Adams, C. Adams, J. Adcock, F. Alfldi, A. Alfldy, G. Epigraphische Studien Bd. Epigrafische StudienBd. Alfldi, G. Dobson and W. Eck eds. Allen, S. Alston, R. ReviewAmato, R. Anderson, A. Anglim, S. Jestice, R. Rice, S. Rusch and J. Antonaras, A. Arrigoni Bertini, M. Ausbttel, F. Austin, N. Rankov, Exploratio. Military intelligence in the Roman world from thesecond Punic war to the battle of Adrianople London p. BBaatz, D. Archologische Ausflge zwischen Rhein und Donau Berlin p.
Baatz, D. Bockius, Vegetius und die rmische Flotte Mainz 64p. Babuin, A. Bagnall, N. Bagnall, R. Documents from the Roman army in Upper Egypt Durham 74p. Bailey, G. Baillie Reynolds, P. Barker, P. Barlow, J. Brennan, 'Tribuni scholarum palatinarum c. Barnes, T. Baronowski, D. Bartusis, M. Bauchhenss, G. Germania Inferior. Bonn und Umgebung Bonn 80p. Bechert, T. Willems, De Romeinse Rijksgrens Stuttgart p.
Bdoyre, G. The Roman army in Britain Stroud p. Belin, P. Bell, M. Ben Abdallah, Z. April bis Februar N. Pisone patre Sfidare Roma.
ROMAN ARMY BIBLIOGRAPHY
Countries and Regions of Publication 16 View the list below for more details. Map View :. Low High. The flags indicate which authority file had at least some publications from the country or region :. Publication Statistics Publication History They were the works of art presumably accumulated by the family over the course of some centuries, but one could not describe it as a typical Genoese collection.
Besides the Mor there was an oval portrait lot which was attributed to Pieter Pourbus, but which looks as if it might also be by Mor, or perhaps Adriaen Key. The collection sold in was that owned during the late nineteenth century by Prince Giulio Centurione and kept in his palazzo near the mint. It is described in by Alizeri, and though most of the attributions were different, there is no doubt that it was the same group of pictures, with the minor works omitted.
Our painting was apparently considered to be the work of Paris Bordone and the subject is given simply as a portrait of an "armigero. See note Unfortunately I do not know the buyer of lot Alizeri, Guida illustrativa del cittadino e del forastiero per la citta di Genova, , pp. Rossi, Jacopo Tintoretto, v. It is presently in a private collection. According to E.
Bohec, Y. Le, L'arme romaine sous le Bas-Empire (Paris 2006) 256p.
A l l of the pictures mentioned by Alizeri can be identified in the sale excepting the Strozzi, Guercino, Castiglione and probably the Piola. There is, of course, some room for doubt about identifying the Mor with the painting by Bordone, but it is nonetheless very probable. Alizeri, Guida artistica per la citta di Genova, , v. Self Portrait. Photo: Alinari. The Tintoretto but called Titian is there, but not the Mor. Before that time the collection cannot be identified in any of the palazzi belonging to the Centurioni.
A guide of does not describe any gallery of pictures in the palace near the mint. We cannot, for instance, say that it was formed primarily in one century or another. It is normal enough to find Flemish paintings in Genoese collections, but the taste in evidence is too eclectic to allow us to assume that the pictures are intimately connected with the history of the Centurione family. Having said all this, I think it is still conceivable that the sitter of lot 43, the Getty portrait, may have been a Centurione.
Various members of both families played prominent roles in the affairs of the Hapsburg empire. A n d during the late 's when Philip was directing his armies against the French, some of them were present in the north. One in particular, about whom we are unfortunately not very well informed, was Adamo Centurione, a close aide of Andrea Doria. Adamo is described as a merchant, soldier, and banker. He was an ambassador for Charles V , and he is known to have fought in Africa and Germany where he may have acquired his armor. He was also apparently in Brussels in Correspondence exists between Philip and Adamo Centurione on the subject of finances during the year The difficulty with identifying 23 24 See A.
Cappellini, Dizionario biografico di Genovesi illustri e notabili, , p. See M. See Poleggi, op. There was also Marco Centurione Ultramarino who worked for Andrea Doria in and who died in ; no doubt others could be found, but there seems to be no obvious candidate. The sitter of our picture must, therefore, remain anonymous for the time being. But it is to be hoped that one day a print or some other portrait of our sitter will come to light.
Mor's portraits do not completely remove the sitters from our own realm. They do not become ciphers of authority or men whose purpose it is simply to impose their will. The care that Mor takes to render their features keeps them from becoming generalizations. One is aware of their importance without being awed by it. The style did not originate with Mor, however. There is little doubt that Mor had it from Titian. The portrait of Charles, for instance, could have been seen by Mor in Spain. Other examples, contemporary with Mor himself, are Titian's portrait of Ferdinand I done at Augsburg in , and See Cappellini, op.
Phyrr addressed himself to the question of whether a Genoese would be expected to wear a suit of armor of South German make. He points to an armor made for Stefano Doria i n by A n t o n Peffenhauser of Augsburg, parts of which still exist, and there are other examples as well. Thus the Hapsburg portrait style for soldiers was already established when Mor took it up in The portrait of William of Orange of , so far as is known, would have been the second, and it is extremely close to the Getty portrait in character. Although Mor was active as court painter for almost twenty more years, he is not known to have done any more portraits of this kind.
The type was picked up by Alonso Sanchez Coello from Mor and carried on for another decade or so. Sanchez Coello's work was in turn imitated by Pantoja de la Cruz until well into the next century. It seems likely that it was kept in a private residence in Genoa for most, if not all, of its history, and therefore seen by relatively few people. Curator of Painting The J. Predictably, numerous pieces of sculpture were inspired by the ancient statue; Antico, Riccio, and Giambologna are only a few of the Renaissance sculptors who adapted the motif to current aesthetic concerns.
Less expected, though, was the discovery in the course of this study of a large number of innovative paintings, prints, and drawings clearly inspired by this quintessentially three-dimensional work of art. Cinquecento artists appear to have viewed the Crouching Aphrodite as a means of meeting one of their most interesting pictorial challenges: to transfer a bending, twisting, non-planar, in-the-round figure onto a flat surface in a manner that remained credible, plastic, and harmonious.
Then, as the century moved into its third and fourth decades, the complex pose of the Crouching Aphrodite continued to lend itself to the growing preoccupation with elegance, w i t h maniera. After the middle of the century, however, there are fewer and fewer direct references to the piece. And, by the last third of the cinquecento there is almost no interest in the Crouching Aphrodite except as an esoteric and empty cliche. I would like to thank Jin Frel for inviting me to write this article and Faya Causey for her watchfulness and help every step of the way.
Peter Meller's advice at the beginning of the project was also very much appreciated. I n the case of the Crouching Aphrodite, there is as yet no established evidence that ancient gems, coins, or vases bearing the image were available to Renaissance artists. O n the other hand, Roman copies of the original Greek statue were surely familiar to them. A t least four life-size examples were well known by the end of the quattrocento, and contemporary prints and drawings record both their existence and their condition. Two of these pieces are of the so-called "Doidalsas" type and are known as the Naples Venus Fig.
Both have the left arm leaning on the left raised knee with the hand extended downward across the thighs. The left shoulder is correspondingly slightly raised; the right arm crosses over the right breast with that hand pointed upward alongside the left ear; the head is turned to the right side; the right thigh and calf are parallel to the floor; the back is rounded. The Naples Venus was, probably, as early as the first years of the sixteenth century, in the Loggia of the Palazzo Madama-Medici in Rome. The Medici collection of antiquities was already well documented by Albertini's time, that is, by about , and the inventory does list "una Venera nuda, 2 3 2.
See following article by Dericksen Brinkerhoff for discussion of this third century B. For lack of a better term, the old label "Doidalsas type" will be retained here. Recorded i n the "Census. Naples Venus. Naples, Museo Nazionale. While there, he made numerous drawings after the antique, including several after the Naples Venus. His drawings of the Venus are unique among his other drawings in that they show her from five points of view.
Three of the poses three quarters front, three quarters rear, and full rear are on a single sheet which is devoted solely to that statue Fig. O n the other hand, the second and third folios are of value, first for the information they give us regarding the Croucher's precise location in the Loggia, and second for the record of its condition before restoration. There is another aspect, however, of the significance of Heemskerck's sketches and others like his and that is the role they played i n the spread of the motif within and even outside Italy.
As is well known, drawing books such as these were held i n high esteem throughout the first half of the cinquecento, exerting an influence on other artists second only to prints. The Lely Venus Fig. In its owner was, for a short time, Cesare Borgia; but it quickly reverted to Guidobaldo. The Lely Venus is of special 4. Naples inv. As indicated by M.
Winner, Zeichner sehen die Antike Berlin, and R. According to Winner, op. Also see N. Heemskerck's sketchbook is the most famous of these, but we do 6 7 Crouching Aphrodite in the Renaissance Figure 2a. Three views of the Naples Venus from Heemskerck sketchbook. Figure 2b. Figure 2c. As early as Marcantonio Raimondi made a print based directly on the statue Fig. Since it is so close to the piece itself, he must have seen the statue in Mantua, possibly on the journey he made from Venice to Rome in the very year the print was drawn.
See Isabella d'Este's relevant letters reproduced i n G. The statue later passed on to the collection of the English painter Peter Lely and thence to the royal art collection at Windsor. It was considered lost for some time but was rediscovered i n the s C. He also introduced another figure, an Eros, into the scene. Marcantonio had a casual enough approach to antiquity to attempt such a synthesis of related forms when appropriate, as is surely the case in this pairing of mother and son. Prints by Marcantonio had a remarkable circulation in the cinquecento.
It is therefore not unexpected to find an engraving from about by Altdorfer reproducing it quite faithfully, but naturally in reverse Fig. There is even a fashionable cap on her head. The image still maintains its formal integrity, even if a certain suggestion of the softness of flesh has replaced Marcantonio's depiction of hard stone.
But Altdorfer is responsible for a yet more 9 Archaeology 59 , Figs. Lely Venus. London, British Museum. Photo: Courtesy of Trustees of the British Museum. Figure 4. Crouching Venus, print based on the Lely Venus. Marcantonio Raimondi. Figure 5. Albrecht Altdorfer. Crouching Aphrodite in the Renaissance Figure 6. Terme Venus. Rome, Museo Nazionale. Photo: D A I , Rome. A plate in the Museo Nazionale in Florence, dated , is perhaps the most extreme example we have of the transformation of the classical statue from a free-standing, monumental sculpture into a flat painted image decorating a charming 10 Reproduced i n Catalogo de Majolica Florence, Prado Venus.
Madrid, Prado. This piece is noteworthy not so much for beauty and subtlety of execution as for the inclusion of Eros behind Aphrodite.
A t first the Terme statue belonged to 27 28 Hob written "e maximi lora hannuma testudo una nuda ha di sopre assai piu meglio con buono aspecto a perfecto attitudo. One of these is an as yet unattributed sketch, probably part of a larger study of antiques, since two other figures are represented on the same sheet. A second drawing of the subject has been attributed to Giampetrino, an artist in the circle of Leonardo. Both sketches represent the statue unrestored, as it was known at the time, and both show the piece from the same torso frontal point of view.
It is apparent that these two Renaissance draftsmen understood that the Prado Venus, unlike the "Doidalsas" type, has one major side. It is also clear that their purpose was to be, above all, archaeologically accurate i n the rendering of the marble. That the piece remained unrestored throughout at least the first half of the sixteenth century is implied by a Salviati fresco of about Fig.
As it lies alongside the muchadmired Torso Belvedere, one suspects that the Prado Venus was also held in high esteem in the cinquecento. Detail, Peace between the Gauls and the Romans. Francesco Salviati. Then it passed, first to the Cesarini heirs, and then to the Ludovisi collection. Aldrovandi described, i n the mid-sixteenth century, a sculptural group which corresponds to the Terme marble.
In the cinquecento the Prado piece was in a ruined condition, minus head, arms, shoulder area, and right breast. It is distinguished from the other three kpown statues by the strong torsion between the upper and lower parts of the body, creating an opposition of knees and shoulders not evident in the previously discussed statues.
The right shoulder and the right breast are higher than the left side of the body. Furthermore, the right knee and calf are no longer parallel to the ground; the knee instead points sharply downward, resting on a tortoise, and the back is now straight. There are several indications that the statue was well known even before the end of the quattrocento. As early as it was I learned of the existence of the Terme Venus i n the Renaissance through the "Census," which also provided information documenting its existence at the time.
Terme inv. Govi, Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, ser. Hermann, "Pier Jacopo Alari—Rona colsi, gennant 16 Clearly, then, Renaissance artists had a number of possibilities open to them when they desired to base a figure on the Crouching Aphrodite: the Naples, Lely, Terme and Prado Venuses were at their disposal. A n explanation may be the magnetism exerted by an unfinished or mutilated work of art. One is reminded of the similar appeal held by the Torso Belvedere. Published i n J. Also, E. I n his Creation fresco in the Camposanto in Pisa, which dates from the end of the trecento, we are presented with not one but two figures, Adam and Eve, who directly reflect the ancient motif Fig.
For Venus to become Eve was, therefore, a logical leap to make for a retardataire trecento mind. Adam and Eve, detail of the Creation. Piero di Puccio. Pisa, Camposanto. Quite the contrary. Here the central figure, crouching and turning to look at the procession of fashionable women behind her, is probably based on the Prado Venus with its firmly downthrust knee. It is unexpected to discover such a figure in Ghirlandaio's oeuvre because this is inherently such a dynamic pose and "there is never—or almost never—any emotion in the art of Ghirlandaio that could induce action, and rarely any will to describe even physical mobility of a decided kind.
Detail, Birth of the Virgin. Domenico Ghirlandaio. Florence, S. Maria Novella. Compared to later works inspired by the Crouching Aphrodite, Ghirlandaio's figure is wooden and planar, primarily decorative. The Salviati painting was first brought to my attention i n the "Census. It should also be stressed that Ghirlandaio's interest in classical antiquity has been established by the publication by H. Sketch for Leek. Leonardo da Vinci. Windsor Castle, Royal Library.
Figure Sketch for Leda. Leonardo also, unlike either Piero di Puccio or Ghirlandaio, did not turn her into a Christian image. Instead she metamorphosed into Leda, another pagan symbol of love. It is already well known that the Crouching Aphrodite was the basis for Leonardo's lost painting of Leda Figs.
Preliminary studies i n Windsor are dated about —08, and A n n Allison has even suggested that it was specifically the Prado Venus that inspired Leonardo. Her argument is a complex one, perhaps the most convincing aspect of which is her indication of Leonardo's struggles with the placement of the head, shoulders, arms, and baby—precisely those parts absent i n the ruined marble.
However, it seems to me that Leonardo's treatment of the upper part of the body differs i n the two drawings, one, indeed, being reminiscent of the Prado type, but the other of the "Doidalsas" type. Folio no. The earliest example There is much discussion about the dating of this painting and its sketch. The most reasonable chronology, though, seems to place the drawing slightly before Raphael's departure from Florence and the painting slightly after his arrival i n Rome. Crouching Aphrodite in the Renaissance Figure Study for the Esterhazy Raphael.
Discussed by E. The Esterhazy Madonna. Raphael's then still strong Leonardesque concerns. John, and Christ Child existing today in a copy by Andrea di Salerno in Naples , probably the earliest work to include these three personnages in one painting. This Madonna probably refers basically to the "Doidalsas" type of Crouching Aphrodite, an example of which Raphael must have known well: growing up in Urbino, his father a poet attached to the court of Guido- 31 32 Holo Figure Putto, detail from The Judicial Virtues.
Vatican, Stanza della Segnatura. Detail, Triumph of Bacchus. Gubbio, Palazzo dei Consoli. His drawing, probably sketched while still in Florence, gently recalls that statue. The painting, on the other hand, was not begun until Raphael moved to Rome and his art had gained in "gravita. As if a single allusion to the motif were not enough, Raphael restated the Crouching Aphrodite via the baby St. Like a theme with variations, this lovely pair echoes and mirrors each other's pose. Raphael's later uses of the Crouching Aphrodite can all be seen in Rome.
I n the Stanza della Segnatura, painted about , a charming putto in the classical attitude can be seen above the Virtue of Justice Fig. John of three years before. Raphael has painted her i n a position physically even more impossible than the ancient one, halfway between a crouch and a sit. Otherwise it faithfully mimics the Prado Venus. As in the previous examples, a child above the Sibyl also takes the crouching position, once more in mirror image of the adult posture.
Raphael, then, like Leonardo, approached the ancient statue in a faithful but free-spirited way—a manner classical but never pedantic; graceful but never simplistic. Two studies derived from the Crouching Aphrodite. Fra Bartolommeo. Although there may be a relationship, it seems a little distant to be included i n this survey. Loeser Bequest, inv. First pointed out by A. Mongan and P. Crouching Aphrodite in the Renaissance After there was a flurry of paintings using the Crouching Aphrodite in and around Florence and Rome.
A few instances will suffice to indicate the ubiquity of the motif. Here the crouching figure, a young girl at the far left, appears with numerous other pagan characters in a frieze-like arrangement. The picture conveys neither the dynamism, the grace, nor the threedimensional qualities of the Leonardo or Raphael works, although it is a more literal transcription of the ancient piece than theirs.
Presumably about the same time as Balducci, Fra Bartolommeo sketched two versions of the Crouching Aphrodite on a single sheet of paper now i n the Fogg Museum Fig. He was in Rome in , and it is evident that he was inspired by the Naples Venus. He felt free to adjust the arms and the position of the head in the sketches and also to make the goddess much pudgier than she is in the statue. Presumably he saw possibilities for her in future works of his own. This Mannerist artist used the Croucher many times in his work, but a drawing in Budapest is one of those closest to the model.
Dating about , it shows Venus with a drape over her shoulders looking back at Cupid. True to his own style and vision, he drew Venus as, above all else, elegant. I n a direct quotation from the ancient Venus, we see two figures reflecting each other as in a mirror. These figures are used in a newly decorative way: they function as framing devices, almost architectural in nature, for the classical narration they enclose. The delicate balance of the High Renaissance, where a piece of art strove to be at once artful and real, has here been upset, and we are struck primarily with the contrived self-consciousness of Detail of framing figures, Episodes from the Aeneid.
Piero del Vaga. Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Collone. The marble statue has been reduced in size and importance and serves only as the attribute of a cultured gentleman. In both paintings, Bronzino has represented crouching figures that correspond closely to the statue down to the legs. In the Louvre portrait, he arranged the legs in a new position that cannot be defined as crouching, sitting or standing; in the Uffizi portrait, he altered the lower legs to a literal bathing pose.
The latter statuette has also been turned into an inkwell, a peculiar conceit that leads us to wonder whether the piece might be common in the kleinkunst of the day. Lorenzo There are surely uses of Crouching Aphrodites in the Kleinkunst of the day. For example, I have found a small work in chalcedony, an intaglio made about , with the Croucher as Susannah. Like the Bronzino, it is the same as the ancient piece down to the lower leg area. The intaglio is reproduced in E.
Kris, Kleinkunst in Italien Leipzig, Fig. A late sixteenth century bronze inkstand attributed to Johann Gregor V a n der Schardt of a nymph seated on a rock Fig. Portrait of a Sculptor. Paris, Louvre. Portrait of a Youth with his Lute. Photo: Brogi. Lotto seems to have been the first Venetian to use the piece. By about , however, the piece must have been better understood i n High Renaissance terms. It even seems to have become an important element in the training of young artists in their drawing skills. If drawing this statue could be mastered, it might have been reasoned, surely the artist had learned his craft.
This situation is strongly suggested in a painting by Licinio in the collection of the Duke of Northumberland, Alnwick Castle Fig. In it the master holds a reduced cast of the Prado Venus with 28 Figure Flemish bronze inkstand. Attributed to J. V a n der Schardt. Photo: Sotheby's. Illustrated in B. Berenson, Lorenzo Lotto New York, , pi.
Allegory of Geometry and Arithmetic. Venice, Library of San Marco. Pordenone and his Pupils. Alnwick Castle. Photo: Courtesy of the Duke of Northumberland. A pupil looks to the master for approval as he holds out a drawing of the statue—the word disegno even appears on the sheet. Veronese's taste for the goddess Venus resulted i n his using the ancient motif often. Here the Croucher is shown from the side, very close to the Naples Venus cf. Heemskerck's side-view of the statue, Fig. A more unusual use of the motif is the artist's Allegory of Geometry and Arithmetic Fig.
I n this ceiling painting in the Library of San Marco, the crouching figure is seen from behind, and the energetic torsion and oppositions of knee and shoulder indicate the Prado Venus as the prototype. The same model was used for the figure of Industry in , a ceiling painting in the Sala del Colegiato in the Palazzo Ducale, where the statue's pose is reversed. Veronese has made the form even more monumental than it is in the ancient statue; the figure is bigger, fuller, and the spread of her legs is more powerful.
Another Veronese adaptation is his painting of St. Mark in Saint Sebastiano. See G. Fiocco, Paolo Veronese Rome, I n all of these instances, Veronese shows a deep understanding and mastery of the ancient motif. Like innovative artists already discussed, he saw fit to vary the motif at will, using it as raw material for his own style rather than being locked into a literal, prosaic representation.
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Although there are many echoes of the goddess of love throughout Titian's oeuvre the example Gould gives is the crouching nymph with both knees raised in the Diana and Actaeon of in the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh. The work is replete with other quotations from antiquity, quotations freely made and suggestive of statues come to life. But there is another variation of the crouching figure in Titian's Diana and Callisto, also of and also in the National Gallery of Scotland, presumably planned as a pendant to the Diana and Actaeon.
Here a nymph repeats the pose of the Croucher in the Diana and Actaeon, except that one of her legs is allowed to dangle i n the water. Brendel has already demonstrated that the sculpture of a small boy carrying a large water jug in the Diana and Callisto is based on a 30 y u Gould, ' T h e Cinquecento at Venice," Apollo The School of Fontainebleau is only one example of where the influence of the figure spread.
One of numerous examples is a print by Jean Mignon, signed and dated I n the engraving we have not one, not two, but three variations of the form. I n other Mannerist works, one sees an ever increasing distance from the Hellenistic statue and a growing dependence on intermediary sources. The reference to the Crouching Aphrodite seems to have become no more than a dimly recalled memory of a statue seen long ago on a trip to Italy.
Engraving of an old woman playing a flute. De Gheyn. Germany and other Northern lands as well. A t times the resulting exaggerations are bizarre, possibly the most peculiar being an etching by de Gheyn of an old v'oman playing a flute Fig. This growing hiatus contributed to the dissipation of the form and ultimately to its disappearance from the vital vocabulary of art by the end of the century.
It remained for P. Rubens to give life once again to the motif by his own direct studies of the antique in the seventeenth century. I n successive generations, artists such as Waldmuller, Cezanne, Degas, Maillol, and Picasso approached the Crouching Aphrodite as a source of inspiration, but never again was the statue's reflection so bright, so frequent, or so varied. The Norton Simon Museum Pasadena Cabinet'On-stand French Gobelins? This cabinet was the first object to be acquired by the department after the death of J. Paul Getty. It was bought from an English estate and is probably one of the most important pieces of furniture of this date to exist, both inside and outside France.
A n almost identical cabinet remains today in the Scottish seat of the Duke of Buccleuch, the Castle of Drumlanrig. There is no documentary evidence to prove this, and it seems more likely that both cabinets arrived in England in the first decades of the nineteenth century when such pieces were so eagerly sought after by the British aristocracy. The cabinet is decorated with tortoiseshell, brass, pewter, ivory, and exquisitely wrought panels of wood marquetry. The panel forming the central door of the cabinet shows the Cockerel of France above the Lion of the Netherlands and the Eagle of the Holy Roman Empire.
No doubt this is a reference to French supremacy over these two countries in the wars of the s. The figures beneath the cabinet were discovered, during the course of restoration, to have been painted with thick layers of bronze paint. Underneath, the original layer of crackelured cream paint remained largely intact, and it was decided to strip the figures to reveal their original condition, a startling combination of cream and gold against the dark tones of the cabinet.
Pair of mounted celadon shells Japanese and French; c. Each Japanese celadon ceramic shell, which dates from about , was mounted in Paris with three small gilt-bronze feet formed of piles of rocks and shells, while the lid takes the form of a gilt-bronze coral leaf with a sea-weed handle. Such confections, used to house pot-pourri, were popular in the mid-eighteenth century, and the pages of the Day Book of the famous dealer Lazare Duvaux show countless objects of this kind being sold to members of Parisian society.
Long cabinet or bookcase French Paris ; c. Height: 3'10"; Width: 15' 3"; Depth: 1'9". This cabinet, while being of remarkable size, is also of extraordinary quality. The fine panels of parquetry are surrounded by gilt-bronze mounts of intricate design. It is not easy to suggest what the original function of this piece might have been. French Gobelins? N e w Acquisitions Figure 2. Pair of Pot Pourri Vases. Ceramic: Japanese, c. Gilt-bronze mounts: French Paris , c. Figure 3. French Paris ; c. The cabinet was sold after Greffulhe's death in Sothebys, , July 23, Lot.
The Getty Museum acquired it in from the Paris dealer Aveline. Set of four gilt-bronze wall lights French Paris ; c. These four wall lights were acquired in from the London dealer Alexander and Berendt, who had bought them at auction the previous year Christies, , December 2, Lot.
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The museum already possessed a pair of lights of this model, and it was thought wise to extend the set in order to furnish a room consistently. The large, free-standing model is relatively well known and a number of identical lights exist.
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Wall lights of the same design appear in a water colour drawing of the grand salon at Chantilly, made i n as one of a volume of such sketches given to the Archduchess Maria Feodorovna. It is perhaps fitting that the wall lights hang in the museum at the sides of a set of Gobelin tapestries given to the Archduchess by Louis X V I in that same year, which she hung at Pavlovsk.
Wall Light, one of a set of four. Mounted pot-pourri vases Chinese and French Paris: c. These objects fall into the same exotic category as the celadon shells. The various ceramic elements are of Kang H'si porcelain, put together by a Parisian bronzier to form pot-pourri vases in about The bases are decorated with small lizards and shells. Such elaborate confections are rare and do not often New Acquisitions Figure 5. Ceramic: Chinese, c. The groups were acquired from the New York dealer Matthew Schutz.
Mounted celadon ewers Chinese and French Paris ; c.