One sees this format abundantly in the kirtan primer handbooks that have been published over the last hundred years or so. Lohiya also gives his own commentary among the interspersed lines, but one presumes that this voice, the voice of the kirtankar as opposed to the voice of the sants whose songs are being used would change according to the performer and the performance context.
All rights reserved. Text here is submitted to the demands of performance. The text is a tool, a means and not an end. Furthermore, its role is not preservation — it may function as an archive, but its composition is not intended to ossify a text and convey it into the future as a fixed form. Instead, the text is dynamic, meant to trigger and prompt a performance, existing as a kind of outline of a kirtan , but containing no narrative, typological, or historical logic independent of performance. In other words, it cannot stand alone, as can a pothi or a fixed, complete composition.
Other scholars have noted the echoes of performance in manuscript collections. Over time, raga associations become fixed to particular compositions in their entirety — words and music are joined — and a new kind of text emerges. The categorisation by raga suggests an origin in performance, but becomes its own literary organisational strategy. In time, raga categorisation became a fixed system, a literary logic to manage a growing corpus of songs. But in the case of bada 52, for example, the textual format resists distillation into a new literary type like the word-music association of pada and raga because it remains self-consciously incomplete.
Such badas record fragments of songs arranged for performative effect — hints and indications to a performer. But taken alone, these are fractured compositions unified only when plugged into the musicnarrative-embodiment matrix of a kirtan performance. Literacy was everywhere, there is no doubt. And it was not just a technology of the elite, but clearly part of the daily work of performers who were not in any real sense elites. Kirtan , embodied in the roving kirtankar , was the nexus of the public culture of bhakti , and of public entertainment in general.
In this context, a kirtankar might be considered an intermediary between text and orality, though his bread and butter, as it were, was the oral public kirtan. Kirtankars still carry notebooks and use them in the same way badas were used, only now, of course, they also have many more printed aids — the kirtan handbooks produced by people like Lohiya and the many editions of the songs and hagiographies of the sants.
So perhaps the last example of the kind of logic of writing before the advent of generous printed resources I can point towards can be found in the monumental works of Mahipati, who lived throughout the eighteenth century, dying in He was a Deshastha Brahmin kulkarni or village accountant of Taharabad, but he is more famous now as a kirtankar who specialised in the stories of the lives of the sants. Around the middle of the eighteenth century, Mahipati is said to have written his most famous composition, the Bhaktavijay.
In this work, Mahipati clearly relies upon other materials, especially earlier hagiographies and biographical or autobiographical songs attributed to various sants, the most important of which, for the earliest strata of Varkari lore, is Namdev. In the illustration given, on one side you see the record of this composition attributed to Namdev from a manuscript dated CE. The format is again that of a kirtan. Indeed, in his lifetime, he was famous for his kirtans.
Only after his lifetime did the written texts he left behind come to flesh out his fame in religious culture. Image by the author, CC BY. He writes:. Like the puff of breath blown by a musician, I am the wind that sounds the flute. Mahipati concludes his Bhaktavijay this way:. To some you have given knowledge of the soul. Some have begged to dwell in the union of self and universe. Some sit on beds of nails, Some sit with Vishnu in heaven. For me, in the kirtan of your servants I have become lost in supreme love.
But Mahipati is no plagiarist either — he is a performer, whose performance is crystallised, by his own hand, into a text, i. Mahipati closes what is probably his most famous hagiography by invoking the oral context of performance, set down on the written page. Within fifty years of his death, this text, the Bhaktavijay , would enter the world of print as one of the first and most popular devotional texts published in the Marathi colonial public sphere.
In other words, certain texts themselves suggest that sometimes the telling is the text, fossilised in literacy, imperfectly cemented in time. The written materials I have reviewed here are all the product of a performance economy, in a sense, a literary space that served the performance of kirtan before the modern period. Clearly, orality and literacy existed in a symbiotic relationship.
In our case we could say that when Mahipati the oral performer became Mahipati the literary and printed author, his fame as a kirtankar faded in lieu of his fame as a writer of books about the bhakti past. A similar historicalteleological notion is readily apparent in the work of Goody and Watt, for example: although they clearly state that literacy is always afloat in a sea of orality, the dominance of literacy is also the advent of history and of sustainable rational thought, the foundations of modernity.
In the public performance of kirtan in the pre-colonial era and later we see a systematic interweaving of orality and literacy that nevertheless privileges orality. The tradition, through figures like Namdev and centuries of performers, innovated ways to integrate writing and performance, but was always careful to maintain the necessary privilege of performance over writing, to control the power of literacy.
I have tried to demonstrate this logic of practice for kirtankars by noting how writing functioned in a system of performance that sought to guard against the loss of the immediacy of cultural memory, physical display, and devotional interaction. For the Marathi kirtankar , who remains the lifeblood of the devotional tradition of Varkaris, the tongue would always make the best book. This essay draws substantially from this chapter though the argument it presents is different.
Babar et al. See Winand M. My translation. Creative Commons - Attribution 4. You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers. Thank you. We will forward your request to your library as soon as possible. OpenEdition is a web platform for electronic publishing and academic communication in the humanities and social sciences. Desktop version Mobile version.
Results per book Results per chapter. Open Book Publishers. Books and Performances, Books for Performance. Search inside the book. Table of contents. Cite Share. Cited by. Text Notes Author. Full text. Zoom in Original jpeg, 60k. For e Zoom in Original jpeg, k. Callewaert and Zoom in Original jpeg, 70k. My translation To some you have given knowledge of the soul. Notes 1 C. My translation 9 See J. List of illustrations Caption Fig. Author Christian Lee Novetzke. Read Open Access. Freemium Recommend to your library for acquisition.
Buy Print version Open Book Publishers amazon. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, generated 28 juin ISBN: Novetzke, C. In Orsini, F.
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Novetzke, Christian Lee. What I found was a veritable minefield with roads that forked in every direction and very few clear answers. For those new to self-publishing, it's worth noting that CreateSpace is considered a subsidy press or author-services company. The key to these companies is that books are printed only when someone orders a copy; neither author nor publisher is forced into buying a bunch of books and having to hawk them.
Royalties are better than what "real" publishers offer, but there are caveats, and true self-publishing pros prefer to cut out the subsidy press which takes a cut and go straight to a POD printer like Lightning Source to maximize profits. But I was less concerned about making money from this venture and more interested in putting together a well-packaged product that I wouldn't be embarrassed to sell and some strangers might be willing to buy. If I did it right, I thought, and managed to get it some attention, some "real" publisher might come along and discover what a gem those 20 some odd publishers had passed on.
Well, thanks to a little publicity courtesy of Apple and a rejected -- then accepted -- free iPhone app, four and half months after I self-published "Knife Music," my agent sold it to The Overlook Press , an independent publisher that put the book out in hardcover in July A few months later it came out as an e-book and did very well, rising to as high as No.
Later this year Overlook will publish my second novel, "The Big Exit. As I said, that's the short story, and many things have changed -- particularly for the e-book industry -- since I first wrote this column back in December But most of what I learned along the way and what I picked up from other people who've also self-published, applies more than ever.
As always, feel free to add your own experiences to the comments section, and thanks to all the readers who've e-mailed in the past. Since this article is mainly about self-publishing an old-fashioned print book, here's the skinny on what it takes to put together such a book:. You choose a size for your book, format your Word manuscript to fit that size, turn your Word doc into a PDF, create some cover art in Photoshop, turn that into a PDF, and upload it all to the self-publisher of your choice and get a book proof back within a couple of weeks or sooner if you succeeded in formatting everything correctly.
- Homecoming Hero (Mills & Boon Love Inspired).
- Note 2 Self (Note 2 Self Series Book 1).
- Metro Stop Dostoevsky: Travels in Russian Time.
- The Salado Kid;
You can then make changes and swap in new PDFs. After you officially publish your book, you can make changes to your cover and interior text by submitting new PDFs, though your book will go offline "out of stock" for a week or two. The first thing I tell authors who tell me they want to publish a print book is that print should be their secondary focus. I'm advising people who have text-based books no graphics, illustrations, or photos to test the self-publishing waters with an e-book before moving on to hard copies. It's much easier to produce an e-book, particularly when it comes to formatting and cover design.
Once you have your book finalized in a Word or PDF file, it's relatively easy to convert it into one of the many e-book formats -- or just offer it as a download as a PDF. There are several e-publishers geared to "indie" authors, including Smashwords , BookBaby and Lulu, to name just a few. Note: Please see my article " How to self-publish an e-book " for more information on e-book creation. I can't speak for all self-publishing companies, but the quality of POD books is generally quite decent. You can't do a fancy matte cover yet , but the books look and feel like "real" books.
The only giveaway that you're dealing with a self-published book would be if the cover were poorly designed -- which, unfortunately, is too often the case. One of the unfortunate drawbacks of having a low barrier of entry into a suddenly hot market is that now everybody and their brother and sister is an author.
That means you're dealing with a ton of competition, some of which is made up of hustlers, charlatans, and a bunch of people in between. The growth of indie publishing in the U. While that growth has started to level off as fewer writers have unpublished novels in their closets to publish, you can still expect to go up against thousands of other motivated indie authors. Again, because the barrier to entry is so low, the majority of self-published books are pretty bad. If I had to put a number on it, I'd say less than 5 percent are decent and less than 1 percent are really good.
A tiny fraction become monster success stories, but every every few months, you'll hear about someone hitting it big for those who don't know already the "Fifty Shades of Grey" trilogy was initially self-published.
The average print self-published book sells about copies -- or two-thirds to three-quarters of your friends and family combined and don't count on all your Facebook acquaintances buying. I don't have a source for this statistic, but I've seen this stated on several blogs and as a Publishers Weekly article titled " Turning Bad Books into Big Bucks " noted, while traditional publishers aim to publish hundreds of thousands of copies of a few books, self-publishing companies make money by publishing copies of hundreds of thousands of books. You wonder why "real" books take nine months to produce -- and usually significantly longer.
Well, I now know why. It's hard to get everything just right if you're a novice at book formatting, Microsoft Word will become your worst enemy. And once you've finally received that final proof, you feel it could be slightly better. This will help dictate what service you go with. For instance, if your objective is to create a book for posterity's sake so your friends and family can read it for all eternity , you won't have to invest a lot of time or money to produce something that's quite acceptable.
Lulu is probably your best bet. However, if yours is a commercial venture with big aspirations, things get pretty tricky. If your book is really mediocre, don't expect it to take off. But even if it's a masterpiece, there's a good chance it won't fly off the shelves and by shelves, I mean virtual shelves, because most self-published books don't make it into brick-and-mortar stores. In other words, quality isn't a guarantee of success. You'll be lucky to make your investment back, let alone have a "hit" that brings in some real income.
Don't quit your day job yet. This seems to be the mantra of self-publishing. Nonfiction books with a well-defined topic and a nice hook to them can do well, especially if they have a target audience that you can focus on. Religious books are a perfect case in point. And fiction? Well, it's tough, but some genres do better than others.
Note : If it's any consolation, the majority of fiction books -- even ones from "real" publishers -- struggle in the marketplace. That's why traditional publishers stick with tried-and-true authors with loyal followings. Even if you go with one of the subsidy presses for convenience's sake, there's no reason to have Lulu, CreateSpace, iUniverse , Xlibris , Author House , Outskirts , or whomever listed as your publisher. The complete list of sellers is here.
Note : Most self-publishing operations will provide you with a free ISBN for both your print book and e-book but whatever operation provides you with the ISBN will be listed as the publisher. Your book should be easy to find in a search on Amazon and Google. It should come up in the first couple of search results. Unfortunately, many authors make the mistake of using a title that has too many other products associated it with it -- and it gets buried in search results. Not good. Basically, you want to get the maximum SEO search engine optimization for your title, so if and when somebody's actually looking to buy it they'll find the link for your book -- not an older one with an identical title.
Note : On a more cynical note, some authors are creating titles that are very similar to popular bestsellers. Also, some authors use pseudonyms that are similar to famous authors' names so they'll show up in search results for that author. Check out this list of Fifty Shades of Grey knockoffs. You've written your book and God knows you'd like to just hand it off to someone, have a team of professionals whip it into shape, and get it out there.
Well, there are a lot of companies that will offer to make just that happen -- and do it in a fraction of the time a traditional publisher could. These folks can potentially put together a really nice book for you. But I've also heard a lot nightmare stories where people come away disappointed with the process and feel ripped off. You can do a search in Google for the companies you're considering and find testimonials -- good and bad -- from authors who've used the services. Proceed with caution. Self-publishing outfits are in the game to make money.
And since they're probably not going to sell a lot of your books, they make money by with nice margins. That's OK.
Note To Self
Some of the services are worth it -- or at least may be worth it. It was good while it lasted and it helped me sell dozens, if not hundreds, of books. Personally, I'd never work with CreateSpace's in-house editors, copy editors, and in-house design people. That doesn't mean they're bad at what they do I've seen some covers that are well-done.
But if you can, it's better to hire your own people and work directly with them. Ideally, you should be able to meet with an editor, copy editor, and graphic designer in person -- and they all should have experience in book publishing. Down the road, I suspect you'll see more self-publishers offer high-end programs that pair you with a former editor from a major publishing house.
It's also worth mentioning that Amazon has become a publisher itself, with several imprints that it's either bought or created.
Amazon is in the process of developing a new hybrid model for publishing that aims to take the place of traditional publishers, which it sometimes refers to as "legacy" publishers. You can see a list of Amazon's imprints here. With its flagship Encore imprint , it selects certain "exceptional" self-published titles from "emerging" authors and brings them under the Amazon umbrella so to speak.
It's a good gig if you can get it. If you're serious about your book, hire a book doctor and get it copy edited. OK, so I've just told to avoid " packages " from publishers and yet I'm now saying you need editing and copy editing. So, where do you go? Well, before I sent my book out to agents, I hired a "book doctor" who was a former acquisition editor from a major New York publishing house like most editors he worked at a few different houses.
He happened to be the father of a friend from college, so I got a little discount, but it still wasn't cheap. However, after I'd made the changes he suggested, he made some calls to agents he knew and some were willing to take a look. He was part of Independent Editors Group IEG , a group of former acquisition editors who take on freelance editing projects for authors. While I didn't use his copy editor I used a friend of a friend who currently works at a big publishing house , he and other editors in his group can suggest people.
To be clear, this isn't going to be a better deal than what you'd get from a package deal with a self-publisher, but these people are experienced and are going to be upfront and honest with you.
Note to Self : Connor Franta :
They're not just pushing your book out to move it along the line on the conveyor belt, though they are trying to make a living. Warning: they don't take on all writers. By no means is IEG the only game in town. And there are plenty of others.
Share your voice
CreateSpace and other self-publishing companies are always offering special deals on their various services. There isn't whole lot of leeway, but it doesn't hurt to ask for deal sweeteners -- like more free copies of your book they often throw in free copies of your book. It also doesn't hurt to ask about deals that have technically expired. In sales, everything is negotiable.