Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Communist Party. Top-ranked secretary : Wang Huning. Chairman : Xi Jinping. Vice-Chairmen :. Office Chief: Ding Xuexiang. Director: Xi Jinping. Secretary-General: Wang Huning.
Deputy Director: Li Keqiang. Office Chief: Liu He. United Front. Scientific Outlook on Development. Harmonious Socialist Society. Constitution Law. Constitution Previous constitutions President list : Xi Jinping. Presidential spouse : Peng Liyuan. Vice-President : Wang Qishan. Secretary-General : Xiao Jie. National Defense Mobilization Commission. Chairman : Li Keqiang. The shortest accession negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic , while the longest was that of Russia, which, having first applied to join GATT in , was approved for membership in December and became a WTO member on 22 August The Working Party on the Accession of Kazakhstan was established in and was approved for membership in After a final meeting of the Working Party in October , Vanuatu requested more time to consider its accession terms.
In , it indicated its interest to resume and conclude its WTO accession. The re-convened Working Party completed its mandate on 2 May A study argues that "political ties rather than issue-area functional gains determine who joins" and shows "how geopolitical alignment shapes the demand and supply sides of membership". Instead, democracy and foreign policy similarity encourage states to join. A country wishing to accede to the WTO submits an application to the General Council, and has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements. After all necessary background information has been acquired, the working party focuses on issues of discrepancy between the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic trade policies and laws.
The working party determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may consider transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules. The final phase of accession involves bilateral negotiations between the applicant nation and other working party members regarding the concessions and commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services.
The new member's commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, even though they are negotiated bilaterally. Together with the tariff bindings being ad valorem there are no specific or compound rates. Moreover, there are no tariff-rate quotas on both industrial and agricultural products. When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party sends to the general council or ministerial conference an accession package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession a draft membership treaty , and lists "schedules" of the member-to-be's commitments.
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Once the general council or ministerial conference approves of the terms of accession, the applicant's parliament must ratify the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member. The WTO has members and 23 observer governments. WTO members do not have to be fully independent states; they need only be a customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of their external commercial relations. Thus Hong Kong has been a member since as "Hong Kong, China" since predating the People's Republic of China, which joined in after 15 years of negotiations.
As of , WTO member states represented A number of international intergovernmental organizations have also been granted observer status to WTO bodies. The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession. The Agreement on Agriculture came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": domestic support, market access and export subsidies.
The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector , in the same way as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT provided such a system for merchandise trade. The agreement entered into force in January Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling as well as animal and plant health imported pests and diseases.
The object ensures that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade". Chiefly, it adopts the "transaction value" approach.
The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general were published in January Source: Official website . Heads of the precursor organization, GATT :. Studies show that the WTO boosted trade. According to a study in the Journal of International Economic Law , "nearly all recent [preferential trade agreements PTAs ] reference the WTO explicitly, often dozens of times across multiple chapters.
Likewise, in many of these same PTAs we find that substantial portions of treaty language—sometime the majority of a chapter—is copied verbatim from a WTO agreement From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Intergovernmental trade organization. For other uses, see WTO disambiguation. Members, dually represented by the EU. Non-participant states.
Main article: History of the World Trade Organization.
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See also: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Main article: Uruguay Round. Main article: Doha Development Round. Main article: Dispute settlement in the WTO. Main article: World Trade Organization accession and membership.
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Goods or Services offers submitted. Working party meetings. Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime submitted. Working party established. WTO official site. Retrieved 26 January Note that the document's printed folio numbers do not match the pdf page numbers.
Trade Policy: Going it Alone vs. Abiding by the WTO Econofact". Since the U. The U. This is an updated version of an article originally published on Feb. Low pay, earnings mobility and policy — Manchester, Lancashire. Edition: Available editions United Kingdom. Trump met with Chinese delegates to discuss trade. Batabyal , Rochester Institute of Technology.
Author Amitrajeet A. Batabyal Amitrajeet A. Batabyal is a Friend of The Conversation. Empty words? Several examples of Chinese promises going unkept readily come to mind. Chinese and U. China joined the WTO in You might also like Saudi Arabia has many possible motives for pursuing nuclear power.
Canada, Mexico and other U.