Homer has created a timeless, dramatic tragedy. His characters are heroic but their passions and problems are human and universal, and he presents them with compassion, understanding and humour against the harsh background of the war and the quarrels of the gods. Genre: Literary Fiction. The Divine Comedy Dante. Don Quixote Miguel de Cervantes. Title: Iliad: Bk. Title: Iliad: Bks. Title: The Iliad, Vol. Title: The Iliad: Bks. Title: The Iliad of Homer, Vol. I enjoyed the opportunity, if not all the works. I really enjoyed the side-by-side French original and English translation format.
My French is just good enough to get by with help from dictionaries physical and Google Translate. The rhyming in the French made it flow wonderfully, so I feel the author should have at least tried it in a few poems. This book was that good. I have been reading and studying Homer since the mid s and this book is a perfect companion that reaffirmed some of my interpretations but also opened my eyes to many new possibilities. Throughout this work, she challenges our assumptions about the Iliad and its epic hero, Achilles.
She weaves her analysis to show how Homer really perceives war, heroes and humanity. I despised the Iliad the first time I read it. I thought it was all about anger, rage, machismo, and the glorification of war and killing.
She talks about this in the preface p. Interlaced with thoughts on the epic, Alexander talks about each of the heroes and gods, various social and religious practices, and discusses theories about where and when these ideas originated and when they were incorporated into the Iliad itself. Some ideas came from the Mycenaean era, others from about the time the Iliad was written down.
Some character traits were Greek, others from further east. It was a harsh read, beautifully wrought, like the reading of the names of the dead from some list. But, as Alexander notes, with some personalizing detail included. On leadership, I really enjoyed her thoughts on Achilles vs. She discusses a potential confrontation between these two during the funeral games for Patroklos. I bought it even before finishing her book. He translated only Book I, and shared it with some friends. Everyone liked it so much that they encouraged him to translate the rest, which he did a few years later.
This book is worth perusing and owning simply for the massive endnotes. This time, I did. Only a small minority even among the educated can first master Attic Greek, and then gain, by years of special study, the imperfect knowledge attainable of the epic dialect. The real question is therefore, Through what translations shall the overwhelming majority make Homer's acquaintance? The first, and many good critics add, the best, of all Euro- pean poems, the Iliad and Odyssey should, in some form, be among the familiar treasures of every household.
There is a widespread tendency in our own time to demand of the translator merely a faithful rendering of the thoughts, to renounce all attempt at indicating the metrical or other artistic form, of his original. Most Hellenists, for instance, would put first into the English reader's hands the deservedly popular recent translation of the Iliad by three English scholars, Messrs.
Lang, Leaf, and Myers. The present editor cordially agrees that this book should at least be within the reach of every careful student, and should serve constantly to remind him how much has been added, distorted, or removed, by the freer metrical translator. But the one indispensable and constant feature in a poem is the line or verse, which should in any language correspond closely in length to the average sentence or clause.
Is such a loss inevitable? The Iliad consists of fifteen thousand lines, all in dactylic hexameter. This verse is entirely too long for a single clause in Greek or English, nor can it be spoken or chanted in one breath. It is, in fact, a couplet, the so-called caesura marking the union of two true verses, e. To produce an harmonic effect closely resembling the Greek is simply impossible, because our words contain more than twice as many consonantal sounds. Thus the first line of the Iliad has only eleven non-vocalic elements, five even of these liquids.
In English letters it reads : Menin aeide thea, Peleiadeo Achileos. Longfellow's lines just quoted have twenty-three and twenty-four consonant elements. Such a verse as this Homeric one probably could not be put together out of English words at all. The most popular German version of the Iliad, by the poet Voss, is in hexameters, and follows Homer almost perfectly line by line, from the first verse, " Singe den Zorn, o Gottin, des Peleiaden Achilleus" to the quiet close, " Also bestatteten jene den Leib des reisigen Hektor.
There is still reason, perhaps, to hope that a great master of rhythm, like Mr. Swinburne, may produce an English hexameter version quite equal to that of Voss. While offensive in English to most scholars, because so diverse in melody from its classical prototype, this movement is a favorite with the many, as the extreme popularity of Evangeline indicates.
The form generally used for sustained epic or dramatic composition by our poets is " blank verse," i. But this is dangerously near to prose. It gives a very placid, slow effect, wholly unlike the dactyl's buoyant step. The meaning of an Homeric verse cannot usually be packed into one such line, still less can it be stretched over two. Hence we shall find, in every such version, that the unit of the thought is broken up.
The translator must make from a third to a half more lines than in the Greek Iliad. The especial melodic weakness of this unrhymed iambic line is, that its close is absolutely un- marked metrically. While Lord Derby's translation is perhaps the most scholarly in this form, the well-known one by our American poet, William Cull en Bryant, is particularly musical, and always dignified. But the lack of unity in the line, the extreme slowness of the movement, are both world- wide from Homer. The noble opening verses of Thana- tojjsis, for instance, are always divided, read, and heard, as prose — rather slow and heavy prose, too.
Poetry should always have some share in the swiftness and lightness of song.
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Tennyson felt the necessity of lyrics in other metres, with wealth of rhyme, to vary the monotonous movement of the Princess, and of the great Arthurian cycle, Shake- speare closes his scenes with rhymed couplets. Even Para- dise Lost is by no means light reading. In English it is a grievous burden, often an insuperable bar to fittest expression. Even in brief lyric, we may hope it will yet come to be regarded as merely one form of orna- ment, or rather of emphasis, to be used only when peculiarly appropriate.
In long epic and dramatic compositions, both English and German, unrhymed verse is the rule, as it should be. The Homeric translator has one additional difficulty. He cannot freely omit, insert, or rearrange his matter. He is expected, more or less literally, to follow his copy. By a recurring obligatory rhyme his attempt is made a hopeless struggle from the beginning. To all these difficulties Philip Worsley bade lightest- hearted defiance, choosing as the form for his translations the elaborate Spenserian stanza of nine lines, with its system of interwoven rhymes.
This stanza of course introduces a second and larger unit of measure, to which nothing in Homeric metre or thought corresponds. Its luxurious lei- surely harmony becomes wearisome in great mass.
The Iliad of Homer by Lord Derby - AbeBooks
Few men have read the Faerie Queene without flagging. Worsley completed the Odyssey, but died when the Iliad was half rendered. He varies, of course, constantly, from the letter, not rarely from the spirit, of his original. Nevertheless, this is one of the most exquisite masterpieces of trans- lation in the language, and should always be prominent in any shelf of English Homers. The versatile genius of Professor Conington added the remaining twelve books of the Iliad in the same metre, almost as skillfully handled.
All the English renderings thus far mentioned are of the nineteenth century. Pope's chief predecessor was the Elizabethan poet, Chapman, whose Homer has been made doubly famous by the enthusiastic sonnet of Keats. He is spirited, swift in movement, seems nsnally a competent Grecian. Bnt his own imagination is andacions, all but Shakespearean, while his power, perhaps even his desire, for clear and simple expression lags far behind. We can hardly read ten consecutive lines any- where, without becoming entangled in some elaborated " conceit " which, when unraveled and explained, turns out to be purely Elizabethan fancy, as far removed as may be from Homer's natural, straightforward, objective, yet ever fitting and often noble style.
In Chapman not even the plainest narrative passages are simple, or easy, for any length. For instance, in the Sixth Book, when Andromache recalls the sack of her native city, her brother's death, her father's lonely tomb built by the merciless conqueror Achilles, she adds : — " And the elms are growing about it, Set by the Oreads, children of Zeus who is lord of the segis. To be sure, it is curiously suggestive. This sympathy of the personified powers of nature with man's grief seems to anticipate Wordsworth or Bryant. Pope vss. Hear Chapman : — ' ' And to the monument He left of him, th' Oreades that are the high descent Of iEgis-bearing Jupiter another of their own Did add to it, and set it round with elms ; by which is shown, In theirs, the barrenness of death ; yet might it serve beside To shelter the sad monument from all the ruffinous pride Of storms and tempests, us'd to hurt things of that noble kind.
Chapman's constant embroidery of his plain theme is oftener limited to added metaphors and startling or quaint epithets. The iambic movement is natural, the fourteen syllables give just about space enough for the average Greek line. But the rhyme often carries him far afield in desperate quest, and besides, the whole movement is associated in English almost solely With the brief, willful, not too dignified flight of the popular ballad.
Homer has retained all the picturesque vividness, the vigor, the joyous freshness of the minstrel's art in the ballad age, which doubtless lay behind him ; but no hint of its crudeness, jerkiness, and occasional descent to prosaic vulgarity. Chapman is further cited and criticised, Book VI. A member of Addison's little coffee-house circle, Tickell, published a similar version of Book I. Pope's jealousy had probably no real ground for ascribing this feeble performance to Addison himself. It is of interest to us now only because it precipitated the hostility between the pass- ing and the coming leader of literary men, and so perhaps gave us Pope's one unrivaled masterpiece, the most deadly and the most unjust satire ever penned, the epigrammatic delineation of Atticus.
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To ex- plain the instant fame and lasting vogue of Pope's Homer is a hard task indeed. The glorious sunburst of the national genius in the poetry of Spenser, Marlowe, Shakespeare, and their time spent itself swiftly. The old age of Milton was lonely in every sense. Under the rule of his fellow-Puritans creative imagi- nation perished, with the gayety and merriment of Tudor England. Recent essayists may find a few more stepping- stones across the great gap from Milton's death until the "return to Nature" by Coleridge and Wordsworth at the close of the next century.
Certainly the Castle of Indolence, a little sheaf of Gray's poems, perhaps the beloved Deserted Village, will always be included in the anthologies of our best verse. Yet upon the whole. The age of Anne, at the opening of that century, was a peculiarly self-satisfied time. Her courtly wits never doubted that classic taste, polish, artistic form, if not their original creation, owed to them at least a happier renaissance.
Not only was antiquated Chaucer cast in fresher forms of speech, even crude Shakespeare must needs be rewritten. Undoubtedly they really felt that Ovid, at least, probably Virgil and Homer, were infinitely bettered by their modern and English dress. Dry den, for instance, who reigned unquestioned, and with no misgivings as to his own worth, among the " wits " of his latter days , is hardly remembered at all as a dramatist.
In our national lyric he occupies a modest space only. We recall him chiefly as the creator of a more natu- ral, crisp, and flexible prose than Milton's. Addison and his friends first developed the brief essay, the playful, genial tone of satire, in fact revealed the value of the light and polite touch. Fielding begins the long array of great novelists. Perhaps the one supreme masterpiece of the age is that eternal favorite of boyhood, Robinson Crusoe, though its author Defoe, was little worthy to succeed the writer of Pilgrim's Progress Bunyan, in the honors of imprisonment and persecution.
In sheer force of creative fancy the largest share must doubtless be credited to the chronicler of Gulli- ver's Travels, the foul-mouthed, cynical, brutally tender Dean Swift ; and, by the way, the stanch, life- long friendship of Swift and Pope, free from all jealousy or detraction on either side, is perhaps the pleasantest feature in both careers. But on the whole the central literary fig- ure, in the half-century of Anne and the earlier Georges, is poor, feeble, shapeless little Alexander Pope , standing in grotesque physical contrast to sturdy John Dryden and the yet burlier Samuel Johnson, on either hand, — as Lowell, I believe, suggests in his stimulating essay on Pope.
Pope was born of devout, rather obscure, but well-to-do Catholic parents, in the very year in which the fall of the last Stuart king assured the final triumph of English Prot- estantism. Though not now in danger of life or liberty, the Eomanists were long excluded from a University career, and from every political position. Under such family priests, and in obscure Catholic schools, young Pope was trained till his twelfth year.
His father meantime had retired from business in London to the village of Bin- field, on the edge of the Windsor forests. Through his 'teens the sickly, precocious, ambitious boy appears to have browsed without restraint or guidance in his father's library.
Some ability to read French and Latin he undoubtedly picked up. As to Greek, we are left to his unsupported claims — and our own blank incredulity. Pope was seriously misshapen and puny physically, and was never able to dress or undress himself. The feeble body, the constant struggle to keep the flickering candle of life burning, the consuming, unwearying effort to acquire literary perfection, must remind us of Robert Louis Stevenson.
But the lifelong cheeriness, the world-wide open-heartedness, the generous delight in other men's success, was almost wholly lacking. Some poetic imaginativeness Pope does show, as it were in spite of himself: in spite, certainly, of a most unfavor- able environment. His age seems to have held the firm belief that originality of thought was no longer possible, hardly even to be desired.
Wits, rather than poets, the men of letters preferred to call themselves ; and Pope himself early supplied the accepted definition : — " True wit is nature to advantage dress'd, What oft was thought, but ne'er so well express'd. We demand freshness of thought, or clearer revelation of nature, and the simpler its expression the better. We do not think homely truth " dress'd to advantage " in courtly finery. Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face, AVe first endure, then pity, then embrace.
Of such couplets the early Essay on Criticism, the mature Essay on Man, are essentially made up. This at least we must concede, that, within the monot- onous metrical form, the moralists and satirists of the last century expressed their rather obvious thoughts tersely, clearly, vigorously.
To that extent Pope's work, in partic- ular, will always be a model of English style ; and a model whose merits can be analyzed, expounded, in large measure acquired by all. An attractive feature in the literary life of Queen Anne's day is the great influence exerted by clever writers in the social and political world, the eager promptness with which a promising author was hailed and encouraged.
Addison's high scholarship at the University did not save him later from obscurity, poverty, and discouragement; but his mediocre poetical flight after Marlborough's victory at Blenheim won him a generous salaried post, and opened the way to unbroken prosperity thereafter. We get a pleasant glimpse, too, of Swift as a bustling dictator in the royal antechamber, ordering a youthful nobleman to subscribe his six guineas for the translation of Homer which " young Mr.
Pope " had just begun November, Pope's precocity was really remarkable, though his morbid vanity may have somewhat exaggerated the truth. His spirited version of a book from Statius' Latin epic, if done in his 'teens, was doubtless pruned by his maturer hand. But as early as the Essay on Criticism shows a wide reader, crisp, clear, sometimes witty in his easy turn of phrase, fairly independent in his literary judgments, and already full master of the couplet which Dryden had made the normal form for nearly all poetry.
The work which reveals most ingenuity, taste, and real wit, perhaps, among all Pope's poems, and which at once raised him to a leading place among the rhymers of the day, is the Rape of the Lock, first printed in , recast with the impor- tant addition of the superhuman " machinery," the Sylphs, in This is a mock-heroic, a miniature epic poem, telling how a noble lord cut from a reigning belle's head a lock of hair, with all the strife and direful woes thereby entailed.
To a healthy-minded country-bred boy this poem would be absolutely meaningless. It is in part a mild satire on the triviality of polite social life. Some portions are cleverly composed in parody of the real epic style. It is without doubt an exquisite work of art, and many passages are really imaginative, still oftener witty, though never deeply in earnest. But at any point in our enjoyment of it, suppose we are recalled to Milton's demand, that all true poetry must be "simple, sensuous, passionate.
Pope's Homer It was this new and youthful rhymer, the favorite poet of the " smart set," of the court and of society, who announced, at the age of twenty-five, that he would write and publish a translation of Homer's Iliad. His Cath- olic tenets were probably never very strenuously held, the influence of Bolingbroke tending rather to carry him outside of any distinctively Christian theology. All the breezes filled Pope's sails. Nevertheless, the instant mercantile success is astonishing. Some noble patrons were particu- larly generous. The six parts were published between and , and were received with general applause.
Pope's leadership in English letters was hardly questioned during the rest of his life. His lifelong- thrift thereafter was peculiarly unpoetical. He lived inde- pendently in the famous little villa at Twickenham on the Thames, knowing nothing of the poverty and mortifications that embittered the life of Johnson, Goldsmith, and so many authors of the century. He reached his goal, for he had not aimed at the stars.
Englishing the Iliad: Grading Four Rival Translations
Bentley, the great classical scholar of Pope's age, said, " A pretty poem, Mr. Pope : but you mustn't call it Homer ; " and every Hellenist since that day has been disposed to echo at least the latter clause. The translation is an emi- nently readable performance. Its vigor never flags, its clearness is rarely clouded.
Yet the total effect is astonish- ingly different from that produced by the Iliad, in the original or in a simple translation. Many of the differences to which attention will be called may seem trivial in them- selves. Their effect is cumulative. Doubtless Homeric simplicity often shocked his sense of fitness. He substitutes, so far as he may, the camps, courts, and drawing-rooms of the eigh- teenth century.
The best single line to illustrate all this occurs in the Odyssey, where a very lovable, rather shy young girl, who chances to be a king's daughter, wants to go with several companions on a little picnic at the beach. She begins : — "Papa dear, would you get ready for me the wagon, the high one? In Mr. Pope's elevating style this becomes : " Would my dread sire his ear regardful deign, And may his child the royal car obtain?
None the less, Mr.
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Pope's Homer will always remain one of the chief monuments of terse, polished, clear, vigorous eighteenth-century English. Certain minor affectations, e. The substitution of Jupiter for Zeus, Venus for Aphrodite, and in general of the Roman equivalents for Greek names, is indeed no longer to be imitated or approved, but was almost universal even down to our own day. It is perhaps the one serious error of judgment in Bryant's Homer.
Still, no one is consistent. We all say Ajax, not Aias. Few will drop Ulysses for Odysseus. The whole question is a debatable one, and not in itself of the first importance. Pope's metre was of course the ten-syllabled line in rhymed couplets. As used by Chaucer with abundant female rhymes, or by Keats with frequent "run-over" lines, concealing, or at least lightening, the else too emphatic rhyme, this move- ment is still agreeable — albeit, even so, somewhat monoto- nous — to our ears. Pope permits no variation from the exact tale of syllables.
His finished, antithetical rhetoric almost invariably completes its curve within the couplet. The rhyme comes as inevitable and almost as emphatic as the clash of cymbals. Accustomed as we are to lighter, daintier, more varied rhythmic and rhyming effects, or, on the other hand, to the larger movement of Miltonic and Shakespearean blank verse, it is hard indeed for us to put ourselves in the attitude of Pope's first readers, to whom this was the one form expected and desired.
The twenty syllables of the couplet often afford more than abundant space to render an Homeric hexameter, and some passages are unmistakably " padded " with merely orna- mental epithets. Oftener, however, Pope's temptation is to give his sentence a smarter rhetorical tone, a more epigrammatic emphasis than his original justified. We have good reason to doubt if Pope actually read Homer at all, except in free French versions and in Chapman and his other English predecessors.
This, at least, is the judgment of Pope's editor, Wakefield, a classical scholar and a friendly critic. The original edition of — with its sumptuous copperplate engravings, a complete list of royal, noble, and gentle subscribers, the learned essay on Homer contributed hy the scholarly poet Parnell, and the copious notes largely translated by some other scholar from the verbose old Greek bishop Eustathius, — makes a rather stately set of six vol- umes.
Smaller editions appeared in Pope's lifetime, partly piratical, others authorized. The poet's literary executor was the pedantic and conceited Warburton. His edition of appears to have been accepted as a sort of vulgate text ever since. Pope's trans- lation and preface, minus Parnell's essay on Homer and most of the notes, can now be obtained most conveniently in the Bohn Library edition. An exact reprint from the text would be ill suited to a school edition.
All substantives are there capitalized as now in German, proper nouns are set in Italic type. Such orthography as " smoak," " publick," " chearful," "rowze," "controul," "battel," "pyle," "prophan'd," "aetherial," "aethereal," "etherial," would be a dangerous example to our pupils. The present text ventures some closer approaches to Pope's spelling. Thus " oft'," " yon'," are interesting indications that the words were regarded as recent contractions for " often," " yonder.
One special problem as to the text has been mentioned in the preface. Note on Supplementary Reading Every student should if possible have in hand the Lang, Leaf, and Myers translation of the complete Iliad into some- what archaic English prose, now issued by Macmillan in inex- pensive form. The Bohn Library contains the complete Pope's Iliad, in modernized spelling, with all of Flaxman's illustrations.
The best small scholarly book about Homer is Jebb's Introduction Ginn. This book "was originally a course of University Extension lectures. Leaf's Compan- ion to Homer is an exhaustive general commentary on the English text This book, with Lang's Homer and the Epic, give with excellent temper the two sides of "the Homeric question. The archaeological discoveries of Schliemann and others are now best discussed in The Mycencean Age, by Tsountas and Manatt.
Chap- man's Iliad in Knickerbocker Nuggets , Bryant's Houghton , and Worsley's accessible only in an expensive English edi- tion , will perhaps suffice for any ordinary school library. Besides Cowper's and Lord Derby's in blank verse, there are spirited metrical versions, little known in America, by Way, and by Professor Blackie, the beloved and eccentric Scotch scholar. As to Pope himself, Thackeray's brief sketch in his English Humorists is a most eulogistic one, in the writer's happiest manner. For the life of the time, Henry Esmond is almost as indispensable as the Spectator itself.
Leslie Stephen wrote the brief biography in the English Men of Letters series, and also the article on Pope in his great Dictionary of English Biography The strange liter- ary intrigues, forgeries, and quarrels of Pope's life are patiently analyzed in the exhaustive Life and Works by W. The biography of Pope forms Vol. After the bust in Sans-Souci Palace, Potsdam. Translated by Mr. Te sequor, Graise gentis Decus! Non ita certandi cupidus , quam propter Amorem, Quod Te imitari aveo. Bowyer, for Bernard Lintott, between the Temple-Gates, Chryses, the father of Chryse'is, and priest of Apollo, comes to the Grecian camp to ransom her ; with which the action of the poem opens, in the tenth year of the siege.
The priest being- refused and insolently dismissed by Agamemnon, entreats for ven- geance from his god, who inflicts a pestilence on the Greeks. Achil- les calls a council, and encourages Calchas to declare the cause of it, who attributes it to the refusal of Chryse'is. The king, being obliged to send back his captive, enters into a furious contest with Achilles, which Nestor pacifies ; however, as he had the absolute command of the army, he seizes on Brise'is in revenge. Achilles in discontent withdraws himself and his forces from the rest of the Greeks; and complaining to Thetis, she supplicates Jupiter to render them sensible of the wrong done to her son, by giving vic- tory to the Trojans.
Jupiter, granting her suit, incenses Juno, between whom the debate runs high, till they are reconciled by the address of Vulcan. The time of two-and-twenty days is taken up in this book; nine during the plague, one in the council and quarrel of the princes, and twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Ethiopians, at whose return Thetis prefers her petition. The general, who is deluded with the hopes of taking Troy with- out his assistance, but fears the army was discouraged by his absence and the late plague, as well as by length of time, contrives to make trial of their disposition by a stratagem.
Pie first com- municates his design to the princes in council, that he would pro- pose a return to the soldiers, and that they should put a stop to them if the proposal was embraced. Then he assembles the whole host, and upon moving for a return to Greece, they unanimously agree to it, and run to prepare the ships. They are detained by the management of Ulysses, who chastises the insolence of Ther- sites.
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The assembly is recalled, several speeches made on the occasion, and at length the advice of Nestor followed, which was to make a general muster of the troops, and to divide them into their several nations, before they proceeded to battle. This gives occasion to the poet to enumerate all the forces of the Greeks and Trojans in a large catalogue.
The time employed in this book consists not entirely of one day. The scene lies in the Grecian camp and upon the sea-shore ; toward the end it removes to Troy. Iris is sent to call Helen to behold the fight. She leads her to the walls of Troy, where Priam sat with his counsellors, observing the Grecian leaders on the plain below, to whom Helen gives an account of the chief of them. The kings on either part take the solemn oath for the conditions of the combat.
She then calls Helen from the walls, and brings the lovers together.
Agamemnon, on the part of the Grecians, demands the restoration of Helen, and the performance of the articles. The three-and-twentieth day still continues throughout this book. The scene is sometimes in the field before Troy, and sometimes in Troy itself. She persuades Pandarus to aim an arrow at Menelaiis, who is wounded, but cured by Machaon. In the mean- time some of the Trojan troops attack the Greeks. Agamemnon is distinguished in all the parts of a good general ; he reviews the troops, and exhorts the leaders, some by praises, and others by reproofs.
Nestor is particularly celebrated for his military disci- pline. The battle joins, and great numbers are slain on both sides. The same day continues through this, as through the last book ; as it does also through the two following, and almost to the end of the seventh book. The scene is wholly in the field before Troy.
Pandarus wounds him with an arrow, but the goddess cures him, enables him to discern gods from mortals, and prohibits him from contending with any of the former, excepting Venus. JEneas joins Pandarus to oppose him, Pandarus is killed, and iEneas in great danger but for the assistance of Venus, who, as she is removing her son from the fight, is wounded on the hand by Diomed.
Apollo seconds her in his rescue, and at length carries off iEneas to Troy, where he is healed in the temple of Pergamus. Mars rallies the Trojans, and assists Hector to make a stand. Juno and Minerva descend to resist Mars ; the latter incites Diomed to go against that god ; he wounds him, and sends him groaning to heaven. The first battle continues through this book. The scene is the same as in the former. Ilelenus, the chief augur of Troy, commands Hector to return to the city, in order to appoint a solemn procession of the queen and the Trojan matrons to the temple of Minerva, to entreat her to remove Diomed from the fight.
The battle relaxing during the absence of Hector, Glaucus and Diomed have an interview between the two armies ; where, coming to the knowledge of the friendship and hospitality past between their ancestors, they make exchange of their arms. Hector, having performed the orders of Helen us, prevails upon Paris to return to the battle, and, taking a tender leave of his wife Andromache, hastens again to the field. The scene is first in the field of battle, between the rivers Simo'is and Scamander, and then changes to Troy.
Apollo, seeing her descend from Olympus, joins her near the Scsean gate. They agree to put off the general engagement for that day, and incite Hector to challenge the Greeks to a single combat. Nine of the princes accepting the challenge, the lot is cast, and falls upon Ajax. These heroes, after several attacks, are parted by the night. Priam sends a herald to make this offer, and to demand a truce for burning the dead, the last of which only is agreed to by Agamemnon.
AVhen the funerals are performed, the Greeks, pursuant to the advice of Nestor, erect a fortification to protect their fleet and camp, flanked with towers, and defended by a ditch and palisades. Neptune testifies his jealousy at this work, but is pacified by a promise from Jupiter. Both armies pass the night in feasting, but Jupiter disheartens the Trojans with thunder and other signs of his wrath. The three-and-twentieth day ends with the duel of Hector and Ajax ; the next day the truce is agreed : another is taken up in the funeral rites of the slain ; and one more in building the fortifi- cation before the ships ; so that somewhat above three days is employed in this book.
The scene lies wholly in the field. The armies join battle ; Jupiter on Mount Ida weighs in his bal- ances the fates of both, and affrights the Greeks with his thunders and lightnings. Nestor alone continues in the field in great danger ; Diomed relieves him, whose exploits, and those of Hector, are excel- lently described. Juno endeavours to animate Neptune to the assistance of the Greeks, but in vain. The acts of Teucer, who is at length wounded by Hector and carried off. Juno and Minerva prepare to aid the Grecians, but are restrained by Iris, sent from Jupiter.
The night puts an end to the battle. Hector continues in the field the Greeks being driven to their fortifications before the ships , and gives orders to keep the watch all night in the camp, to prevent the enemy from reiinbarking and escaping by flight. They kindle fires through all the field, and pass the night under arms. The time of seven-and-twenty days is employed from the open- ing of the poem to the end of this book. The scene here except of the celestial machines lies in the field toward the sea-shore.
Diomed opposes this, and Nestor seconds him, praising his wisdom and resolution. He orders the guard to be strengthened, and a council summoned to deliberate what measures are to be followed in this emergency. Agamemnon pursues this advice, and Nestor farther prevails upon him to send ambassadors to Achilles, in order to move him to a reconciliation. Ulysses and Ajax are made choice of, who are accompanied by old Phoenix. They make, each of them, very moving and pressing speeches, but are rejected with roughness by Achilles, who notwithstanding retains Phoenix in his tent.
The ambassadors return unsuccessfully to the camp, and the troops be- take themselves to sleep. This book, and the next following, take up the space of one night, which is the twenty-seventh from the beginning of the poem. The scene lies on the sea-shore, the station of the Grecian ships. He takes no rest that night, but passes through the camp, awaking the leaders, and contriving all possible methods for the public safety.
Menelaiis, Nestor, Ulysses, and Diomed are employed in raising the rest of the captains. They call a council of war, and deter- mine to send scouts into the enemy's camp, to learn their posture, and discover their intentions. Diomed undertakes this hazardous enterprise, and makes choice of Ulysses for his companion. In their passage they surprise Dolon, whom Hector had sent on a like design to the camp of the Grecians.