John Milsom suggests that in the England of the s and 30s music printing might have been a more substantial trade than has previously been thought. But it was the Parisian printer Pierre Attaingnant who in realized the full commercial potential of the new technology. By using the single-impression method, Attaingnant propelled music printing into a moneymaking enterprise.
It spread across northern Europe from Paris to Lyons to the German cities, and nally, in , to Venice. The single-impression process proved to be simple. Each music note or symbol was combined with a short vertical section of the staff on the same piece of type. The compositor could then set the type on his composing stick, just as he would for type containing letters for text. While the resulting line of type gave the illusion of a continuous row of music notes, the breaks in the staff lines between each piece of type looked crude in comparison with Petruccis and Anticos editions.
Yet despite this disadvantage, the problem of alignment that had plagued the multiple-impression method had been solved. The aesthetic appearance of earlier music books was sacriced in favor of mass production. Music books could now be published more cheaply, more quickly, and in greater quantity than hitherto imagined. The adoption of a single-impression process in Venice at the end of the s radically changed the music-printing industry. It entered a new eramoving away from the artisan stage into the commercial period. The music printers Girolamo Scotto and Antonio Gardano exemplied this coming of age.
Scotto, who was born into a renowned Venetian publishing rm, and Gardano, a French emigre who es tablished his own dynasty, became the giants of the industry. For the next thirty years, they produced more than music editions, a gure that surpassed the total output of all other European music printers combined. Thus, what began in with Petruccis nancially precarious venture turned into a prosperous business enterprise. Venice could now claim preeminence in music printing. On the book trade, see Marino Zorzi, Dal manoscritto al libro, in Storia di Venezia dalle origini alla caduta della Serenissima, vol.
Gaetano Cozzi and Paolo Prodi Rome, , Rinaldo Fulin, Documenti per servire alla storia della tipograa veneziana, Archivio veneto 23 , 99, doc. Dennis E. I centri editoriali di Terraferma, in Storia della. Cultura Veneta, vol. From the one hundred or so printing rms established in Venice up to , twentythree continued into the next decade, and only ten outlived the century. Scholderer, Printing at Venice, Eisenstein, Printing Press as an Agent of Change, n. Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 4.
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Ester Pastorello, in her pioneering work, Tipogra, editori, librai a Venezia nel secolo XVI Florence, based her total of 7, editions on the holdings of selected northern Italian libraries. Her unpublished catalogue listing the titles brought out by Cinquecento Venetian printers is located in the Sala dei Manoscritti of the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice. The higher total of 17, appears in Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 8. He arrived at this gure by doubling Pastorellos total, and then by adding the outputs of the rms of Manuzio, Gioliti, Giunti, and Marcolini, as cited in S.
Paris, Pastorellos estimates are also questioned by Quondam, Mercanzi donore, As Grendler himself admits, his analysis of imprimaturs in Roman Inquisition, 89 as another method of deducing the total production of Venetian books is also awed, since printers did not seek licenses for the vast majority of their books.
See Richard J. Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 9. See also id. Schmitt and Quentin Skinner London, , The contract discovered by Bonnie J. Blackburn, in The Printing Contract for the Libro primo de musica de la salamandra Rome, , Journal of Musicology 12 : , should be added to Agees list.
Cidrais Rodrigues, M.
Morais, and R. Veiera Nery Lisbon, , Agee, Venetian Music Printing Contract. Chapman, Andrea Antico, Again this gure is approximately double Grendlers estimate of 15 to 20 million books: Roman Inquisition, Fernanda Ascarelli and Marco Menato, La tipograa del in Italia Florence, , provide the press locations for several of the Venetian printers. David Rosand comments on this phenomenon in connection with artistic production in Painting in Cinquecento Venice, On the fraterna see Frederic C. Lane Baltimore, , 36 For specic examples of marriages within the book trade, see Di Filippo Bareggi, Leditoria veneziana, ; , nn.
The documents appear in Gustav Ludwig, Contratti fra lo stampador Zuan di Colonia ed i suoi soci e inventario di una parte del loro magazzino, Miscellanea di storia veneta, Reale deputazione veneta di storia patria, 2d ser. See also Gerulaitis, Printing and Publishing, Claudio Sartori, Una dinastia di editori musicali, La bibliolia 58 : Examples of dowries given by other printers appear in Grendler, Roman Inquisition, Speculation on the Bindoni dowry is taken from Lewis, Antonio Gardano, n.
Grendler, Roman Inquisition, Bridges, Publishing of Arcadelts First Book, i: , mentions that peer arbitration was apparently used by Venetian merchants in other trades besides printing. Corrado Marciani, Editori, tipogra, librai veneti nel regno di Napoli nel Cinquecento, Studi veneziani 10 : at The locations of churches, scuole, and altars used by the guilds appears in Mackenney, Tradesmen and Traders, , app.
In either or , the confraternity known as the Scuola di Santa Maria del Rosario acquired the chapel, which became the most famous chapel and center for art owned by any late sixteenth-century scuola piccola.
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John Guthrie Trieste, ; repr. Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 5. The Virgin Mary is mentioned in the rst rule of their by-laws. A reproduction of the rst page appears in Di Filippo Bareggi, Leditoria veneziana, A complete transcription occurs in Brown, Venetian Printing Press, , doc. Brown also provides an English translation on pp.
An illustration of Our Lady of the Rosary and St. Thomas Aquinas as protectors of the guild also appears in the manuscript, and is reproduced in Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 7, pl. Brown, Venetian Printing Press, details various aspects of the printers guild. Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 19 n. While earlier scholars have made much of Aldo Manutios New Academy, Lowry, World of Aldus Manutius, , is more cautious in his interpretation of the evidence. A summary on the early years appears in Richard S. Samuels, Benedetto Varchi,. Lowry, World of Aldus Manutius, passim. Casali, Annali della tipograa veneziana di Francesco Marcolini da Forl, pp.
Howard, Jacopo Sansovino, 3, Fabio Mauroner, Le incisioni di Tiziano Padua,  , ; ; and gs. Quondam, Mercanzi donore, Scholderer, Printing at Venice, 78; but see Lowry, Nicholas Jensen, for a different interpretation. Lowry, World of Aldus Manutius, Gerulaitis, Printing and Publishing, 9. For an introduction to the Aristotelian tradition in the Renaissance see various writings by Paul Oskar Kristeller in Renaissance Thought and its Sources, ed.
Schmitt, Aristotle and the Renaissance Cambridge, Mass. Schmitt Baden-Baden and Geneva, Cranz, Bibliography of Aristotle Editions, no. Over volumes of familiar letters were issued over a hundred-year period of ; see Quondam, Le carte messaggiere: retorica e modelli di comunicazione epistolare, per un indice dei libri di lettere del Cinquecento Rome, , The term is taken from Grendler, Schooling in Renaissance Italy, Lavoro intellecttuale e mercato librario a Venezia nel Cinquecento Rome, On Ruzzante, Linda L. See Grendler, Roman Inquisition, ; and id. On the formal histories see Logan, Culture and Society in Venice, For histories in the more popular vein see Grendler, Francesco Sansovino and Italian Popular History, , Studies in the Renaissance 16 : A summary of the literature on the education for the vita civile appears in Grendler, Critics of the Italian World, Grendler claries the teaching of Italian literature and merchant skills as parts of the vernacular curriculum in Schooling in Renaissance Italy, See Mortimer, Italian 16th Century Books, for discussion of the illustrations.
Lowry, World of Aldus Manutius, ; Grendler, Roman Inquisition, 90; see also David W. For a summary of the repeated burning of Hebrew books in mid-century Venice see Grendler, Roman Inquisition, ; and id. Fulin, Documenti, See Raymond H. Kevorkian, Catalogue des incunables armeniens ou Chronique de limprimerie armenienne Geneva, Le livre armenien a travers les ages, Catalogue de lexposition tenue au Musee de la marine, Marseille, octobre Marseilles, n.
Paganini, tra lagosto e lagosto , La bibliolia 89 : and id. Alessandro Paganino Padua, , and gs. For the conict that occurred in the printing of Tridentine liturgical texts between the Venetian bookmen and the Roman papacy see Grendlers fascinating account in Roman Inquisition, Duggan, Italian Music Incunabula, She also notes that in some cases the black impression preceded the red impression n. Duggan, Italian Music Incunabula, goes further to hypothesize that the mensural type font used by Petrucci for his music books may have been crafted by the typecutter Jacomo Ungaro, who may have made the mensural music type used in Venice as early as Boorman, Petrucci at Fossombrone, As quoted in Lowry, World of Aldus Manutius, Lewis, Antonio Gardano, 1: 5.
Cusick, Valerio Dorico, Archivio di Stato hereafter. ASV , Senato Terra, reg. Stanley Boorman has discovered even earlier experiments with single-impression printing. Around , two printers of liturgical chant books in Venice and Vienna used the method for specic musical notes in their Salzburg missals. John Kmetz Cambridge, , The Library, 5th ser. A polyphonic music type known as La Pecorina with its matrices, punches, and forms. Item: an ordinary music type for standard books with matrices, punches, and forms. Item: a small music type for villotte books with matrices, punches, and forms.
Item: a large music type for royal format with matrices and punches. Item: punches of lute intablature and matrices and forms. Item: keyboard intablature: punches, matrices, and forms. Item: two music types for chant books with matrices, punches, and forms. Item: two printing presses. The roles played by printers and musicians in the cosmopolitan world of Renaissance Venice were not always mutually exclusive.
Scholars have depicted the music printer as a member of intellectual circles, acting as a friend and colleague to the leading musicians and literati of his day. But music printers were also merchants involved in the day-today commerce of the industry. When Antonio Gardano and Girolamo Scotto began to print music in the late s, they entered a business already geared to standardized production. By applying manufacturing techniques perfected by the Venetian printing industry over the previous fty years, the two music printers were able to mass produce music books from the very outset of their careers.
This chapter will concentrate on the operation of a sixteenth-century Venetian music press by examining the main features of the print shop: the workforce and the materials used. The process of typesetting a music book and the typographical style unique to a music press will also be described.
The materials and physical features that comprised Venetian music publications papers, formats, title pages, printers marks, decorative initials, and typefaceshelp us to identify what books came from the various presses. They also assume a greater signicance in reecting the changes in cultural taste and consequently the marketing strategies of music printers in mid-Cinquecento Venice.
The initial cost of running a print shop required an enormous outlay of capital for printing presses and typographical equipment. Printers also needed, from time to time, to replenish their stock with new type fonts. Over the lifetime of the rm, they could accumulate an abundance of type fonts, as seen in the Gardano inventory given in the epigraph above. Printers also had to tie up a great deal of capital in unsold inventory. Two different book catalogues issued by the Gardano rm and by the Scotto press, listing hundreds of titles, attest to the large build-up of inventory.
Large sums of money were also held up in unpaid balances created in the marketing process. It often took years to collect from agents and booksellers, as seen with the Carrara brothers, booksellers in the cities of Messina and Palermo, who owed Scotto the enormou sum of 1, ducats and 20 lire for books they had sold for him some eight years earlier.
The workers employed ranged from young apprentices and piece-work journeymen to pressmen, compositors, and proof correctors. Usually the regulations regarding apprenticeships required a knowledge of Latin, and most assuredly in the case of the music presses, the garzone had to read music notation. The age of the apprentice averaged between fteen and twenty years old. In Venice, a bookman had to serve a ve-year apprenticeship before he could join the guild as an independent printer.
The garzone, in return, had to obey the master printer and perform all the menial tasks of the shop.
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Other members of the print shop might include a journeyman who, after serving his apprenticeship, traveled from town to town, often for several years. Native-born Venetians had to work as journeymen for three years, and foreigners, in turn, had to serve in a Venetian print shop for ve years in order to join the guild. At the top of the workforce was the head compositor, who supervised the other workers and corrected the rst proofs.
Finally, the job of proof. It also appears that in many cases, the composers themselves were obliged to read and correct proofs for their own publications. The workforce usually divided into groups of four or ve men, consisting of two compositors, two pressmen, and an apprentice.
Each group operated one press, so that in the largest printing establishments, there might be as many as forty to fty men on eight to ten presses. Similarly, Girolamo and Ottaviano Scotto declared ownership of two presses in their tax declaration. In addition, the Scotto press contracted other independent printers in Venice to print their books. In most cases, the copy was a composers manuscript or fair copy prepared by another scribe. The calculation of line-breaks and page layout differed according to the type of musical genre printed.
Madrigal editions were most often set one piece per page, but on occasion three works could be spread over two pages. Motets, often divided into two parts, would t onto two pages not necessarily facing each other. An entire Mass setting, in contrast, took up the inordinately large number of around eight pages or one gathering of quarto format. The compositor took each piece of type from large type-cases, which housed the type in different compartments. He then set both the music and text type on a hand-held tray called a composing stick. When he completed a line of music with its text underlay, the compositor slid the contents of the composing stick onto a wooden tray or galley that usually held one page of type.
The forme was the arrangement of the pages on one side of a sheet of paper. The outer and inner formes made up the back and front of the sheet when printed. The number and arrangement of the pages was determined by the format of the book. Several different formats were employed by Venetian printers but the one most common for music books was oblong quarto. In oblong quarto, the outer forme contained pages 1, 4, 5, and 8, while the inner forme held pages 2, 3, 6, and 7.
Both outer and inner formes made up one gathering. The compositor created the forme on a at slab of marble called an imposing stone. Next he set a wooden or metal frame known as a chase around the forme. He then lled the spaces between the forme and chase with furniture large wooden inner frames and locked the forme into the chase with thumbscrews attached to two sides of the chase. She has speculated that the wooden inner frame contained indentations or grooves that held each line of music type in place. This caused alignment of music staves that is remarkably consistent from one page to another not only within a given music edition, but also in all editions using the same music type font.
Scotto employed this special mechanism in his earliest music editions of , while Gardano began to use it around Since the arrangement of every forme of a book remained the same, the compositor would retain certain typographical parts, in particular headings, repeated rules, and ornaments, known as standing type, along with the chase and furniture. All of these components made up what is called the skeleton forme. The use of standing type was a labor- and timesaving device in the production of all books, and, as Lewis notes, was particularly effective in the printing of music in partbooks.
Lewis suggests that in addition to the type for headings and border material, Gardanos compositors from on retained much of the text underlay of the page as standing type. She further speculates that the purpose of the specially notched furniture was not only to align the staves within an edition, but to keep the music type xed in position while shifting around the text underlay, when setting the forme for successive parts. A cursory examination of Scottos music editions from representative years reveals discrepancies in the text type of the underlay and, in some cases, in the decorative initials from part to part.
All of these deviations in the text between partbooks imply that compositors at the Scotto press did not retain the text underlay as part of the standing type. That setting both the music and the text underlay together on the composing stick one line at a time was the prevalent method of typesetting employed by Scotto and other Venetian printers for all partbooks may be seen in the tenor book of an unsigned edition of Ghibels Motets of Here an error occurs in no.
Following the usual manner of typesetting for single-volume editions, compositors could set all the formes for each partbook before proceeding to the next book all of the cantus. But, as Lewis has shown, they could also take advantage of standing type, by setting all the partbooks one gathering i. Lewis has coined the term vertical setting to describe this technique, in contrast to the traditional order, which she calls horizontal setting. It is also clear that after , the Scotto press followed the same practice, though not with the same consistency as the Gardano rm.
A reader would check one of the earliest sheets pulled from the press. The mercator or a professional proof-reader knowledgeable in music presumably did this task for many of the music editions, particularly the anthologies, but a composer or his representative was usually responsible for correcting commissioned publications of their own works. In general the two music presses did not bother to correct errors deemed minor or insignicant. Certain mistakes, such as turned letters in the text, designation of the wrong vocal part in the heading, or errors in pagination and signatures, remained, in many instances, uncorrected.
More blatant mistakes, particularly concerning the music itself, were corrected after the pressrun by a variety of methods. One standard practice was the issuing of an errata sheet. If Scotto or Gardano printed errata sheets for their music publications, then none survives. Extant copies of music editions, however, do display other forms of emendation. One of them was the paste-over, whereby a slip of paper containing the printed correction was afxed over the error, as seen on the altus title page of the Verona copy of Missae cum quatuor vocibus paribus decantandae, Morales Hispani, ac aliorum.
Sometimes the music presses would employ white ink to hide the error, as seen in Gardanos edition of Domenico Bianchini, Intabolatura de lauto. Sometimes during the printing process, the press was stopped to make corrections in the type, or printed corrections could be appended to a page containing an error after the forme was printed. In some cases, variant states exist in different copies of the edition.
For example, an entire musical phrase was left out in the bassus part of the fourth piece in the unsigned edition of Perissone Cambios Madrigali a cinque voci The Rome copy contains the page unemended in its original state. The Modena and Verona copies have different variant states of the edition.
Both have a typeset addendum containing the musical phrase with text underlay overprinted at the bottom of the page. Only the Verona copy includes a small hand printed at the beginning of the second system to indicate the placement of the addendum. It is clear that these emendations were not stoppress corrections, but were changes that took place after the pressrun. Having described the hierarchy of the workforce and the process of typesetting, we now turn to the materials and elementsthe paper, formats, printers marks, decorative initials, and typefacesthat made up the unique typographical style of each music press.
Today these physical characteristics play an important role in the identication of unsigned or incomplete editions. In the sixteenth century, they signaled to the general readership the contents and intended function of the edition. Large books in upright quarto or folio format with elaborately decorated initials and large typefaces often served as presentation editions for important personages. Paper was the most important and most expensive material.
Printing shops consumed vast quantities of itabout three reams a day per press. Paper rst appeared in Europe sometime around , when it was rst manufactured in the Spanish towns of Xativa, Valencia, and Toledo. The industry reached Italy at the end of the thirteenth century. The town of Fabriano, situated near Ancona, became the rst Italian center for the manufacture of paper. Renowned for the quality and quantity of its paper, Fabriano retained its status as a major producer of paper for centuries.
By the middle of the fourteenth century, paper mills spread to other Italian cities, notably Padua and shortly thereafter to Treviso. The location of paper mills in the Venetian Republic proved a boon to printers, who obtained their paper mainly from the surrounding environs. One of his closest associates, Jacopo Fabriano, was not only a printer and bookdealer in Padua but was also described as a cartolarius Patavinus. In the fourteenth century four sizes of paper were established as the standard measurements for papermaking in Bologna.
They were imperialle 74 50 cm. Toward the end of the century most books in folio format were printed on paper corresponding to the smaller sizes of rezute and mezane. Italian printers, however, reserved the largest, most expensive imperialle size for their special books. Some extant printing contracts specify the paper size if it differed from the standard rezute.
The measurements of extant copies of these two editions, falling in the range of As with the extra-large folios of the incunabular period, these editions of polyphonic Mass settings in choirbook format required a large paper size, since they were intended for ecclesiastical use by a choir singing from one book. Girolamo Scotto employed rezute paper for practically all his music books. Antonio Gardano also used the rezute size, but printed a few specially commissioned editions on larger size sheets.
The paper measurements for Adrian Willaerts Musica nova of and Pietro Giovanellis Novus Thesaurus volumes, both in upright quarto, correspond to mezane, while those of the folio editions of Moraless Manicats and Jacobus de Kerles Mass settings conform with realle. The mold consisted of a frame containing wires running vertically laid lines and horizontally chain lines to form a grid.
Paper manufacturers constructed their own personal design or watermark from wire and then sewed it onto the grid of laid and chain lines. The direction of both the laid lines and chain lines as well as the position of the watermark on the leaf help determine the format of a nished book. During the sixteenth century, books were printed in a variety of formats. The term refers to the relationship between an individual leaf of a book and the original printed sheet of paper, which can vary in the number of leaves it contains.
The most common formats are folio, quarto, octavo, duodecimo, and sextodecimo. In folio format, two pages are printed on each side of a sheet of paper, which is then folded once along the shorter side crosswise to make a two-leaf, four-page gathering. A quarto is produced from a sheet containing four pages printed on each side folded twice, once crosswise and once along the longer side lengthwise , thus creating a four-leaf or eight-page gathering duerno. Printed sheets for octavo format have eight pages printed on each side; the paper is subsequently folded once crosswise, once lengthwise, and then crosswise again, making an eight-leaf or sixteen-page gathering quaderno.
The standard orientation of a format is upright. Some formats can also be oblong, whereby the horizontal axis is longer than the vertical. During the midsixteenth century, the most common format for music books was oblong quarto. The layout or imposition of the pages on the forme and folding sequence for an oblong format differs from that of an upright format. Figure 2. The position of the watermark and the direction of the chainlines on the leaf also differ between the two formats.
As seen in gure 2. Oblong quarto, in contrast, has vertical chainlines with the watermark at the top center of the leaf. In mid century, oblong quarto became the format of choice. Nearly all of Antonio Gardanos music publications, including editions containing lute and keyboard intabulations appeared in this format.
They include the deluxe editions of Willaerts Musica Nova and Giovanellis Novus Thesaurus , in upright quarto, and Moraless Magnicats and Kerles Masses in large folio editions. As noted previously, the upright quarto titles were printed on larger size paper. As special commissions, they were intended more for private than public consumption.
The deluxe features of the folio volumes, on the other hand, had a functional purpose. The large size of their format, paper, and musical and textual typographies, as well as their unusual choirbook layout, in which all voice parts appear in one volume on the same page opening, suggest that they were custom-made to t specic ecclesiastical requirements. Like Gardano, Scotto used oblong quarto from until the early s for all his music publications.
An exception occurred in , when he reversed the orientation to upright quarto. The catalyst for this sudden change in format was. The Dialogos unusual conception as a hybrid musico-literary work presumably prompted the use of upright quarto. Upright octavo, traditionally employed for literary dialogic works, was too small to incorporate both music works and dialogue, while the oblong quarto of music editions was too wide and therefore wasted space for the texted portions.
Scotto seemed to like the idea of the new format, for in that year he issued at least another six music editions in upright quarto. The experiment, however, did not last. Girolamo ceased to print music from to , and when he resumed his music-printing operations in , he reverted to the traditional orientation of oblong format. Scotto was, in fact, the rst Italian music printer to change from oblong to upright quarto format. It took another twenty years for the upright orientation to become standard for all Venetian music printers.
The format of choice for the popular Neapolitan dialect song or villanesche editions by most printers was the smaller oblong octavo. Perhaps in response to Gardanos change in format, Scotto, in , inaugurated another new format, upright octavo, for his music editions of canzone alla napolitane, villote, and other three-voice dialect songs. No other printer took up the upright orientation for their music books in octavo size. The diminutive dimensions of the format t in well with the modest size and style of the pieces.
Scotto adopted two different methods of presenting the poetry and music on the page.
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In most cases, he followed Gardanos lead by printing only the rst stanza of text underneath the music and placing any additional strophes in a group at the bottom of the piece see g. On rare occasions, Scotto copied the arrangement used by other printers, by placing the music with one stanza of text underlay on the verso page and the entire poem on the opposite page. Only four of Scottos music publications survive in folio format.
They are single-volume lute books that were commissioned by their authors, Galilei and Barbetta and two chant books Missale Romanum ; Unlike Gardanos editions, none of Scottos sacred books appears in choir-book format. Only one volume, the Villancicos of , is laid out in choirbook fashion. Unusual for this arrangement and upright quarto format, the Villancicos is the only music book with Spanish texts to be published in Cinquecento Venice.
The average edition consisted of four or ve gatherings either sixteen or twenty leaves , but some editions, particularly of liturgical music, would run into more. Six staves of music were printed to the page in oblong quarto, but from to , while experimenting with a larger music font, Scotto used ve staves. Reproduced with permission of the Library, University of California, Berkeley. His upright octavo books could accommodate up to six staves of music, but often contained only by four, leaving space at the bottom of the page for additional stanzas of text.
Venetian lute tablatures printed in oblong quarto contained four staves per page. Gardanos three editions of keyboard intablature also held four staves in two systems per page. Gardano used pagination for almost all his editions,45 Scotto tended to be inconsistent in his numbering system, especially in the early years. He preferred pagination for his madrigal editions, foliation for his liturgical publications and lute books, and simply numbered each piece in his early motet editions.
By the s pagination became standard in Scotto publications. Whatever the numbering system, Roman numerals appeared in the majority of Scottos music editions until the s, when they were superseded by arabic numbering. Signatures appear on the bottom right-hand corner of the recto of at least the rst and second leaves of a gathering. They almost always consist of a letter from the Latin alphabet and sometimes a brief phrase or signature title identifying the work.
Signatures assisted the printer in assembling the book by enabling him to identify the order of the gatherings and the correct way to fold them. Since books were shipped and sold in unbound gatherings, signatures and signature titles also helped booksellers and their customers in distinguishing between different publications.
The signatures for a set of partbooks presented a unique problem. They had to be similar in order to show that the set belonged together, but they also had to differentiate each of the partbooks. Several methods were devised by music printers. One system consisted of starting all the partbooks with the same letter, but distinguishing among them by using a different font or doubling the letters AF for cantus, af for tenor, AAFF for altus, etc. Buona figlia becomes buone figlie good daughters and buono padrino becomes buoni padrini good godparents.
Verbs also vary depending on mood, who is acting, and whether the action is in the past, present, or future. These diacritic marks indicate a change in pronunciation, but do not affect alphabetical order. They are more often used in recent documents. Spelling rules were not fixed in earlier centuries when records of our ancestors were written. The k, j, and w are only used in foreign words. The following spelling variations may be found:. This word list below includes words most commonly found in genealogical sources. A list of Italian Occupations and the English equivalents can be found at Rootsweb.
For further help, use an Italian- English dictionary. At the Family History Library, the Italian dictionaries are cataloged with the call number The following dictionary is also available on microfilm for use in family history centers:. To find and use specific types of Italian records, you will need to know some key words in Italian. This section gives key genealogical terms in English and the Italian words with the same or similar meanings. For example, in the first column you will find the English word marriage.
In the second column you will find Italian words with meanings such as marry, marriage, wedding, wedlock, unite, and other words used in Italian records to indicate marriage. In some genealogical records, numbers are spelled out. This is especially true with dates. The following list gives the cardinal for example, 1, 2, 3 and the ordinal for example, 1st, 2nd, 3rd versions of each number. Days of the month are usually written in cardinal form. Note that all ordinal numbers are adjectives and will end with; o or a depending on the gender of the word it modifies.
In Italian records, the registrar often indicated the exact time of day when an event occurred. This is generally written out, for example:. Perini, who held the same chair at King's College as had been occupied by Rossetti's father, edited the Italian text, with English notes consisting largely of renderings. In Mr. In the same year my Mother I dedicate this new edition of a book prized by her love.
Boswell published a very fair literal prose rendering with a few samples of verse at the end and adequately introduced. The novelty of the views expressed aroused consider- able interest and discussion at the time, and the paper was translated into Italian. She thence departeth, of her land aware, Meek in humility's apparelling ; And men esteem her as a heavenly thing Sent down to earth a marvel to declare.
Whoso regardeth so delightedly Beholds, his eyes into his heart instil Sweet only to be known by tasting it ; And from her face invisibly doth flit A gentle spirit Love doth wholly fill, That to the soul is ever saying, Sigh. XI Bologna, The Vita Nmva contains, but hides under a realistic story of love, Dante's vacillations in regard to the chief question of the era in which he lived.
As Virtue and Pleasure competed for the moral possession of Hercules, so Faith and Science disputed the intellectual allegiance of the pilgrim of the thirteenth century. And this conclusion is quite unaffected by the question whether the love of Dante for Beatrice was real or fictitious. Our argument leaves room for every variety of opinion upon that subject ; it is a subject wholly external to the spring and source of the Vita Nuova, whether she was or was not a real person ; and if so, whether she was a woman whom he loved, or whether she was to him only some bright peculiar starj or thirdly, whether she did but furnish a name to him — in all cases alike, it appears that she was added for poetical imagery after the Commedia had been outlined in the poet's mind.
The same author had in published at New York a suggestive essay in interpretation, Dante and Beatrice, In Prof. On the other hand, America, in the person of Mr. Translation and Pictures by D, G. Rossetti New York, This was an admirable notion, the only wonder being that it had not occurred to any one in England. Carrington's introduction is full of sound matter, and contains a particularly happy parallel between Beatrice and Mrs.
In Phoebe Anna Traquair published at Edinburgh a photographic reproduction of an 1 Italy soon followed suit with a volume to which A. Agresti, the son-in-law of W. England came next, in , Mr. Rossetti being responsible for the foreword. He had also con- tributed one to the American volume. In the same year the idea was successfully adopted in Germany by Hauser see above, p. Ivi illuminated manuscript, which had been designed by herself, with varying success, in the medieval style, and contained the Vita Nuova, the lyrics being given in Norton's version.
Miss Emily Underdown who has written on Dante as " Norley Chester " issued a harmless little play based on the Vita Nuovasmd called Dante and Beatrice 1 , which has found some favour with amateurs. Ricci, another successor of Gabriele Rossetti at King's College. The little book, which does not aim at superseding its predecessors and is not annotated, was the work of various members of the Dante Society and does not call for serious criti- cism.
A third publication of the year was the valuable paper on The Symmetrical Structure of Dante's 1 Though she preferred this to Rossetti's rendering she evidently admires the latter's poetry, as she has since produced The House of Life in the same way Edinburgh, Edmund G. Gardner edited Rossetti's Early Italian Poets 2 for the Temple Classics ; he wrote many admirable notes for the book, but somewhat neglected the Vita Nuova.
Towards the end of a prose version of the Fita Nuova by Mr. Okey was added to the same series in a volume that also contains a prose rendering of the Canzoniere by Mr. These two scholars are jointly responsible for the notes to the Fita Nuova which give proof of much original thought and diligent research. The versions of Norton, of Martin and Rossetti, especially the latter, have been re-issued several times. Paget Toynbee pointed out in the Athenaum of Iviii is distinguished from other reprints of Rossetti's Neiv Life by the presence of the Italian text, which will enable students to realise the beauties of the translation even when it departs from its original.
If, however, this little volume falls into the hands of any one not already familiar with the greater work, it is the earnest hope of the present editor that it may lead to the serious study of that stupendous poem, the literary masterpiece of the Middle Ages. Oxford, December Razzolini ; and that the rendering used is that of Rossetti, though his name appears nowhere in the book. Nine times already since my birth had the heaven of light returned to the selfsame point almost, as concerns its own revolution, when first the glorious Lady of my mind was made manifest to mine eyes ; even she who was called Beatrice by many who knew not wherefore.
Ella apparvemi vestita di nobilissimo colore, umile ed onesto sanguigno, cinta ed ornata alia guisa che alia sua giovanissima etade si convenia. Her dress, on that day, was of a most noble colour, a subdued and goodly crimson, girdled and adorned in such sort as best suited with her very tender age. At that moment, I say most truly that the spirit of life, which hath its dwelling in the secretest chamber of the heart, began to tremble so violently that the least pulses of my body shook therewith ; and in trem- bling it said these words : " Here is a deity stronger than I ; who, coming, shall rule over me.
Love quite governed my soul ; which was immediately espoused to himj and with so safe and undisputed a lordship, by 5 la virtu che gli dava la mia imaginazione, che mi convenia fare compiutamente tutti i suoi piaceri. He oftentimes commanded me to seek if I might see this youngest of the Angels : wherefore I in my boyhood often went in search of her, and found her so noble and praiseworthy that certainly of her might have been said those words of the poet Homer, " She seemed not to be the daughter of a mortal man, but of God. But seeing that were I to dwell over- much on the passions and doings of such early youth, my words might be counted something fabulous, I will therefore put them aside ; and passing many things that may be conceived by the pattern of these, I will come to such as are writ in my memory with a better distinctness.
I After the lapse of so many days that nine years 7 compiuti li nove anni appresso 1' apparimento sopra- scritto di questa gentilissima, nelP ultimo di questi dl avvenne, che questa mirabile donna apparve a me ve- stita di colore bianchissimo, in mezzo di due gentili donne, le quali erano di piu lunga etade ; e passando per una via volse gli occhi verso quella parte ov' io era molto pauroso; e per la sua inefFabile cortesia, la quale h oggi meritata nel grande secolo, mi salut6 vir- tuosamente tanto, che mi parve allora vedere tutti i termini della beatitudine.
And passing through a street, she turned her eyes thither where I stood sorely abashed : and by her unspeakable courtesy, which is now guerdoned in the Great Cycle, she saluted me with so virtuous a bearing that I seemed then and there to behold the very limits of blessed- ness. And betaking me to the loneli- ness of mine own room, I fell to thinking of this most courteous lady, thinking of whom I was overtaken by a pleasant slumber, wherein a marvellous vision was presented to me : for there appeared to be in my room a mist of the colour of fire, within the which I discerned the figure of a lord of terrible aspect to such as should gaze upon him, but who seemed there- withal to rejoice inwardly that it was a marvel to see.
Speaking he said many things, among the which I could understand but few ; and of these, this : " I 9 domhus tuus. E nell' una delle mani mi parea che questi tenesse una cosa, la quale ardesse tutta ; e pareami che mi dicesse queste parole : " Vide cor tuumP E quando egli era stato alquanto, pareami che disvegliasse questa che dormia ; e tanto si sforzava per suo ingegno, che le facea mangiare quella cosa che in mano gli ardeva, la quale ella mangiava dubitosamente. And he who held her held also in his hand a thing that was burning in flames ; and he said to me, " Behold thy heart.
Gii eran quasi ch' atterzate V ore Del tempo che ogni Stella h piu lucente, Quando m' apparve Amor subitamente, V Cui essenza membrar mi dk orrore. Allegro mi sembrava Amor, tenendo Mio core in mano, e nelle braccia avea Madonna, involta in un drappo, dormendo. Poi la svegliava, e d' esto core ardendo Lei paventosa umilmente pascea : Appresso gir Io ne vedea piangendo. Questo sonetto si divide in due parti : nella prima parte saluto, e domando risponsione; nella seconda, significo a che si dee rispondere.
And the sonnet I made was this : To every heart which the sweet pain doth move, And unto which these words may now be brought For true interpretation and kind thought. Be greeting in our Lord's name, which is Love. Of those long hours wherein the stars, above, Wake and keep watch, the third was almost nought When Love was shown me with such terrors fi-aught As may not carelessly be spoken of. He seem'd like one who is full of joy, and had My heart within his hand, and on his arm My lady, with a mantle round her, slept ; Whom having waken'd her anon he made To eat that heart ; she ate, as fearing harm.
Then he went out ; and as he went, he wept This sonnet is divided into two parts. In the first part 1 give greeting, and ask an answer ; in the second, I signify what thing has to be answered to. The second part commences here, " Of those long hours. Lo verace giudicio del detto sogno non fu veduto allora per alcuno, ma ora h manifesto alii piu semplici. I Da questa visione innanzi cominci6 il mio spirito naturale ad essere impedito nella sua operazione, per6 che r anima era tutta data nel pensare di questa gentilissima ; ond' io divenni in picciolo tempo poi di si frale e debole condizione, che a molti amici pesava della mia vista : e molti pieni d' invidia si pro- cacciavano di sapere di me quello ch' io voleva del tutto celare ad altrui.
But the true meaning of that vision was not then perceived by any one, though it be now evident to the least skilful. From that night forth, the natural functions of my body began to be vexed and impeded, for I was given up wholly to thinking of this most gracious creature : whereby in short space I became so weak and so reduced that it was irksome to many of my friends to look upon me ; while others, being moved by spite, went about to discover what it was my wish should be concealed.
E quando mi do- mandavano : " Per cui t' ha cosi distrutto questo Amore? Un giorno avvenne, che questa gentilissima sedea in parte, ove s' udiano parole della Regina della gloria, ed io era in luogo, dal quale vedea la mia beatitudine ; e nel mezzo di lei e di me, per la retta linea, sedea una gentile- donna di molto piacevole aspetto, la quale mi mirava spesse volte, maravigliandosi del mio sguardare, che parea che sopra lei terminasse ; onde molti s' accorsero del suo mirare.
Ed in tanto vi fu posto mente, che, partendomi da questo luogo, mi sentii dire appresso : " Vedi come cotale donna distrugge la persona di costui. Allora mi confortai molto, assicurandomi che il mio segreto non era comuni- cato, Io giorno, altrui per mia vista : ed immantinente i6 dealt with me : and I said so, because the thing was so plainly to be discerned in my countenance that there was no longer any means of concealing it.
But when they went on to ask, "And by whose help hath Love done this?
La donna in bianco - Wikipedia
And many perceived that she thus looked : so that departing thence, I heard it whispered after me, " Look you to what a pass such a lady hath brought him ; " and in saying this they named her who had been midway between the most gentle Beatrice, and mine eyes. Therefore I was reassured, and knew that for that day my secret had not become manifest. Then immediately it X 17 pensai di fare di questa gentile donna schermo della veri- tade ; e tanto ne mostrai in poco di tempo, che il mio segreto fu creduto sapere dalle piu persone che di me ragionavano.
Con questa donna mi celai alquanti mesi ed anni ; e per piii fare credente altrui, feci per lei certe cosette per rima, le quali non h mio intendimento di scrivere qui, se non in quanto facesse a trattare di quella gentilissima Beatrice ; e per6 le lascer6 tutte, salvo che alcuna cosa ne scriver6, che pare che sia loda di lei. Dico che in questo tempo, che questa donna era schermo di tanto amore, quanto dalla mia parte, mi venne una volonti di voler ricordare il nome di quella gentilissima, ed accompagnarlo di molti nomi di donne, e specialmente del nome di questa gentil- donna ; e presi i nomi di sessanta le piii belle della cittade, ove la mia donna fu posta dalP altissimo Sire, e composi una epistola sotto forma di serventese, la quale io non scriver6 : e non n' avrei fatto menzione came into my mind that I might make use of this lady as a screen to the truth : and so well did I play my part that the most of those who had hitherto watched and wondered at me, now imagined they had found me out.
By her means I kept my secret concealed till some years were gone over ; and for my better security, I even made divers rhymes in her honour ; whereof I shall here write only as much as concerneth the most gentle Beatrice, which is but a very little. Moreover, about the same time while this lady was a screen for so much love on my part, I took the resolution to set down the name of this most gracious creature accompanied with many other women's names, and especially with hers whom I spake of And to this end I put together the names of sixty the most beautiful ladies in that city where God had placed mine own lady ; and these names I introduced in an epistle in the form of a sirvent, which it is not my intention to transcribe here.
I La donna, con la quale io avea tanto tempo celata la mia volontd, convenne che si partisse della sopra- detta cittade, e andasse in paese lontano : per che io, quasi sbigottito della bella difesa che mi era venuta meno, assai me ne disconfortai piu che io medesimo non avrei creduto dinanzi. E pensando che, se della sua partita io non parlassi alquanto dolorosamente, le persone sarebbero accorte piu tosto del mio nascondere, proposi di fame alcuna lamentanza in un sonetto, il quale io scrivero ; perci6 che la mia donna fu imme- diata cagione di certe parole, che nel sonetto sono, siccome appare a chi Io intende : e allora dissi questo sonetto : O voi, che per la via d' Amor passate, Attendete, e guardate S' egli h dolore alcun, quanto il mio, grave : 20 did I not wish to take note of a certain strange thing, to wit : that having written the list, I found my lady's name would not stand otherwise tharr TiTnth.
Now it so chanced with her by whose means I had thus long time concealed my desire, that it behoved her to leave the city I speak of, and to journey afar : wherefore I, being sorely perplexed at the loss of so excellent a defence, had more trouble than even I could before have supposed. And think- ing that if I spoke not somewhat mournfully of her departure, my former counterfeiting would be the more quickly perceived, I determined that I would make a grievous sonnet thereof; the which I will write here, because it hath certain words in it whereof my lady was the immediate cause, as will be plain to him that understands.
Si che, volendo far come coloro, Che per vergogna celan lor mancanza, Di fuor mostro allegranza, E dentro dallo cor mi struggo e ploro. Love never, certes, for my worthless part, But of his own great heart, Vouchsafed to me a life so calm and sweet That oft I heard folk question as I went What such great gladness meant : — They spoke of it behind me in the street. But now that fearless bearing is all gone Which with Love's hoarded wealth was given me ; Till I am grown to be So poor that I have dread to think thereon.
And thus it is that I, being like as one Who is ashamed and hides his poverty, Without seem full of glee. And let my heart within travail and moan. In the second, I tell where Love had placed me, with a meaning other than that H r estreme parti del sonetto non mostrano : e dico do che to ho perduto. Allora, ricordandomi che gia r avea veduta fare compagnia a quella gentilissima, non potei sostenere alquante lagrime ; anzi piangehdo mi pro- posi di dire alquante parole della sua morte in guiderdone di ci6, che alcuna fiata V avea veduta con la mia donna.
E di ci6 toccai alcuna cosa nell' ultima parte delle parole che ione dissi, siccomeappare manifestamente a chi le in- tende : e dissi allora questi due sonetti,dei quali comincia il primo " Piangete amanti ;" il secondo " Morte villana. Whereupon, re- membering that I had seen her in the company of excellent Beatrice, I could not hinder myself from a few tears ; and weeping, I conceived to say somewhat of her death, in guerdon of having seen her some- while with my lady ; which thing I spake of in the latter end of the verses that I writ in this matter, as he will discern who understands.
Udite quant' Amor le fece orranza ; Ch' io '1 vidi lamentare in forma vera Sovra la morta immagine avvenente ; E riguardava inver lo ciel sovente, Ove r alma gentil gia locata era, Che donna fu di si gaia sembianza. Questo primo sonetto si divide in tre parti. Now hearken how much Love did honour her. I myself saw him in his proper form Bending above the motionless sweet dead, And often gazing into Heaven ; for there The soul now sits which when her life was warm Dwelt with the joyful beauty that is fled.
This first sonnet is divided into three parts. In the first, I call and beseech the Faithful of Love to weep ; and I say that their Lord weeps , and that they, hearing the reason why he weeps, shall be more minded to listen to me. In the second, 1 relate this reason. In the third, I speak of honour done by Love to this Lady. The second part begins here, " When now so many dames ; " the third here, " Now hearken. Pity's foe in chief, Mother who brought forth grief, Merciless judgement and without appeal! Piu non vo' discovrir qual donna sia, Che per le propriety sue conosciute ; Chi non merta salute, Non speri mai d' aver sua compagnia.
Out of this world thou hast driven courtesy, And virtue, dearly prized in womanhood ; And out of youth's gay mood The lovely lightness is quite gone through thee. Whom now I mourn, no man shall learn from me Save by the measure of these praises given. Whoso deserves not Heaven May never hope to have her company. This poem is divided into four parts. In the first I address Death by certain proper names of hers. In the second, speaking to her, I tell the reason why I am moved to denounce her.
In the third, I rail against her. In the fourth, I turn to speak to a person undefined, although defined in my ozvn conception. E tutto che io fossi alia compagnia di molti, quanto alia vista, 1' andare mi dispiacea si, che quasi li sospiri non poteano disfogare V angoscia, che il cuore sentia, per6 ch' io mi dilungava dalla mia beatitudine. E per6 lo dolcissimo signore, il quale mi signoreggiava per virtu della gentilissima donna, nella mia immaginazione apparve come pere- grino leggermente vestito, e di vili drappi. A me parve che Amore mi chiamasse, e dicessemi queste parole : " Io vengo da quella donna, la quale h stata lunga tua difesa, e so che il suo rivenire non saril ; e per6 quel cuore ch' io ti facea avere da lei, io 1' ho meco, e portolo a donna, la quale sar4 tua difensione come questa era ; " e nomollami si ch' io la conobbi bene.
And notwithstanding that I was visibly in the company of many, the journey was so irksome that I had scarcely sighing enough to ease my heart's heaviness ; seeing that as I went, I left my beatitude behind me. Wherefore it came to pass that he who ruled me by virtue of my most gentle lady was made visible to my mind, in the light habit of a traveller, coarsely fashioned. He appeared to me troubled, and looked always on the ground ; saving only that sometimes his eyes were turned towards a river which was clear and rapid, and which flowed along the path I was taking.
And then I thought that Love called me and said to me these words : " I come from that lady who was so long thy surety ; for the matter of whose return, I know that it may not be. Wherefore I have taken that heart which I made thee leave with her, and do bear it unto another lady, who, as she was, shall be thy surety ; " and when he named her, I knew her well.
Nella sembianza mi parea meschino ' Come avesse perduto signoria ; E sospirando pensoso venia, Per non veder la gente, a capo chino. And the day being over, I wrote this sonnet : A day agone, as I rode sullenly Upon a certain path that liked me not, I met Love midway while the air was hot. Clothed lightly as a wayfarer might be. And for the cheer he show'd, he seem'd to me As one who hath lost lordship he had got ; Advancing tow'rds me full of sorrowful thought, Bowing his forehead so that none should see.
Then as I went, he call'd me by my name, Saying : " I journey since the morn was dim Thence where I made thy heart to be : which now I needs must bear unto another dame. This sonnet has three parts. In the first part, I tell hotv I met Love and of his aspect. La seconda comincia quivi : " Quando mi vide ; " la terza quivi : " Jllora presi. Ed accio che il mio parlare sia piu breve, dico che in poco tempo la feci mia difesa tanto, che troppa gente ne ragionava oltra li termini della cortesia ; onde molte fiate mi pesava duramente.
Ed uscendo alquanto del proposito presente, voglio dare ad in- tendere quello che il suo salutare in me virtuosamente opera va. In the third, I say how he disappeared. And because I would be brief, I will now narrate that in a short while I made her my surety, in such sort that the matter was spoken of by many in terms scarcely courteous ; through the which I had oftenwhiles many troublesome hours. And by this it happened to wit : by this false and evil rumour which seemed to misfame me of vice , that she who was the destroyer of all evil and the queen of all good, coming where I was, denied me her most sweet salutation, in the which alone was my blessedness.
And here it is fitting for me to depart a little from this present matter, that it may be rightly understood of what surpassing virtue her salutation was to me. E quando ella fosse al- quanto propinqua al salutare, uno spirito d' Amore, distruggendo tutti gli altri spiriti sensitivi, pingea fuori i deboletti spiriti del viso, e dicea loro : " Andate ad onorare la donna vostra ; " ed egli si rimanea nel loco loro. E chi avesse volute conoscere Amore, far lo potea mirando lo tremore degli occhi miei.
E quando questa gentilissima donna salutava, non che Amore fosse tal mezzo, che potesse obumbrare a me la intollerabile beatitu- dine, ma egli quasi per soperchio di dolcezza divenia tale, che lo mio corpo, lo quale era tutto sotto il suo reggimento, molte volte si movea come cosa grave inanimata. I To the which end I say that when she appeared in any place, it seemed to me, by the hope of her excellent salutation, that there was no man mine enemy any longer ; and such warmth of charity came upon me that most certainly in that moment I would have pardoned whosoever had done me an injury ; and if one should then have questioned me concerning any matter, I could only have said unto him " Love," with a countenance clothed in humble- ness.
And what time she made ready to salute me, the spirit of Love, destroying all other perceptions, thrust forth the feeble spirits of mine eyes, saying, " Do homage unto your mistress," and putting itself in their place to obey : so that he who would, might then have beheld Love, beholding the lids of mine eyes shake. And when this most gentle lady gave her salutation. Love, so far from being a medium beclouding mine intolerable beatitude, then bred in me such an overpowering sweetness that my body, being all subjected thereto, remained many times helpless and passive.
Whereby it is made manifest that in her salutation alone was there any beatitude for me, which then very often went beyond my endurance. E quivi chiamando misericordia alia donna della cortesia, e dicendo : " Amore, aiuta il tuo fedele " m' addor- mentai come un pargoletto battuto lagrimando. Av- venne quasi nel mezzo del mio dormire, che mi parea vedere nella mia camera lungo me sedere un giovane vestito di bianchissime vestimenta, e pensando molto, quanto alia vista sua, mi riguardava la ov' io giacea ; e quando m' avea guardato alquanto, pareami che sospirando mi chiamasse, e dicessemi queste parole : " Fili mij tempus est ut pratermtttantur simulata nostraP Allora mi parea ch' io '1 conoscessi, per6 che mi chiamava cosi, come assai fiate nelli miei sonni m' avea gii chiamato.
And there, having prayed to the Lady of all Mercies, and having said also, "O Love, aid thou thy servant," I went suddenly asleep like a beaten sobbing child.
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And in my sleep, towards the middle of it, I seemed to see in the room, seated at my side, a youth in very white raiment, who kept his eyes fixed on me in deep thought. Then looking at him, I perceived that he was weeping piteously, and that he seemed to be waiting for me to speak. Wherefore, taking heart, I began thus : " Why weepest thou. Master of all honour? E per6 questa gentilissima, la quale h. E di ci6 chiama testimonio colui che '1 sa ; e come tu preghi lui che gliele dica : ed io, che sono quello, volentieri le ne ragioner6 ; e per questo sentird 40 relation ; but with thee it is not thus.
Master, that thou hast spoken thus darkly? For the which reason albeit, in very sooth, thy secret must needs have become known to her by familiar observation it is my will that thou compose certain things in rhyme, in the which thou shalt set forth how strong a mastership I have obtained over thee, through her ; and how thou wast hers even from thy child- hood. Also do thou call upon him that knoweth these things to bear witness to them, bidding him to speak with her thereof; the which I, who am he, will do willingly.
E non le mandare in parte alcuna senza me, ove potessero essere intese da lei, ma falle adornare di soave armonia, nella quale io sar6 tutte le volte che fara mestieri. Si che la scusa mia, la qual tu canti, Ragioni poi con lei lo mio signore. And so write these things, that they shall seem rather to be spoken by a third person ; and not directly by thee to her, which is scarce fitting.
After the which, send them, not without me, where she may have a chance to hear them ; but have them fitted with a pleasant music, into the which I will pass whensoever it needeth. Whereupon, remembering me, I knew that I had beheld this vision during the ninth hour of the day ; and I resolved that I would make a ditty, before I left my chamber, according to the words my master had spoken.
And this is the ditty that I made : Song, 'tis my will that thou do seek out Love, And go with him where my dear lady is ; That so my cause, the which thy harmonies Do plead, his better speech may clearly prove. Thou goest, my Song, in such a courteous kind, That even companionless Thou may'st rely on thyself anywhere. And yet, an thou wouldst get thee a safe mind. Con dolce suono, quando se' con lui, Comincia este parole Appresso ch' averai chiesta pietate : " Madonna, quegli, che mi manda a vui, Quando vi piaccia, vuole, Sed egli ha scusa, che la m' intendiate.
Ed alia fine falle umil preghiero, Lo perdonare se le fosse a noia,. And that if Love do not companion thee, Thou'lt have perchance small cheer to tell me of. With a sweet accent, when thou com'st to her Begin thou in these words, First having craved a gracious audience : " He who hath sent me as his messenger, Lady, thus much records. An thou but suffer him, in his defence. Love, who comes with me, by thine influence Can make this man do as it liketh him : Wherefore, if this fault is or doth but seem Do thou conceive : for his heart cannot move. Bid her ask Love, who knows if these things be..
Fa' che gli annunzi in bel sembiante pace. La seconda parte comincia quivi : " Con dolce suono ; " la terza quivi : " Gentil ballata. Before thou leave her there. That he befriend my cause and plead it well. Let her look on him and give peace to him. Do this : so worship shall be thine and love. This ditty is divided into three parts.
In the first, L tell it whither to go, and I encourage it, that it may go the more confidently, and I tell it whose company to Join if it would go with confidence and without any danger. In the second, I say that which it behoves the ditty to set forth. In the third, I give it leave to start when it pleases, recommending its course to the arms of Fortune.
And therefore I say that this 47 dubbio to lo intendo solvere e dichiarare in questo libello ancora in parte piu dubbiosa : ed allora intenda chi qui dubbia, o chi qui volesse opporre, in quello modo. L' uno dei quali era questo : " Buona h la signoria d' Amore, per6 che. The first was this : " Certainly the lordship of Love is good ; seeing that it diverts the mind from all mean things. Ed in questo stato dimorando, mi giunse volonti di scriverne parole rimate ; e dissine allora questo sonetto : Tutti li miei pensier parlan d' amore, Ed hanno in lor si gran varletate, ' Ch' altro mi fa voler sua potestate, Altro folle ragiona il suo valore.
Altro sperando m' apporta dolzore ; Altro pianger mi fa spesse flate ; E sol s' accordano in chieder pietate, Tremando di paura ch' h nel core. SO ladies, whose hearts are easily moved. And if I bethought myself to seek out some point at the which all these paths might be found to meet, I discerned but one way, and that irked me ; to wit, to call upon Pity, and to commend myself unto her.
And it was then that, feeling a desire to write somewhat thereof in rhyme, I wrote this sonnet : All my thoughts always speak to me of Love, Yet have between themselves such diiference That while one bids me bow with mind and sense, A second saith, " Go to : look thou above ; " The third one, hoping, yields me joy enough ; And with the last come tears, I scarce know whence : All of them craving pity in sore suspense.
Trembling with fears that the heart knoweth of. And thus, being all unsure which path to take. My lady Pity, for the help she brings. Ond' io, quasi non sapendo a che fossi menato, e fidandomi nella persona, la quale un suo amico all' estremiti della vita con- dotto avea, dissi : " Perche semo noi venuti a queste donne? In the fir sty 1 say and propound that all my thoughts are concerning Love.
In the third y I say wherein they all seem to agree. In the fourthy I say that, wishing to speak of Love, I know not from which of these thoughts to take my argument ; and that if I would take it from ally I shall have to call upon mine enemy, my lady Pity. Then I, hardly knowing where- unto he conducted me, but trusting in him who yet was leading his friend to the last verge of life , made question ; "To what end are we come among these ladies? SI che io, credendomi far il piacere di questo amico, proposi di stare al servizio delle donne nella sua compagnia.
E nel fine del mio proponimento mi parve sentire un mirabile tremore incomlnciare nel mio petto dalla sinistra parte, e distendersi di subito per tutte le parti del mio corpo. Allora dico che poggiai la mia persona simulatamente ad una pintura, la quale circondava questa magione ; e temendo non altri si fosse accorto del mio tremare, levai gli occhi, e mirando le donne, vidi tra loro la gentilissima Beatrice. Allora furono si distrutti li miei spiriti per la forza che Amore prese veggendosi in tanta propinquitade alia gentilissima donna, che non mi rimase in vita piu che gli spiriti del viso ; ed ancor questi rimasero fuori de' loro strumenti, per6 che Amore volea stare nel loro nobilissimo luogo per vedere la mirabile donna.
E awegna ch' io fossi altro che prima, molto mi dolea di questi spiritelli, che si lamentavano forte, e diceano : " Se questi non ci 54 may be worthily served. But as soon as I had thus resolved, I began to feel a faintness and a throbbing at my left side, which soon took possession of my whole body. Whereupon I remember that I covertly leaned my back unto a painting that ran round the walls of that house ; and being fearful lest my trembling should be discerned of them, I lifted mine eyes to look on those ladies, and then first perceived among them the excellent Beatrice.
And when I perceived her, all my senses were over- powered by the great lordship that Love obtained, finding himself so near unto that most gracious being, until nothing but the spirits of sight remained to me ; and even these remained driven out of their own instruments because Love entered into that honoured place of theirs, that so he might the better behold her.
And although I was other than at first, I grieved for the spirits so expelled which kept up a sore lament, saying : " If he had not in this wise 55 sfolgorasse cosl fuori del nostro luogo, noi potremmo stare a vedere la meraviglia di questa donna, cosl come stanno gli altri nostri pari. Allora riposato alquanto, e risurti li morti spiriti miei, e li discacciati rivenuti alle loro possessioni, dissi a questo mio amico queste parole : " lo ho tenuti i piedi in quella parte della vita, di 14 dalla quale non si pu6 ire piii per intendi- mento di ritornare.
Whereupon my friend, who knew not what to conceive, took me by the hands, and drawing me forth from among them, required to know what ailed me. And then, because I hoped that peradventure it might come into her hearing, I wrote this sonnet : 57 ColP altre donne mia vista gabbate, E non pensate, donna, onde si mova, Ch' io vi rassembri si iigura nova, Quando riguardo la vostra beltate. Love, when thou art present, sits at ease. And bears his mastership so mightily, That all my troubled senses he thrusts out, Sorely tormenting some, and slaying some. Till none but he is left and has free range To gaze on thee.
This makes my face to change Into another's ; while I stand all dumb. And hear my senses clamour in their rout. This sonnet I divide not into parts, because a division is only made to open the meaning of the thing divided : and this, as it is sufficiently manifest through the reasons given, has no need of division.
True it is that, amid the words whereby is shown the occasion of this sonnet, dubious words are to be found ; namely, when I say that Love kills all my spirits, but that the visual remain in life, only outside of their own instruments. And this difficulty it is impossible for any to solve who is not in equal guise liege unto Love ; and, to those who are so, that is manifest which would clear 59 le dubitose parole : e pero non h bene a me dichiarare cotale dubitazione, accib che lo mio parlare sarebbe indamOy ovvero di soperchio.
Ecco che se tu fossi domandato da lei, che avresti tu da rispondere? And therefore it were not well for me to expound this difficultly inasmuch as my speaking would be either fruitless or else superfluous. And it was this : " Seeing that thou comest into such scorn by the companionship of this lady, wherefore seekest thou to behold her? If she should ask thee this thing, what answer couldst thou make unto her? Whereupon 1 wrote this sonnet : The thoughts are broken in my memory, Thou lovely Joy, whene'er I see thy face ; When thou art near me. Love fills up the space. Often repeating, " If death irk thee, fly.
Which, fainting, seeks for any leaning-place Till, in the drunken terror of disgrace.