse over the control and reading the text that appears in the Info View. Parameters in this list are grouped into sections based on where they appear in Operator.

Tone — Operator is capable of producing timbres with very high frequencies, which can sometimes lead to aliasing artifacts. The Tone setting controls the high frequency content of sounds. Higher settings are typically brighter but also more likely to produce aliasing. Algorithm — An oscillator can modulate other oscillators, be modulated by other oscillators, or both.

The algorithm defines the connections between the oscillators and therefore has a significant impact on the sound that is created. Voices — This sets the maximum number of notes that can sound simultaneously. If more notes than available voices are requested, the oldest notes will be cut off. Retrigger R — When enabled, notes that are enabled will be retriggered, rather than generating an additional voice. Interpolation — This toggles the interpolation algorithm of the oscillators and the LFO. If turned off, some timbres will sound more rough, especially the noise waveform.

Turning this off will also save some CPU power. Disabling this modes reduces the CPU load. Pan — Use this to adjust the panorama of each note. This is especially useful when modulated with clip envelopes. Typically this is used for piano-like sounds. These modulation targets are available as MIDI routing destinations in the global display, and also as modulation targets for the LFO and pitch envelope. OSC Feedback — Modulates the amount of feedback for all oscillators. Note that feedback is only applied to oscillators that are not modulated by other oscillators.

FM Drive — Modulates the volume of all oscillators which are modulating other oscillators, thus changing the timbre. Filter Drive — Modulates the amount of the Drive not available when the Morph filter is selected. Pitch Envelope On — This turns the pitch envelope on and off. Turning it off if it is unused saves some CPU power. Spread — If Spread is turned up, the synthesizer uses two detuned voices per note, one each on the left and right stereo channels, to create chorusing sounds.

Spread is a very CPU-intensive effect. Transpose — This is the global transposition setting for the instrument. Changing this parameter will affect notes that are already playing. Glide G — With Glide on, notes will slide from the pitch of the last played note to their played pitch. Note that all envelopes are not retriggered in this case if notes are being played legato. Glide Time Time — This is the time it takes for a note to slide from the pitch of the last played note to its final pitch when Glide is activated.

This setting has no effect if Glide is not activated. Pitch Envelope to Osc Destination A-D — The pitch envelope affects the frequency of the respective oscillator if this is turned on. Pitch Envelope Destination B — This sets the second modulation destination for the pitch envelope. Filter On — This turns the filter on and off. Turning it off when it is unused saves CPU power. Filter Type — This chooser selects from lowpass, highpass, bandpass, notch, and Morph filters. Circuit Type — This chooser selects from a variety of circuit types that emulate the character of classic analog synthesizers.

Filter Frequency Freq — This defines the center or cutoff frequency of the filter. Note that the resulting frequency may also be modulated by note velocity and by the filter envelope. Filter Resonance Res — This defines the resonance around the filter frequency of the lowpass and highpass filters, and the width of the bandpass and notch filters.

The center point for this function is C3. It is therefore listed in the section on envelopes. Filter Drive Flt. Drive — Applies additional input gain to the signal before it enters the filter. Shaper Drive Shp. Drive — This boosts or attenuates the signal level being sent to the waveshaper. Turning it off when it is unused saves some CPU power. All waveforms are band-limited to avoid unwanted clicks.

Due to the possible high frequencies, the LFO can also function as a fifth oscillator. Retrigger R — When enabled, the LFO restarts at the same position in its phase each time a note is triggered. Note that the actual effect also depends on the LFO envelope. Osc Coarse Frequency Coarse — The relationship between oscillator frequency and note pitch is defined by the Coarse and Fine parameters. Coarse sets the ratio in whole numbers, creating a harmonic relationship.

Osc Fine Frequency Fine — The relationship between oscillator frequency and note pitch is defined by the Coarse and Fine parameters. Fine sets the ratio in fractions of whole numbers, creating an inharmonic relationship. This frequency is constant, regardless of note pitch. Osc Fixed Multiplier Multi — This is used to adjust the range of the fixed frequency. Osc Output Level Level — This sets the output level of the oscillator. If this oscillator is modulating another, its level has significant influence on the resulting timbre.

Osc Waveform Wave — Choose from a collection of carefully selected waveforms. You can then edit them via the harmonics editor. Osc Feedback Feedback — An oscillator can modulate itself if it is not modulated by another oscillator. The modulation is dependent not only on the setting of the feedback control but also on the oscillator level and the envelope. Higher feedback creates a more complex resulting waveform. Osc Phase Phase — This sets the initial phase of the oscillator. The range represents one whole cycle. Retrigger R — When enabled, the oscillator restarts at the same position in its phase each time a note is triggered.

Repeat — Higher harmonics can be generated by repeating the drawn partials with a gradual fadeout, based on the settings in the Repeat chooser. If activated, the sonic result is the same as manually changing the Coarse parameter for each note. Applying this to modulating oscillators creates velocity-dependent timbres. Envelope Attack Time Attack — This sets the time it takes for a note to reach the peak level, starting from the initial level.

For the oscillator envelopes, the shape of this segment of the envelope is linear. For the filter and pitch envelopes, the shape of the segment can be adjusted. Envelope Decay Time Decay — This sets the time it takes for a note to reach the sustain level from the peak level. For the oscillator envelopes, the shape of this segment of the envelope is exponential.

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Envelope Release Time Release — This is the time it takes for a note to reach the end level after a note-off message is received. For the oscillator envelopes, this level is always -inf dB and the shape of the segment is exponential. For the filter and pitch envelopes, the end level is determined by the End Level parameter and the shape of the segment can be adjusted. This envelope segment will begin at the value of the envelope at the moment the note-off message occurs, regardless of which segment is currently active. Envelope Sustain Level Sustain — This is the sustain level at the end of the note decay.

The envelope will stay at this level until note release unless it is in Loop, Sync or Beat Mode. Envelope Loop Mode Loop — If this is set to Loop, the envelope will start again after the end of the decay segment. If set to Beat or Sync, it will start again after a given beat-time. In Sync Mode, this behavior will be quantized to song time. In Trigger mode, the envelope ignores note off. When retriggered, the envelope will move at the given attack rate from the current level to the peak level. The time it takes to move from the sustain level to the initial value is defined by this parameter.

This is especially interesting if the envelopes are looping. Note that this modulation does not influence the beat-time in Beat or Sync Modes, but the envelope segments themselves. The filter and pitch envelopes also provide parameters that adjust the slope of their envelope segments. These include:. There is also a command to export the waveform as an.

When enabled, E3 is the center. When disabled, C3 is the center. Note that this option is only available when loading Operator presets that were made in versions of Live prior to Live 9. Sampler users who want to share their presets with all Live users can convert their work to Simpler see It has been designed from the start to handle multi-gigabyte instrument libraries with ease, and it imports most common library formats.

Technology Skills

Getting started with Sampler is as easy as choosing a preset from the browser. Presets imported from third-party sample libraries are listed here, too, in the Imports folder. Once you have loaded a Sampler preset into a track, remember to arm the track for recording which also enables you to hear any MIDI notes you might want to play , and then start playing!

This technique is used to accurately capture the complexity of instruments that produce dynamic timbral changes. Rather than rely on the simple transposition of a single recorded sample, multisampling captures an instrument at multiple points within its critical sonic range. This typically means capturing the instrument at different pitches as well as different levels of emphasis played softly, moderately, loudly, etc. The resulting multisample is a collection of all the individually recorded sample files. The acoustic piano, for example, is a commonly multisampled instrument.

Sampler is designed to let you approach multisampling on whatever level you like: you can load and play multisample presets, import multisamples from third-party vendors see Lastly, you do not have use multisamples at all — drop a single sample into Sampler and take advantage of its internal modulation system however you like. Fold — Folds Sampler so that only the device title bar is visible.

Unfold quickly by double-clicking the device title bar. Show Preset Name — By default, Sampler takes the top-most sample in the sample layer list as its title. By default, Sampler will automatically be locked to the control surface when the track is armed for recording. A hand icon in the title bar of locked devices serves as a reminder of their statuses. Uncheck this to enable linear crossfades at looping points. Clicking a tab will, with the exception of the Zone tab, reveal its properties below.

In addition to serving as an organizational aid, each tab has one or more LEDs that indicate if there is modulation information in the corresponding area. We will get to know Sampler by examining each of these tabs. The Zone Editor opens in its own dedicated view, directly above the Device View. On the left side of the Zone Editor is the sample layer list, where multisamples are organized.

All of the individual samples belonging to a multisample are shown in this list, where they are referred to as layers. For complex multisamples, this list can be quite long. With Auto Select enabled, all sample layers that are able to play an incoming note will become selected in the sample layer list for the duration of that note.

All samples contained in the currently loaded multisample are listed here, with each sample given its own layer. Crowd control: classroom management and effective teaching for chorus, band, and orchestra. H38 Heddon, Debra Gordon. Threading the concept: powerful learning for the music classroom. H39 Jagow, Shelley. Teaching instrumental music : developing the complete band program.

J34 Johnson, Keith. Brass performance and pedagogy. J64 Kearns, Ronald E. Quick reference for band directors. K43 Kraemer, Jonathan M. The band director's guide to success: a survical guide for new music educators. Library Service Center MT K68 Lehr, Marjorie R. Getting started with elementary-level band. L Making music in the primary school: whole class instrumental and vocal teaching. New York, NY: Routledge, G7 M37 Millican, J. Starting out right: beginning band pedagogy. M Pagliaro, Michael J. The instrumental music director's guide to comprehensive program development.

P32 The musical instrument desk reference: a guide to how band and orchestral instruments work. P Rehrig, William H.

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The Heritage encyclopedia of band music: composers and their music; edited by Paul E. Westerville, Ohio: Integrity Press, Ref ML B23 R43 3 vols. Reul, David G. Getting started with middle level band.