Journal of Modern African Studies, 56 2. Booth, Jonathan E. But it may force them to engage and embrace choice. Measuring Business and Human Rights 05 Nov Boswell, John Evidence-based policy-making: ultimately a myth, but one we should believe in. Democratic Audit UK 23 May Bosworth, Mary Inside immigration detention centres: Uncoupling detention from a criminal justice imagination. Botzem, Sebastian and Hofmann, Jeanette Transnational institution building as public-private interaction: the case of standard setting on the Internet and in corporate financial reporting. In: Dashwood, Alan and Maresceau, Marc , eds.
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Bradley, David Convergence in family law: mirrors, transplants and political economy. Oxford University Comparative Law Forum, 2. Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, 6 2. Bradley, David Equality and patriarchy: family law and state feminism in Finland. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 26 2. Bradley, David Politics, culture and family law in Finland: comparative approaches to the institution of marriage. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 12 3. Bradley, David Regulation of unmarried cohabitation in west-European jurisdictions: determinants of legal policy.
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International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 15 1. Bradley, David The antecedents of Finnish family laws: legal tradition, political culture and social institutions. Journal of Legal History, 19 2. Bradley, David A family law for Europe? Sovereignty, political economy and legitimation. Global Jurist Frontiers, 4 1. Bradley, David A note on comparative family law: perspectives, issues and politics. Oxford University Comparative Law Forum, 6. Bradley, Laura Legal aid reforms may leave welfare, employment and health disputes unresolved and actually increase the demand for court and tribunal hearings.
Braithwaite, Jo Book review: covering: the hidden assault on our civil rights, by Kenji Yoshino. Modern Law Review, 71 4. Braithwaite, Jo Law after Lehmans. Braithwaite, Jo OTC derivatives, the courts and regulatory reform. Capital Markets Law Journal, 7 4. Braithwaite, Jo Private law and the public sector's central counterparty prescription for the derivatives markets. Braithwaite, Jo Springwell-watch: new insights into the nature of contractual estoppel.
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Capital Markets Law Journal, 12 4. Forum for European Philosophy Blog 14 Sep In: Ramachandran, Gurumurthy , ed. Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health. Breggin, Linda K. William Andrew, London, UK. Brevini, Bendetta The seven capital sins of corporate-owned media: how ownership concentration curtails media freedoms in Europe. Media Policy Blog 07 Feb Brewer, John D. Democratic Audit UK 25 Aug Breyer, Stephen and Heyvaert, Veerle Institutions for regulating risk. In: Revesz, Richard L. Environmental Law, the Economy and Sustainable Development. Uniform Law Review, 19 4.
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In: Andersen, Camilla B. Measuring Business and Human Rights 29 Oct Theory, Culture and Society, 35 2. Bross, Dan Dan Bross — no more reporting standards: please. Media Policy Blog 07 May Media Policy Blog 15 Apr Media Policy Blog 06 Mar Brown, Chris Decent peoples, burdened societies, outlaw states: conceptual categories in the law of peoples. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, pp. Brown, Chris Justice and international order. In: Coates, Tony , ed. International Justice.
Avebury series in philosophy. Ashgate, Dartford, UK. Review of International Studies, 31 2. Brown, Nathan J. American Behavioral Scientist, 60 8. LSE Law Review, 3. European Parliament, Brussels, Belgium. International Growth Centre Blog 02 Mar Bryant, Rebecca Bandits and 'bad characters': law as anthropological practice in Cyprus, c. Law and History Review, 21 2.
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Bryant, Rebecca Property, lawfare, and the Cyprus impasse. Global Studies Review, 4 1. Buonanno, Paolo and Galizzi, Matteo M. Review of Law and Economics, 10 3. Burnett, Brian M. Accounting Perspectives, 14 3. Burrell, Robert and Gangjee, Dev Trade marks and freedom of expression - a call for caution. Bushnell, Alexis Book review: preventive detention of terror suspects: a new legal framework by Diane Webber. Media Policy Blog 29 Jan LSE Brexit 27 Mar Calhoun, Craig Commentary: social theory and the law: systems theory, normative justification and postmodernism. Northwestern University Law Review, 83 Social Problems, 35 2.
In: Galliher, John F. Deviant Behavior and Human Rights. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J, USA. In: Ermann, M. David and Lundman, Richard J. In: Perdue, William D. In: Klemke, Lloyd W. Analyzing Deviants and Deviant Behavior. G20 surely thinks so…. Measuring Business and Human Rights 10 Nov Callamard, Agnes An amazing year for freedom of expression guest blog.
Calloni, Marina Gender relations and daily life: towards a cross-cultural approach. Social Quality: a Vision for Europe. Series in employment and social policy. Kluwer Law International, Zuidpoolsingel. Cammaerts, Bart Contradictions in internet policy making. Cammaerts, Bart European Court of Justice positions the right to privacy above the rights of copyright holders. Cammaerts, Bart Excessive media power in the UK necessitates a more efficient and potent regulatory system.
Cammaerts, Bart Who is human and who is not? Cammaerts, Bart The hegemonic copyright-regime vs. Media, Culture and Society, 33 3. Media Policy Blog 21 Mar Campbell, David and Collins, Hugh Discovering the implicit dimensions of contracts. International studies in the theory of private law 1. Campion, Sonali Educate, agitate, organise: a short biography of Dr B. Measuring Business and Human Rights 24 Dec South East Europe Blog 13 Nov Caselli, Francesco and Morelli, Massimo Bad politicians. Cass, Deborah Z.
Oxford Handbooks in Law. In: Simpson, Gerry , ed. The Nature of International Law. The library of essays in international law. Ashgate, Surrey, UK. Sydney Law Review, 22 4. Castellano, Giuliano Architectural frameworks and regulatory approaches for financial markets governance in Europe: from a market-centred to regulatory-oriented rationale. Castellano, Giuliano Governing ignorance: emerging catastrophic risks—industry responses and policy frictions. Castellano, Giuliano Rising from the ashes: a governance perspective on emerging systemic risks. In: Alemanno, Alberto , ed.
Uniform Law Review, 13 3. European Business Law Review, 23 3. Cave, Martin How disruptive is 5G? Telecommunications Policy, 42 8. Cave, Martin Policy and regulation for next generation networks. In: Faulhaber, Gerald R. Regulation and Performance of Communication and Information Networks. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, Cheltenham, pp.
Cave, Martin and Shortall, Tony The extended gestation and birth of the European Commission's recommendation on the regulation of fibre networks. Info, 13 5. Cepani, J. Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels, Vienna, Austria. Liberty, London, UK. Chalmers, Damian Crisis reconfiguration of the European state. In: Chalmers, Damian , Jachtenfuchs, M. The End of the Eurocrats Dream. Yet its record as a judicial institution has been little scrutinized.
It should be replaced with better alternative arrangements for central judicial guidance. Chalmers, Damian The European redistributive state and a European law of struggle. European Law Journal, 18 5. Modern Law Review, 66 4. Chalmers, Damian Gauging the cumbersomeness of EU law. Current Legal Problems, 62 1. Chalmers, Damian Icesave - limited homogeneity and unlimited judicial interpretation. In: Baudenbacher, C. Hart Publishing, Hart, UK, pp. Chalmers, Damian Inhabitants in the field of European Community environmental law.
Columbia Journal of European Law, 5. Chalmers, Damian Judicial authority and the constitutional treaty. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 3 Chalmers, Damian Judicial performance, design and membership at the court of justice. In: Bobek, K. In: Azoulai, L. Chalmers, Damian Post-nationalism and the quest for constitutional substitutes. Journal of Law and Society, 27 1. Chalmers, Damian Private power and public authority in European Union law. In: Bell, John and Kilpatrick, Claire , eds.
Cambridge yearbook of European legal studies 8. Chalmers, Damian Risk, anxiety and the European mediation of the politics of life. European Law Review, 30 5. Common Market Law Review, 37 1. Chalmers, Damian The democratic ambiguity of EU law-making and its enemies. In: Arnull, A. Chalmers, Damian The mistakes of the good European? Discrimination and Human Rights: the Case of Racism.
West European Politics, 23 4. Chalmers, Damian The reconstitution of European public spheres. European Law Journal, 9 2. Chalmers, Damian The unconfined power of European Union law. European Papers, 1 2. International Journal of Constitutional Law, 12 1. Chalmers, Damian , Jachtenfuchs, M. Chalmers, Damian , Monti, G. Chalmers, Damian and trotter, Sarah Fundamental rights and legal wrongs: the two sides of the same EU coin.
European Law Journal, 22 1. Democratic Audit UK 24 Oct Chambers, Clare Inclusivity and the constitution of the family. Progress in Development Studies, 6 4. Charvet, John Transitional problems in Brudner's inclusive conception of liberalism. Chatwin, Caroline While harmonising EU drug policies is unnecessary, it is important that states can learn from drug policy successes and failures in other countries.
India at LSE 04 Feb Mekonnen and Kjetil Tronvoll. Africa at LSE 23 Mar Chehtman, Alejandro Should states have the right to punish municipal offences committed abroad? Chehtman, Alejandro The philosophical foundations of extraterritorial punishment. Cheliotis, Leonidas Decorative justice: deconstructing the relationship between the arts and imprisonment. Cheliotis, Leonidas How iron is the iron cage of new penology? The role of human agency in the implementation of criminal justice policy. Punishment and Society, 8 3. Cheliotis, Leonidas Neoliberal capitalism and middle-class punitiveness: Bringing Erich Fromm's 'materialistic psychoanalysis' to penology.
Punishment and Society, 15 3. Cheliotis, Leonidas Order through honour: masculinity and the use of temporary release in a Greek prison. South Atlantic Quarterly, 3. Cheliotis, Leonidas Reconsidering the effectiveness of temporary release: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13 3. Cheliotis, Leonidas Suffering at the hands of the state: conditions of imprisonment and prisoner health in contemporary Greece. European Journal of Criminology, 9 1. Cheliotis, Leonidas and Liebling, Alison Race matters in British prisons: towards a research agenda. British Journal of Criminology, 46 2.
Cheliotis, Leonidas and Xenakis, Sappho Crime and economic downturn: the complexity of crime and crime politics in Greece since British Journal of Criminology, 53 5. Chen, Yi-Ju Defeating Goliath with his own sword: sue corporations for human rights violation. Parenting for a Digital Future 08 Jul In: Chinkin, Christine and et al. Chinkin, Christine Article Oxford commentaries on international law. In: di Stefano, Adriana , ed. Gender Issues and International Legal Standards. IT Press, Florence, Italy, pp. Women, Peace and Security 09 Dec Chinkin, Christine Cultural relativism and international law.
In: Howland, Courtney W. Religious Fundamentalisms and the Human Rights of Women. Chinkin, Christine Effective remedies for all: universalizing criminal justice. In: van Genugten, W. Asser Press, The Hague, pp. Chinkin, Christine Feminist reflections on international criminal law. In: Zimmermann, Andreas , ed.
Duncker and Humblot, pp. Chinkin, Christine Gender mainstreaming in legal and constitutional affairs. Gender management system. Commonwealth Secretariat, London, UK. Chinkin, Christine Gender-related violence and international criminal law and justice. In: Cassese, Antonio , ed. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. Chinkin, Christine International dispute resolution, with specific attention to China. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Leiden, pp. Chinkin, Christine Kosovo: a 'good' or 'bad' war?
American Journal of International Law, 93 4. Chinkin, Christine Laws of occupation. Chinkin, Christine Normative development in the international legal system. In: Shelton, Dinah , ed. Legality and Legitimacy in Global Affairs. Chinkin, Christine Sexual harassment: an international law perspective. In: MacKinnon, Catharine A. Directions in Sexual Harassment Law. Chinkin, Christine Sources. International Human Rights Law. Chinkin, Christine Third parties in international law.
Bow Street stipendiary magistrate, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte. American Journal of International Law, 93 3. Chinkin, Christine Women's international tribunal on Japanese military sexual slavery. American Journal of International Law, 95 2. Chinkin, Christine Women's rights are human rights. University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland. Chinkin, Christine The continuing occupation? In: Shiner, Phil and Williams, Andrew , eds. The Iraq War and International Law. European Journal of International Law, 10 2.
European Human Rights Law Review 3. Since national laws differ considerably and a harmonized legislative approach is nowhere near in sight, a global approach in the fight against doping must push back national laws and legal concepts as much as possible.
The Municipal Economic Law: New Developments In Focus
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The Commission can currently not answer the questions raised by the Honourable Member since this would preclude the results of the ongoing Impact Assessment exercise in the context of the Commission initiative included in the Commission Work Programme for an "Environmental, Climate and Energy Assessment Framework to Enable Safe and Secure Unconventional Hydrocarbon Extraction". Los efectos de estos plaguicidas se investigaron en colonias de abejas. Kann die Kommission in Zusammenhang mit der Empfehlung alternativer Anwendungen sicherstellen, dass den Landwirten auch in Zukunft Wahlfreiheit in Bezug auf gentechnikfreien Anbau garantiert bleibt?
Nel corso dello studio sono stati esaminati gli effetti di tali sostanze sulle colonie di api. Sulla base di tali informazioni, la Commissione ha avviato immediatamente un dibattito circa il divieto di queste sostanze. Come valuta la Commissione le lacune presenti nei dati forniti, in ragione delle quali gli studi dell'EFSA non risultano rappresentativi per tutta l'Unione europea? Si tiene conto del fatto che nel corso di questa valutazione non sono stati considerati gli studi scientifici precedentemente conclusi relativi all'esame di queste sostanze, corredati da risultati concreti e proposte di azione?
In alcuni Stati membri il settore dell'apicoltura e quello agricolo hanno intrapreso una stretta collaborazione, attuando misure che hanno condotto a chiari risultati. La mancanza di dati messa in luce dall'EFSA solleva preoccupazioni nella misura in cui evidenzia diversi fattori di incertezza in certi ambiti della valutazione del rischio che non consentono di concludere che il rischio sia basso. Coerentemente con la richiesta della Commissione l'EFSA ha tenuto conto di tutti gli studi disponibili precedentemente valutati a livello nazionale a sostegno delle autorizzazioni esistenti di prodotti fitosanitari.
Gli agricoltori possono coltivare colture GM, ad esempio colture GM resistenti agli insetti, a patto che queste abbiano ricevuto un'autorizzazione alla commercializzazione UE previa attenta valutazione del rischio che dimostri che essi non hanno effetti nocivi per la salute umana e animale e per l'ambiente. La legislazione sugli OGM stabilisce che gli Stati membri possono implementare misure specifiche per assicurare la coesistenza di colture GM, convenzionali e biologiche sul loro territorio.
The effects of these on bee populations have been established and the results obtained identified a number of risks for bees. In some cases the risk assessment could not be completed, owing to a lack of data and because of time pressure. In response, the Commission raised the question of a ban on these active substances. The wide-ranging economic and environmental impact of such a decision gives rise to the following questions:. Is account being taken of the fact that earlier, completed scientific studies concerned with evaluating active substances and which contain specific results and recommendations for action were not included in this assessment?
Measures have been taken in some Member States with close cooperation between beekeepers and the agricultural sector which have produced clear results. Have these been taken into account? In many Member States the incidence of invasive pests such as Diabrotica virgifera Western corn rootworm is causing an increasing number of failed harvests.
Will there be an assessment and a recommendation for alternative methods in the fight against harmful insects? With regard to recommending alternative methods, can the Commission ensure that farmers will continue to be able to exercise free choice in the matter of GMO crops? The assessment done by the European Food Safety Authority EFSA represents the best state-of-the-art scientific assessment currently possible with the available experimental data. The data gaps highlighted by EFSA raise a concern insofar as they highlight numerous uncertainty factors in certain areas of the risk assessment, which do not allow concluding on a low risk.
Consistently with the request of the Commission, EFSA took into account all available studies previously evaluated at national level in support of existing authorisations on plant protection products. The Commission is not aware of any missing information that should have been integrated in the assessment.
A wide call for data was launched and all submitted data, studies and information were considered in the assessment. The Commission is aware of the importance of alternative solutions such as crop rotation, in case certain uses of neonicotinoids would not be available in the future. Farmers can grow GMO crops - e. The GMO legislation provides that Member States can implement specific measures for ensuring the coexistence of GM, conventional and organic crops cultivations on their territory.
La proposta della Commissione relativa al Quadro finanziario pluriennale prevedeva un bilancio leggermente maggiore di quello concordato in sede di Consiglio europeo del febbraio. Nell'ambito del Semestre europeo vengono anche promosse riforme strutturali per affrontare la segregazione del mercato del lavoro e ridurre la disoccupazione giovanile. According to Commission President Barroso, the gravity of the situation is now clear in most of the EU and, in this regard, he mentioned the following specific measures:.
Nevertheless, the European Council also recognised that the emphasis put by the Commission on the critical need to address youth unemployment was right. Furthermore, the European Social Fund  for the period foresees a number of other possible activities targeting youth and youth employment. Besides, the Annual Growth Survey  points out that investments in education should be prioritised and the coverage and effectiveness of employment services and active labour market policies maintained or reinforced. Through the European Semester, structural reforms are also promoted to address labour market segregation and reduce youth unemployment.
The European Commission will assess Member States' measures to boost growth and jobs and propose, where needed, country-specific recommendations regarding youth unemployment. President Van Rompuy, in close cooperation with President Barroso, will present a specific and time-bound roadmap for the completion of the EMU by June The precautionary principle is detailed in Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union and "may be invoked when a phenomenon, product or process may have a dangerous effect, identified by a scientific and objective evaluation, if this evaluation does not allow the risk to be determined with sufficient certainty.
Accordingly, the Commission states that the precautionary principle may only be invoked when the following three preliminary conditions have been met:. The Commission also stated that it was evaluating the potentially adverse effects in conjunction with the WHO, with a particular focus on a recent peer-reviewed report, which found that wind turbines do have a negative impact on human health.
Therefore, all three of the preliminary conditions needed to invoke the precautionary principle have been met. However, the Commission website states that "in most cases, European consumers and the associations which represent them must demonstrate the danger associated with a procedure or a product placed on the market, except for medicines, pesticides and food additives. In the light of this information, can the Commission clarify how European consumers can demonstrate the danger associated with a procedure or product?
Given that those citizens whose health is affected by living close to industrial wind turbines are rarely, if ever, represented by associations, how does an individual inform the Commission that the product is having a negative impact on their health? Citizens' views were collected in the context of the recent public consultation . Noise from individual wind turbines and defining local measures that might be required is in the competence of the national or local authority concerned. Employing people over the age of 55 has become a serious problem in the European Union, particularly as the economic crisis affects Europe.
It is obvious that the main problem now is the high level of unemployment in almost all EU Member States and in particular, youth unemployment. However, we should also not forget older people. What steps is the Commission taking or intending to take to ensure that those countries, where discrimination on the grounds of age is most widespread, create conditions which are more favourable to employing older people? The Commission is fully committed within the boundaries of its competences to prevent age discrimination in employment through different actions such as awareness raising campaigns to fight against stereotypes  and mainstreaming non-discrimination in all EU policies, including employment and social inclusion policies with special focus on the countries where age discrimination is perceived as more widespread.
If people have been discriminated on grounds of age they may take the legal remedies available in their national Member State. The Commission is closely monitoring the correct transposition and application of the prohibition of age discrimination as laid down in directive in the Member States and will not hesitate to take the necessary steps to ensure that the directive is correctly transposed and applied at national level.
According to the Greek organisations representing those concerned, the direct or indirect use or misuse of registered Greek designations for example, feta and the use of trademarks or other insignia on labels, implying that the products in question for example, yoghurts are of Greek origin, is assuming alarming proportions on third country markets. Protection of a name in the EU does not automatically lead to protection in third countries. For many years, the Commission has therefore striven to improve the protection of Protected Designations of Origin PDO and Protected Geographical Indications PGI in third countries through multilateral negotiations and through an increasing number of bilateral agreements with our trade partners, either through stand-alone agreements or as part of wider Free Trade Agreements.
In the WTO negotiations, the EU seeks to improve protection of geographical indications through the creation of a binding multilateral register facilitating protection of geographical indications and the extension of the additional protection currently only available for geographical indications for wines and spirits under Article 23 of the TRIPS Agreement i. Afghans feel enormous anxiety as the deadline for withdrawing international combat forces from Afghanistan looms and powerbrokers jockey for position.
Wie soll weiterhin der Zugang zu Bildung aber auch Chancengleichheit gesichert werden? EUR zu diesem globalen Fonds geleistet. There has been a significant improvement in Afghan women's rights since the fall of the Taliban. Many girls and women have gained access to education, which we Europeans both regard as the greatest asset and take as a matter of course.
In its report, the organisation Human Rights Watch summarises the situation for Afghanistan as follows:. How will the rights of young girls and women continue to be strengthened and protected? How will access to education and equal opportunities continue to be guaranteed in the future? What steps will the EU Member States take following the withdrawal of troops to ensure that EU funds also go to education? The conclusions of the Bonn conference and the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework of July set the framework for our cooperation in the coming years.
The future assistance will be oriented towards Afghanistan's own National Priority Programmes, including the one on Education. Afghanistan must take its own responsibilities both for development and for security. The EU will continue to press the Afghan authorities to implement their commitments in full, in particular in the field of human rights, including the rights of women and girls, for whom access to education will be an important element. In the EU-Afghanistan Cooperation Agreement currently being negotiated, the human rights dimension will be an essential element and the Agreement will contain a number of core provisions on women and children.
The EU is committed to support Afghanistan's development throughout the coming "decade of transformation". This includes the education sector where a number of EU Member States are actively involved. Afghanistan also benefits from the Global Partnership for Education, coordinated by Denmark in case of Afghanistan. The EU will increasingly follow the principles of division of labour as foreseen in the Agenda for Change and the Action Plan on strengthening the EU's presence in Afghanistan, so as to target funds where they are most needed and with the greatest possible impact.
The overall security situation will, however, be a key factor in determining how EU assistance can be implemented. The document did not reveal what "Transport and Environment" was, but I discovered it is a Brussels-based NGO, whose website discreetly acknowledges funding support from the Commission. Astonishingly, only EUR 35 2. Does the Commission believe that an organisation which receives such a large proportion of its funding from public-sector sources can be accurately described as an NGO?
For its work, the European Commission has identified a few characteristics normally shared by these entities, such as independence of government. EU funding is allocated on the basis of the applicable legal base and the financial regulation without any condition which would limit the beneficiaries' independence. Thus the Commission considers that the registration of. The Commission and the European Parliament have set up the transparency register to respond to such concern and offer a data base with all this information as it is the case for.
The Honourable Member is thus invited to use this instrument when she wishes to check on an organisation engaged in lobbying activities. In implementation of this regulation, the Commission organises yearly open calls for proposals in which Transport and Environment has been selected for co-funding of its activities. Zum Diese Genehmigung hat die Kommission derzeit noch nicht erteilt, obwohl die alte Fassung seit dem 1.
Um die seit dem 1. C 82 vom 1. Februar angenommen. August , ABl. L vom 9. However, in order to prevent distortions of competition in the internal market, this requires approval from the Commission. The approval under state aid rules for tax relief on energy products used in cogeneration plants expired on 31 March New rules on tax relief for cogeneration plants have therefore been adopted in domestic law; in Germany these rules are to be found in Sections 53a and 53b of the Energy Taxation Act.
However, the new domestic law rules will only enter into force after the necessary approval under state aid rules has been granted by the Commission. The Commission has not yet granted such approval, even though the old approval has been invalid since 1 April Has the legal position as regards the assessment under state aid rules of tax relief for energy products used in cogeneration plants changed since 31 March ?
If so, what changes may be expected? In order to eliminate the legal uncertainty which has prevailed since 1 April , does it not seem appropriate for the Commission to grant approval sooner rather than later, so that domestic rules can enter into force with retroactive effect?
Also, the assessment criteria for aid to the production of energy from cogeneration plants have changed now Section 3. As a consequence, the Commisison had to make a new, complete assessment of the German tax relief for energy products used in cogeneration plants under the current state aid rules. Juni Aus welchem Grund wurde die Exekutivdirektorin nicht bis zur Ernennung eines neuen Exekutivdirektors durch den stellvertretenden Direktor ersetzt?
Die amtierende Exekutivdirektorin wurde am 1. Juni ernannt. Im Jahr hat der Verwaltungsrat ihr Mandat bis zum They included breaches of public procurement rules, and missions and travel expenses not accounted for. The discharge was, however, granted by a very slight majority in October However, the current Executive Director has remained in charge, despite her questionable management of the agency, instead of being provisionally replaced by the Deputy Director.
How much will her pension be upon completion of her current contract as Executive Director of the European Environment Agency? Why was the current Executive Director not replaced by the Deputy Director until a new Executive Director had been appointed? The current Executive Director was appointed on 1st June , renewed by the Management Board in until 31 May The rules governing the calculation and settlement of the retirement pension are set out in the Staff regulations.
The same rules apply to temporary staff who leave at the end of their contract and those who leave before the end of that contract. The Management board, who is entrusted with the power to appoint the Executive Director of the Agency, did not decide to terminate the contract of the Executive Director before the natural term of office.
Therefore, there was no justification for the Deputy Director to replace the Executive Director in her functions. Following the recent ingredients scandals affecting Ireland, the UK, Poland, France and probably other Member States, does the Commission intend to take action? With the free movement of goods and services - brought about by the Maastricht Treaty - easier than ever before, is the Commission of the view that better traceability is needed, as well as minimum sentences for those involved in food crimes?
Does the Commission think that minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would eliminate the race to the bottom, in terms of quality, by large supermarket chains such as Tesco, Dunnes and Aldi, which demand low-cost goods from suppliers? Does the Commission feel that more should be done to let hard-pressed consumers know that what is packaged as nice healthy food can actually be full of unhealthy ingredients?
Does the Commission feel that, as a general rule, the public needs to be better informed about the risks of eating processed foods? Following the recent findings of mislabelled food, the Commission adopted a recommendation on a coordinated control plan  calling for EU-wide controls on foods marketed as containing beef to detect, through DNA testing, fraudulent labelling, and on horse meat intended for human consumption to detect phenylbutazone.
There is an extensive body of Union rules to ensure that food is safe. Traceability is compulsory for food business operators at all stages of the food chain. These existing traceability systems made possible that the extent and origin of the recent fraud has been revealed.
The Union food safety and labelling requirements , when correctly enforced, are sufficient to ensure consumer safety and information. Member States are responsible for the enforcement of Union law and shall verify, through official controls, compliance by the operators. The requirements for mandatory official testing vary according to the species from which meat is obtained .
However, no mandatory DNA testing of meat is required by Union legislation. Member States are also entitled to determine the level and type of penalties to be imposed for infringements of food legislation. Following its Green paper, the Commission will launch an impact assessment on best options to tackle unfair trading practices . However, minimum pricing and profit returns for farmers would not avoid fraud.
Die Kommission hat diesen Bedenken bei der umfassenden Datenschutzreform ebenfalls Rechnung getragen. This law authorises the US security services to access data belonging to non-US citizens that are stored by US companies, even they are stored on servers located outside the USA.
Analysts claim that the US authorities may access the private data of European citizens without a court order, even if this data is physically located in the EU. Can the Commission confirm that this is true? Can companies be prosecuted for providing data belonging to EU citizens to the US security services under this act? These laws may be in breach of international law and may affect the fundamental rights of individuals in the Union. The Commission considers that when a law enforcement authority in the US realises that necessary information lies outside its jurisdiction, it should ask for it via the cooperation mechanisms that are in place with EU Member States where that data are located.
It is primarily for national authorities, in particular the independent data protection authorities, to monitor compliance with data protection rules and investigate any violation thereof. The Commission also duly took into account these concerns in the comprehensive reform package of data protection rules. In particular, the proposed General Data Protection Regulation  refers to the issue of foreign extraterritorial legislation and makes clear that data transfers should only be allowed where the conditions of the regulation for an international transfer are met.
This issue is also regularly raised with the US authorities, notably in the context of the negotiation of an EU-US agreement on the exchange of personal data between judicial and police authorities that should provide a high level of privacy protection for all individuals. Wie hat sich das Durchschnittsalter der pensionierten EU-Beamten in den Jahren , und entwickelt? Wie haben sich die gesamten Versorgungskosten der pensionierten Beamten der Kommission in den Jahren , und entwickelt?
Wie entwickelten sich diese Verbindlichkeiten in den Jahren , und ? Im Zeitraum sind Bedienstete in den Ruhestand getreten. EUR auf 30,6 Mrd. EUR gesunken. Der Wert der Verbindlichkeit zum What was the average retirement pension - net and gross - of an EU official who retired in , and in accordance with Article 22 of Annex XIII of the Staff Regulations of Officials of the European Communities, and how many in total have retired during this period? What was the average retirement pension - net and gross - of an EU official who retired in , and in accordance with Article 23 of Annex XIII of the Staff Regulations of Officials of the European Communities, and how many in total have retired during this period?
How many EU officials have been assigned non-active status in , and in accordance with Article 41 of the Staff Regulations of Officials of the European Communities, and what is their average retirement pension net and gross? How did the overall costs relating to retired Commission officials change in , and ? How did these liabilities change in , and ? Currently there are 1 former staff members with German nationality and 47 former staff members with Austrian nationality in retirement.
In the EU institutions did not apply the procedure laid down in Article 41 of the Staff Regulations. The overall costs related to the EU staff pension scheme for , and are included in the annual EU budget of the corresponding years. As noted in the EU annual accounts note 2. The value of the liability at Das durchschnittliche Renteneintrittsalter aller Bediensteten, die im Zeitraum zwischen und in den Ruhestand getreten sind, betrug 62 Jahre.
How many EU officials aged between 50 and 55, 56 and 60, 61 and 65 and over 65 retired in , and ? What was the average retirement age of all officials who took early retirement in , and in accordance with Article 23 of Annex XIII of the Staff Regulations of Officials of the European Communities? Five of them had German nationality and one had Austrian nationality. Over the same period, staff members retired at the age between 55 and 60, 2 staff members retired at the age between 60 and 65 and 99 staff members at the age above The average age of the small number of staff members who used the provisions of Article 23 of Annex XIII was above The average retirement age of all officials who retired in was How have the costs relating to EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ?
How has the average age of EU officials granted early retirement due to invalidity changed between and ? The total cost for invalidity allowances increased from EUR This represents an amount which is stable at 2. The average age of staff members at the moment when they were granted the invalidity allowance has increased from 52 in to 53 in Sind die verbleibenden 12 Untersuchungen inzwischen abgeschlossen? Wenn ja, welche Ergebnisse ergaben die Untersuchungen?
Wenn nein, wie viele Untersuchungen sind mittlerweile abgeschlossen, und welche Ergebnisse gab es bei den bereits abgeschlossenen Untersuchungen? Wenn ja, wie viele und gibt es dazu bereits Ergebnisse? Have the remaining 12 investigations now been completed? If so, what were the findings? If not, how many investigations have been completed and what were the findings in those cases? Has OLAF opened any more investigations into officials or other staff members of the Commission for corruption since the beginning of ? If so, how many? Are the results available? Have the guidelines drawn up by the officials or other staff members concerned and the decisions that they have taken been subjected to scrutiny and, where applicable, reassessed in order to ascertain or correct the influence of corruption?
In relation to the 9 investigations that OLAF has concluded, for 2 no recommendations were issued while for the remaining 7 cases both disciplinary and judicial recommendations were adopted. In one case the official concerned was retrograded, the other cases are still ongoing both from the disciplinary and criminal sides. According to the information given by OLAF, OLAF has opened no new investigation concerning allegations of corruption of Commission officials and agents in and one coordination.
Assessing the impact of any irregularities identified is generally part of an investigation. Even during an investigation, where OLAF finds that the misconduct being investigated might continue to produce effect, it may recommend precautionary measures to the service concerned to avoid this. Following an investigation, OLAF may recommend not only a penal or disciplinary follow-up, but also a financial follow-up, namely the recovery of monies unduly paid Finally, OLAF may also make administrative recommendations to a service following an investigation, to ensure that any systemic weaknesses identified in the course of an investigation are addressed, in order to avoid a recurrence of the irregularities and to protect the financial interests of the Union.
Die Kommission teilt dem Herrn Abgeordneten mit, dass sich die Zahl der Statutsbediensteten der Kommission mit Dienstort Luxemburg in den letzten vier Jahren wie folgt entwickelt hat: 3 ; 3 ; 3 und 3 How many Commission officials had their main residence in Luxembourg in , , and ? The Commission informs the Honourable Member that the number of statutory Commission staff based in Luxembourg had evolved over last four years as follows: in - , in - , in - and in - The Commission is not in the possession of calculations of how many of Luxembourg-based officials travelled to Brussels on mission once or more than once, and what is the cost of missions from Luxembourg to Brussels and vice versa.
Production of such calculations would require extensive resources. The Commission can provide the following information as regards the data requested for Commission premises in Brussels. In March , employees of public and private entities have access to Commission premises in Brussels. In March , 6 individuals in total employed by these entities have access to Commission premises in Brussels.
As regards the data requested for Luxembourg and other places where the Commission has offices, the Commission needs more time to collect the information it needs to answer the question, as the responsibility for granting access to Commission premises outside of Brussels is decentralised over different Commission services.
The Commission will communicate its findings as soon as possible. In March , approximately 2 service providers had offices in the Commission's premises in Brussels and Luxembourg. This surface area is in fact reduced by the increased use of shared offices and open space offices. Die Kommission bedauert, dass die Beantwortung der Anfrage mehr Zeit als geplant in Anspruch genommen hat. How much did the Commission pay for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ?
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How much did the Commission pay per directorate-general for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ? What are the names of the 10 firms which received the highest consultancy fees from the Commission in , and respectively? How much did the Commission pay per firm for the provision of consultancy services by external firms in , and ?
The Commission is collecting the information it needs to answer the question. It will communicate its findings as soon as possible. A set of detailed breakdowns of payments made to external consultancy services in , and in total, per directorate-general and per firm, as well as the names and amounts of the 10 firms which received the highest consultancy fees, is provided in Annex to this reply. The Commission regrets that the compilation of the reply has taken longer than foreseen.
For the sake of coherence, consultancy was defined as services provided by external firms with a primary purpose of giving expert advice. Cost items such as those related to outsourcing of operational activities, IT development, etc. Wie hoch waren die Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Beamten des Rates in den Jahren , , und entstanden? Wie viele Tage befand sich ein Beamter des Rates durchschnittlich in den Jahren , , und im Krankenstand? Im Jahr belief sich diese Zahl auf 2 , im Jahr auf 2 und im Jahr auf 2 Die durchschnittliche Zahl der Krankenstandstage Kalendertage, d. Zu den Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Mitarbeitern des Rates entstanden, liegen keine konkreten Daten vor.
In , 2 Council officials, temporary agents and contractual agents took sick leave. In , this number was 2 ; in , it was 2 , and in , 2 staff members took sick leave. The average number of days of sick leave calendar days, i. Wie hoch waren die Kosten, die durch den Krankenstand von Beamten der Kommission in den Jahren , , und entstanden? Wie viele Tage befand sich ein Beamter der Kommission durchschnittlich in den Jahren , , und im Krankenstand? Im Jahr nahmen sich 17 Beamte mindestens einen halben Tag Krankheitsurlaub. In den Jahren , und waren es jeweils 17 , 17 und 17 Auch langfristige Krankheitsurlaube sind in diesen Angaben enthalten.
In , 17 officials took at least half a day sick leave. They were respectively17 , 17 and 17 in , and The absence rate remained stable through out the period at 3.
Long term sick leaves are included in these figures. Wie beurteilt die Kommission diese neuerlichen erschreckenden Ergebnisse? Haben nicht solche Stoffe, die im Verdacht stehen, Krebs zu erzeugen, in Energiesparlampen nichts zu suchen?