The Xul Chronicles: Origins

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Oh fount of future fierywater, fount of it, where are you in your wandering loss? In what sinks and goes away? Something draws me on and sinks me into fire, chemipurifying, the fire cleanses me and I dont feel a thing. I whish to see the people fromere, swarms of quasunformed flowbeings, rather. Oh, fullondreemlet, I liv by dreeming, seeing other people who are not people but star. When the dark lines have pushed all of the light lines upward and out of the hexagram, another light line enters the hexagram from below. A blade of grass pushes against an obstacle as it sprouts out of the earth.

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A thunderstorm beings release from tension, and all things breathe freely again. Floatsathing with a large hole of blugrey air with same stoorrmm, denser winds. Finally a procession arrives, beings neerthotof, thinking as one, thinkers in a circle, mother-of-pearl and felt! Fromtother side is a floating temple, many pray, in their theo-co they touch the god, they saintexult, participate in the divine and their auras flow with prana. Living archi tec tures, biopalaces and biohuts armed perhaps with soul and thought thruchange into biocumuli quiver move about rise up, interpenetrate and float on their own.

These bajos are of both nel and its adjacent valleys. A represented in both the ethnographic and ethno- large amount of the For the sixteenth-century Zapotec, doc- toxylum campechianum , is the dominant species uments such as the Lienzo de Guevea demonstrate Dunning, Chmilar, Blevins, and Jones In many of the studies of Maya , — The western boundary of the and ethnohistoric research. The southern border is — The greater Griffin, Sever While these channels may be the landscape relief or frequency of prominent largely natural in origin, some human modifications physiographic features, the more closed the polit- and extensions were made at least in the Late Clas- ical structure would become.

The social linkages sic Dunning and Griffin Map of the San Bartolo-Xultun territory showing sites, bajos, and aguadas mentioned in the text. Xultun territory, and then applying normalizing naissance data, without excavation to confirm or statistics to the results to isolate natural breaks in refute the greater number of types, although more the scores Garrison — Some site divisions are likely. The four major settlement types were clustered together since distinctions forms discussed here are capitals, minor centers, were made based primarily on survey and recon- household groups, and temporary settlements.

Map of the San Bartolo capital. Capitals Minor Centers Capitals are the largest sites found in the Maya area In analyzing settlements in the Three Rivers and represent the heads of territories. These are Region, Garrison identified secondary and sites like Tikal, Calakmul, Copan, Yaxchilan, tertiary centers, which were clustered into the cat- Naranjo, Piedras Negras, and other famous centers egory of minor centers. The minor centers defined that have attracted scholars and tourists to the Maya here are drastically different from those presented area since the nineteenth century.

Capitals are iden- in settlement hierarchies that try to cover the entire tified by the presence of: one or usually more large Maya area Adams and Jones ; Marcus It is possi- carved , and multiple monumental structures. Capitals were but not all, of the following attributes: one or more the home to the royal Maya court Inomata and public plazas, one or more courtyard groups, a ball Houston and presented the stages for the per- court, one or more stelae often blank , and one or formance of theater state rituals Demarest From a sociopolitical San Bartolo Figure 4 and Xultun Von Euw standpoint, minor centers would have been man- —7 were successive capitals, with San Bar- aged by nonroyal elites, probably sajalob in some tolo predating Xultun.

The minor especially in the lowlands. Perhaps the most thor- centers would have had a number of household ough investigations of minor centers in relation to group sites loosely tethered to them in a hierarchi- a territorial capital have been in the Copan Valley. First, the distinction between the two seems to be one of size rather than Household Groups function. Depending on the geography of the region Household group sites are the most common site there may be limited appropriate space for minor found in the Maya lowlands. These sites are scat- centers of any given size.

Second, many sites clas- tered throughout the forest, but were probably sified as minor centers in the San Bartolo-Xultun loosely tethered to a nearby minor center. These territory have not been investigated, with the excep- sites are very small and sometimes have no plas- tion of brief reconnaissance or mapping. Since site tered architecture. The sites can consist of either scores are derived from counts of features detected single Figure 6 or multiple Figure 7 courtyard during investigations Adams and Jones ; Gud- groups, depending on whether there is a nuclear erjan , it is likely that some features were family occupying the former or an extended fam- missed during reconnaissance, which would lead ily occupying the latter.

Richard Wilk to fluctuations in scores. These fluctuations would — has provided a convincing review blur any perceived division between possible sec- of the ethnohistoric and ethnographic evidence that ondary and tertiary centers. Example of a single family household group from the San Bartolo-Xultun intersite area. Temporary Settlements The function of these settlements as agricultural Temporary settlements represent the poorest set- subsistence households appears to have been the tlement remains of the ancient Maya.

Remains of same regardless of whether the site is that of a sites of this type generally consist of rectangles of nuclear or an extended family. Wilk rock cobbles that appear to be oriented as structure notes that there is no consistency in postmarital platforms, as opposed to rock piles produced while residence behavior in the available Maya sources.

Despite their appearance as architectural dence that would be necessary to address ancient features the associated material culture is little to Maya kin patterns at the level of the rural house- none.

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Sites of this type are generally found in asso- hold. For this reason the sites are considered associated with these settlements. Household group to be field houses or generally temporary or sea- sites should not be confused with courtyard groups sonal residences. Such ephemeral residences are that are found within minor centers and capitals. Example of a multiple family household group from the San Bartolo-Xultun intersite area. As with any settlement typology, the one out- lined above is to some extent an idealization of Settlements of the San Bartolo-Xultun reality. Distinctions between the upper and lower Territory members of each categories are sometimes blurred and may not have been static i.

For Bartolo and Xultun, especially in terms of volume example, while household groups as we define of architecture. These sites were respectively the them rarely contained formal monumental archi- Late Preclassic and Classic Period capitals to the tecture and ball courts, exceptions are known. Xultun has in northwestern Belize is clearly more akin to a received some attention from archaeologists, but large household group than it is to a minor center, these studies have been for the purposes of monu- yet it includes a small ball court Walling et al. Similarly the very small site of Quincunx, ; Von Euw and Graham and epigraphic a household group or cluster of such groups in the interpretation Garrison and Stuart ; Houston hinterland of the large center of Blue Creek in San Bartolo is the most thoroughly investi- northwestern Belize, included a modest solar obser- gated site in the territory, having been the subject vatory complex Zaro and Lohse Example of a temporary settlement and associated agricultural features from the San Bartolo-Xultun intersite area.

Three excavations into the plaza group yielded no cultural material besides the chert cobbles that formed the plat- form. La Prueba leagues from NASA, and which we surmise are reached its size probably due to its isolation on a additional minor centers based on their apparent large island within scrub bajo. The three uncarved size in the imagery. Numerous aguadas are also ber of plazas, general size of structures , which located throughout the territory with many appear- facilitated the use of site scoring in settlement pat- ing to have been modified by the Maya Akpinar terns studies Garrison Xultun intersite area between and , with There are abundant chert resources in the a regional test pitting program accompanying the territory, including some large deposits that show intersite survey Garrison — There evidence of ancient quarrying activities Griffin et are known structures at San Bartolo including al.

Environment, and Politics in the San There are over 40 known structures at the site and Bartolo-Xultun Territory a great number 19 of chultuns bedrock cisterns as well.

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Garrison In this section we briefly present some of the field mapped a stratified random sample of 2. Ancient settlement was investigated through Eric Von Euw surveyed the major architec- reconnaissance, survey, and excavation. Finally, studies of it is clear from reconnaissance that Xultun is the ancient Maya iconography and epigraphy have largest site in the territory and is in desperate need shaped the interpretation of Maya political inter- of systematic survey since it is already one of the actions.

Here we have integrated these three lines most heavily looted sites in the northeastern Peten of study using a conjunctive approach with the goal Quintana and Wurster Preliminary sys- of presenting a more holistic interpretation of the tematic mapping and test excavations began at Xul- archaeological record Fash and Sharer ; Wil- tun in under the direction of William Saturno ley Members of the San Bartolo Project have exca- Reconnaissance, Survey, and Excavation vated in many contexts, including: salvage opera- Most of our knowledge of smaller settlements tions, test-pitting programs, architectural tunneling, within the San Bartolo-Xultun territory comes from and horizontal exposures.

The first three of these numerous reconnaissance trips made between methods contribute to our understanding of the and The regional reconnaissance has been regional settlement pattern since they have all under the overall direction of project director yielded important chronological data, while hori- William Saturno, with various expeditions also zontal exposures have been important in defining being led by Garrison, Robert Griffin, and Joshua final phase architectural characteristics.

The details Kwoka. The field methods used include on the Long Count dates from the site and identi- coring and excavations of several aguadas aimed fied the Xultun Emblem Glyph. Garrison and David at recovering pollen and the use history of these Stuart looked at all of the known monuments water sources, and geoarchaeological excavations and ceramic texts from the site and argued that Xul- in several bajos to obtain data for the reconstruc- tun was a significant political entity by the Early tion of paleoenvironments and environmental Classic.

In addition to these investigations, Xultun change as reflected in changes in vegetation, ero- has often been mentioned in passing in broader sion rates, and hydrology Dunning et al. This section integrates all of the diverse data sets generated by the investigations described above in Iconography and Epigraphy order to present a comprehensive interpretation of The territorial capitals of San Bartolo and Xultun the cultural and ecological history of the San possess abundant iconographic and epigraphic data Bartolo-Xultun territory. The first two holistic Maya archaeology.

Long-term projects at categories are found exclusively at San Bartolo, Copan Fash and Sharer , in the Petexbatun while the latter two are restricted to Xultun with a Demarest , , ; Houston , and few exceptions. Additionally, Saturno, Stuart, and Beltran application of this conjunctive approach to archae- examined some of the early writing found ology in the Maya Lowlands. Jessica Craig excavated the largest The Archaic and Early Preclassic Periods pot-bellied monument at the site and analyzed the — B. This Environmental conditions and resource distribu- monument is located near the Preclassic royal palace tion were likely major deciding factors in the ini- that was reopened in the late Classic and likely was tial settlement of the Maya lowlands.

This has been used in ancestor cult rituals like similar monuments demonstrated through archaeological and pale- at other sites Thompson and Valdez The landscape encountered by the first Maya longer than the hieratic art of San Bartolo, but they settlers was not the same as the one found today by remain poorly understood.

The monuments are dif- archaeologists and other explorers of the Peten ficult to read due to their poor state of preservation Dunning, Beach, and Luzzadder-Beach Profile of investigations in the Bajo Donato showing dates of paleosols. Drawing by N. Dunning Figure Profile of investigations in the Bajo Majunche showing date of paleosol. Dunning B. There is however, limited paleoenvi- Dunning, Chmilar, Blevins, and Jones ; Dun- ronmental data that sheds some light on what the ning et al. The soil itself is — cal B. The radiocarbon dates associated with Ancient pollen preserved in the Ab horizon indi- these buried surfaces are derived from bulk organic cates a forested environment surrounding a wetland matter and are only a rough approximation of sur- at the time the soil formed.

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The presence of water face age. Analysis of fossil pollen and carbon iso- lilies Nymphea and cattail reeds Typha are par- topes indicate considerable variability among the ticularly indicative of standing water and are bajos with an herbaceous, perennial wetland and species that are definitely not present in the Bajo shallow lake in the Bajo Majunche, a shrubby grass- Majunche today. Pollen from this section of tion of the buried soil and because a relatively intact the core indicates that maize, cotton, and manioc swamp forest environment was successfully filter- were all being cultivated in the area of the aguada ing out the charcoal Dunning, Chmilar, Blevins, Dunning, Chmilar, Blevins, and Jones and and Jones The idea of a pristine landscape probably represent territory-wide domesticates.

Meanwhile, clay powers from Central Mexico to Oaxaca to the Maya sediments were beginning to accumulate atop the area Stuart — At San Bartolo some public monu- Late Preclassic. The Ixkik substructure of Pinturas Rice This indicates widespread Alecio Although there is only direct archae- During the latter part of the Late Preclassic the ological evidence from San Bartolo, we suspect that site plan of San Bartolo underwent an axis shift to a similar, small Middle Preclassic community was a north-south orientation Garrison and Saturno founded at Xultun during this period as well. There The large main plaza and causeway to the is no evidence for Middle Preclassic occupation in south effectively changed the alignment of San the intersite area, but this may have been due to the Bartolo to adhere to emerging site canons estab- presence of perennial wetlands.

The major murals for settlement during the Middle Preclassic, there is which San Bartolo is famous were also constructed evidence for agricultural and other human activity around this time, between B. While there is no direct evidence of San Bartolo. The lowest pollen-bearing stratum from Xultun or elsewhere, it would appear that San in this core yielded a radiocarbon date of — Bartolo emerged as the major center in the terri- cal B. This suggests that San Bartolo had larger took place during the third century A. Since San Bartolo and Xul- early as the mid-second century A.

At San Bar- tun are the only sites within a 10 km radius to con- tolo, as well as in the San Bartolo-Xultun intersite tain ceremonial temple-pyramids, it is likely that area, there is a near total abandonment of the rural San Bartolo was the territorial capital during this settlement at the end of the Late Preclassic, as evi- time period. This assumes that monumentality is denced by the virtual absence of Early Classic one of a number of indicators of Maya political ceramics.

Within the region the last centuries of the power Guderjan Late Preclassic were a time of significant land- During this period, settlement began to appear scape instability. Severe soil erosion is evident on in the San Bartolo-Xultun intersite area and also the flanks of the Bajo Donato Figure 9 , though along the northern Xultun periphery. Domestic the Maya attempted to respond with the construc- ceramic types that span the entire Preclassic, such tion of agricultural terraces Dunning, Akpinar, as those from the Achiotes Group Culbert , Carr, Griffin, Jones, Lentz, Miller, and Prater ; are found in numerous contexts, suggesting that this Dunning et al.

Such landscape instability population growth may have begun during the early seems to have been characteristic of many parts of portion of the period though this has yet to be the central and southern Maya Lowlands at this proven. The only identifiable ceramics from an time, with large quantities of soil being lost from excavation near a chert quarry in the intersite area sloping land and accumulating as sediment in lakes date to the Late Preclassic, suggesting that these and bajos Anselmetti et al.

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Based on the ; Gunn et al. In some instances, such total contexts in which Late Preclassic ceramics as in the Bajo Majunche Figure 10 , this aggra- were found i.

While no systematic excavations or surface col- Paleoenvironmental, ceramic, and architectural lections have been made in other areas, there are data all support a major change in settlement pat- indications of Late Preclassic settlements through- terns throughout the San Bartolo-Xultun territory out the territory. For example, a few of the ceram- during this transition.

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A period of increased fre- ics collected from the cleaning of four looter quency and severity of drought between about A. Observations during the Maya lowlands Brenner et al. This cli- Prueba. Finally, the architectural profile left by a matic stress may have been the final blow in an large looter trench at Casas Pintadas suggests that increasingly deteriorating ecological context, there was a Late Preclassic phase at this site as which led to the abandonment of San Bartolo and well. Nevertheless, none of the evidence at the small the intersite area during this time period.

A major settlements in these areas indicates that there was drying event is observed in the Tintal Aguada, any sort of development comparable to what was northeast of San Bartolo and, while the dating is at San Bartolo during this period. For this reason insecure, stratigraphy suggests that it may have we argue that the San Bartolo-Xultun territory took occurred at the Late Preclassic to Early Classic its political form during the Late Preclassic, with transition Dunning et al.

Further environ- San Bartolo emerging as the capital. Preclassic, Xultun seems to have maintained a The consequence of the environmental stress dense population through the Early Classic. This is managed aguadas Akpinar et al. It is likely that the surviving hinter- sic ceramics in these areas. Early Classic material land populations, including the residents of San represents less than 2 percent of the total ceramic Bartolo, nucleated around the center of Xultun. It has been argued that pro- to an existing elite population. Three stelae at the site some Chicanel ceramics may have continued to be are securely dated to the Early Classic based on cal- used into the Early Classic Rice and Culbert ; endrical information with an additional three being Sullivan and Sagebiel Nevertheless, inde- stylistically dated to the period as well.

The earli- pendent evidence from architectural analysis at San est securely dated monument at the site is Stela 20, Bartolo confirms that the site was abandoned for which celebrates the ninth baktun Period Ending an extended period of time. The final substructure in A. While it is possible that Stela 12 pre- in the Tigrillo Complex dates to the Late Preclas- dates Stela 20, based on their stylistic similarities sic, while the final phase represents a Late Classic they are probably both early fifth century A. Weathering and damage to the stucco monuments Garrison and Stuart If the aban- of the final substructure indicate that it was exposed donment of San Bartolo took place as early as A.

Perturbations in the course of The findings at San Bartolo underscore the Maya dynasties, some spanning many generations, severity of disruption that accompanied the were not unusual Martin and Grube More Preclassic-to-Classic transition in some parts of the often than not, kingdoms managed to revitalize Maya Lowlands, at least some of which can be rather than disappear, a resilience that likely reflects attributed to the necessity of adapting to environ- the deeply rooted nature of ritualized authority in mental instability Dunning, Beach, and Maya civilization Lucero , Luzzadder-Beach ; Dunning et al.

This On Stela 18 Figure 11 , an important monu- instability included growing scarcity or unreliabil- ment dated stylistically to the sixth century A.

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If this statement is true then the storage infrastructure and the increased importance Xultun dynasty certainly predates the fifth century of water-related rituals in the definition of royal monuments. Text and decipherment of Xultun Stela Drawing by T. Garrison after Von Euw sibilities for what the statement on Stela 18 implies.

San Bartolo in the Preclassic, was asserting the There is also evidence of contact with Caracol in antiquity of its own heritage in order to erase the the Vaca Plateau adaptive region to the southeast. Despite the weathered inscrip- at the site see below. This may support the hypoth- tions at Xultun, it is clear that in the Early Classic esis that the San Bartolo elite moved to Xultun.

This the local elites were establishing bonds with other question will only be answered with further exca- major centers throughout the lowlands. The pur- vation and epigraphic analysis, but recent evidence pose of these bonds may have been part of a broader from the Kaan polity gives precedence for such program of alliance organized by Tikal to consol- shifts in capitals albeit over a much greater dis- idate resources for exchange with Teotihuacan tance with the rulers at Dzibanche possibly relo- Garrison There is virtually no evidence of Early Classic Evidence of foreign relations with other sites settlement at San Bartolo.

The Early Classic ceram- also suggests a strong Early Classic Xultun terri- ics that are present are found in ritual contexts. In a less understood context there thoroughly engineered landscape Scarborough et is an apparent offering of Early Classic ceramics al. These examples demon- Late Classic presence.

It should also be noted that the site of La culture Akpinar et al. Prueba in the Isla Oasis area may have also been a At Xultun itself there were major architectural pro- locus for Early Classic settlement. In particular, Group A was mas- the island, and the three very large aguadas on or sively renovated to form the imposing structures adjacent to Isla Oasis may indicate that populations that can be found ruined there today. The large were sustained throughout a prolonged drying temple-pyramid complexes found at Xultun are the period.

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This represents. This reduction in A. At Xultun there are stelae dating to from Late Preclassic material is tantamount to a A. During the Early Classic the eroding it appears that Xultun continued to launch military slopes stabilized to a certain degree as reduced pop- campaigns that were celebrated on the monuments ulations nucleated in the Xultun uplands. The rich at the site. Other stelae dating to the Late Classic soil that had eroded down from the uplands accu- reflect the continual conservativeness of the Xul- mulated at the bases of slopes, right at the transi- tun sculptural program Garrison and Stuart There is often an attendant vent a recurrence of the disasters of the Late Pre- dwarf, and the whole scene appears similar to the classic to Early Classic transition Dunning et al.

There The Late Classic Period represents the height of were no architectural renovations to any of the pyra- Maya population throughout most of the lowlands midal structures at the site, and it is even possible Culbert and Rice The contracted Early that some stones were robbed from Las Ventanas Classic population of Xultun exploded outward to construct nearby Late Classic residences Pelle- during the Late Classic. The majority of excavated cer Alecio Investigations of the San Bartolo material from the intersite area was dated to the Late Aguada indicate that it was dredged for reuse dur- Classic.

Excavation throughout the territory. This conclusion is based of one small channel segment on the western side on cursory examinations of ruins found during of Isla Oasis in indicates that this feature is a reconnaissance. My group has really enjoyed playing through the game and has discussed doing the whole campaign again.

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