In this paper, attention has been focused entirely on the political and military aspects of the ECOWAS peacekeeping operation.
This was essentially a peacekeeping force set up to monitor the ceasefire, but instead found itself pursuing a peace-enforcement strategy without the necessary equipment or mandate in place. However, despite the numerous setbacks that have been experienced by ECOWAS, this intervention should be viewed as a possible first attempt by regional and subregional organisations in the maintenance of international peace and security.
More important, this intervention should be seen as a small yet major step by African countries in developing regional collective security as a means of managing regional conflicts within the African continent. December Agreement of Banjul Gambia between the two factions to convene a national conference in 60 days.
September 7: NPFL agrees to disarm and disband its troops. The agreement included disarmament arrangements and the setting up of a tri-partite transitional government responsible for organising the general elections in February Agreement planned for immediate cease-fire and installation of a new State Council transitional presidency , composed of five members appointed by the three factions and by the civil society.
Agreed for general elections to take place in October The leaders agreed to the establishment of safe havens and buffer zones and the holding of elections in November for a government to take over in January A cease-fire was called for on 28 December The parties also agreed to demobilisation and reorganisation programmes.
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The function and structure of the five-member Council of State provide for the Cotonou and Akosombo Agreements. July Peace negotiations aimed at breaking the six-month stalemate opened at the Unity Conference in Virginia, 11km west of Monrovia.
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August Leaders from the various factions met in Abuja, Nigeria for another round of peace talks. A committee was set up to plan the election of a proposed Council of State, determine how to enforce a cease-fire and achieve disarmament. Under the Accord, hostilities will completely cease at midnight 26 August and the Council of State will be installed within 14 days from when the agreement is signed.
A new democratic government will be installed in 12 months. This paper does not reflect the view of the United Nations Association. The author would like to thank Agostinho Zacarias, Josh Arnold-Forster and members of the War and Intervention Panel for their comments on earlier drafts. For a history of Liberia see Dunn, E. Ofuatey-Kodjoe, W. Sawyer, A. The group also included foreign reporters and United States officials.
Omonijo, M. Although the NPFL sought to support the Nimba county people against Doe, it cannot be considered an ethnic movement in origin. The original guerilla force was ethnically mixed. All page numbers given refer to that given in the edited book. See Ruiz, H. The SMC rotates every three years. Eze, O. Vogt, M. See in particular Adisa, J.
Emmauel, E. See also the letter by the delegation of Nigeria to the United Nations Secretary-General which was published as a letter to the Security Council. The letter summarizes the decision of the Standing Mediation Committee. UN Doc. Letter addressed by President Samuel K. Nwolise, O. Alao, A. Nwolsie, O. Komolafe, K. Adisa, J. Whiteman, K. Amos Sawyer, a former Professor of Law at the University of Liberia, would not be eligible to run in the subsequent elections. General Albert Karpeth was subsequently assassinated on 1 June as a result of a leadership battle.
See Butty, J. These figures exclude Tanzania and Uganda who joined in January This is based on a report by Janet Fleischman. Joseph, R. Member States had previously called for the assistance of the United Nations.
Liberia's destruction diverted through dialogue
See Ofuatey-Kodjoe, W. Butty, J. The inquiry into the massacre was led by an international expert panel which also included Mr. Robert Gersony Member , Amb. Mahmoud Kassem Member. Shiner, C.
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A full account of the events surrounding the detention of some of UNOMIL military observers and non-governmental personnel can be found in the Seventh Progress Report of the Secretary-General, ibid, para. Whitman, L. The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance Field experience and current research on humanitarian action and policy. Home About Articles. Humanitarian Assistance and Human Rights Abuse Developments relating to the Accra peace agreement has also had little effect on humanitarian assistance within Liberia.
Conclusion Since writing this paper, a new peace process has been initiated with an agreed ceasefire. October Peace Plan signed in Yamoussoukro in disarmament. Notes 1. Wippman, D. Ibid, p. This is based on a report by Janet Fleischman Radio Cotonou, 2 November , Document , ibid, p. United Nations Doc. Ibid, para. Another significant lesson is clearly that Women must be at the peace table. Similar examples can be cited from other regions, I am sure.
Our post-war reconstruction is facing a serious challenge as a result of the global economic crisis. The global economic meltdown will affect major foreign-exchange earners, such as rubber, iron ore, and diamonds, while imposing constraint on imported commodities such as petroleum products, food, etc. Additionally, in the face of the global recession, multilateral and bilateral support to our reconstruction and development efforts will eventually suffer.
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This will definitely undermine our hardwon peace. The Government of President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf remains committed to deliver social services to the people of Liberia, however challenging the existing reality. We will continue to call for international support to assist our efforts in providing the services our people have lacked for years. This is why we are grateful, and thankful, to countries and institutions that have waived our debts.
We want to pay particular tribute to the Royal Norwegian Government for this. We call on those ho have not done so to consider waiving the debt Liberia owes them, to enable us to start anew on the path of national development. Ladies and Gentlemen: Conflicts and crises have erupted mainly as a result of deprivation, exclusion and inequity, and Liberia is no exception. To correct this problem, Government has put in place the Poverty Reduction Strategy which is aimed at reducing poverty and lifting the standard of living of the individual in concert with Millennium Development Goal 1.
Our desire is earnest, and we are sure to achieve this objective with the assistance of our international partners and friends. As you deliberate over the next few days, I wish you the best, hoping that the lessons learned from here will be applied to end complicated and intractable conflicts such as those in Somalia, Darfur, the Great Lakes Region, the Middle East, and Afghanistan, among many others. I thank you. Attachment: Women Participating in Peace Deals in Africa - The Golden Tulip Declaration on Liberia, Accra illustrates the major role played by Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Ruth Sando Perry in raising awareness among women's social movements, politicians, and the international community regarding concrete and significant involvement of women in peace processes, conflict management and decision-making mechanisms throughout the African continent.
The Akosomob Peace Agreement in was a consequence of the involvement of these women in mobilizing women organizations and political decision makers in the peace process, and in promoting and protecting women's rights, in what is well-documented in today's UNSCR 's resolution history as the "Golden Tulip Declaration" Accra, August Jean Jacques Pufusi Sadiki at that time. This issue must receive immediate support in order to strengthen the involvement of women throughout Burundi with regard to issues relating to their security, their inclusion and their rights," she urged.
Using her character and her national and international experience to the full, she successfully facilitated the Humanitarian, Social and Cultural Commission, one of four Commissioners established by the Inter-Congolese Dialogue in Sun City South Africa in February In fact, this dialogue established the end of the war in the DRC.
Subsequent deterioration of the situation in DRC continues to pose major humanitarian challenges to the world community. It mediates directly between belligerents and helps others to do the same. The HD Centre is active in approximately 15 conflicts around the world, some of which are necessarily confidential. Evidence from mining sites in the D. ReliefWeb has been the leading online source for reliable and timely humanitarian information on global crises and disasters since Learn more about ReliefWeb. Published on 23 Jun — View Original. Other countries Burundi Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Related reports filtered by country Democratic Republic of the Congo. ReliefWeb Informing humanitarians worldwide. We bring with us the greetings and best wishes of the American people. I'm proud to be traveling today not only with a strong delegation, headed by my wife, but also the Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice. I'm so honored to be with your troops. I'm looking forward to the display of talent and professionalism we're about to see. I thank those who have worked hard to help them become professional soldiers, all in the cause of bringing peace and security to the people of Liberia.
Though we're over 4, miles from the United States, I feel pretty much at home here. In Liberia, you fly the "Lone Star" flag. Of course, I was the former governor of Texas. We call ourselves the "Lone Star State. Laughter and applause. The name of your country, Liberia, means, "land of the free," and there is no place I feel more welcome than a land where liberty is love and the hope of freedom reigns.
This country was founded by former American slaves who came here seeking the freedom they had been denied in my country. Through hard work and determination, they established the first independent republic on the continent of Africa. The free country they built became a source of pride for her people, and a strong ally in the cause of freedom.
Together, our two nations helped defeat the forces of fascism.