Having a quantifiably low detection error Fisher and Bradbury , this technique facilitated a primary objective: estimating wolverine abundance and distribution e. We quantified behaviors from all monthly surveys at each site. Little is known about wild wolverine behavior Banci This required that we posit four fundamental assumptions about wolverine behavior at these sites, based on established wildlife behavior theory and observations.
First and most generally, we assumed that as scavenging carnivores ranging across vast areas, behavioral plasticity is a key component to wolverine life history and that individuals exhibit different behaviors under different conditions e. Second, we assumed that climbing a tree to acquire the bait posed a perceived risk to wolverines. The nature of this risk is unknown; it may be due to neophobia of the trap itself, or perceived risk of being away from visual cover and escape cover, or some other unknown factor.
Third, we assumed that time spent at the baited site posed a risk to wolverines. Based on these assumptions, we quantified four metrics: 1 the probability that a wolverine detected at a site would climb the baited tree; 2 the latency time in minutes of a wolverine to show up at a site; 3 the latency time in minutes for a wolverine to climb the baited tree, given it climbed; and 4 the total time in minutes spent at a site. We used digital infrared remote camera images from each site to measure these four metrics.
For each time series month of photographs, we used a standardized protocol to record the time elapsed between camera setup and wolverine detection latency to detection; min , the time at which the wolverine climbed the tree latency to climb; min , and the time spent at the site before moving off total event duration; min. Although wolverines possess distinctive chest markings, our cameras were not always positioned to identify individuals e.
Thus, our question does not address individual behavior; rather we ask whether wolverine behavior, averaged across the population, changes across a gradient of human footprint. At each event, we measured the three behavioral metrics, and averaged each metric among events, yielding a single value at each site. This conservative method makes it harder for us to find a signal reducing Type I error by decreasing the total variation in behavior. Although there is some redundancy in the measures, linear features are the most spatially extensive form of disturbance in this region, and Heim suggests wolverines respond to linear features more strongly than patch features.
We conducted two analyses to investigate the association between wolverine behavioral variation and human footprint. First, we calculated the proportion of sites where a wolverine was present and climbed the baited tree. Upon inspecting the data, we instead posed the ad hoc hypothesis that these data were represented by two distributions in this dataset, representing two linear relationships between the response and predictor variables.
In plain terms, we suspected that wolverines were behaving one way in response to one range of the anthropogenic footprint features, and differently to another range of these features. We tested this ad hoc hypothesis with a piecewise or segmented regression analysis, in the R package SiZer Sonderegger to identify the point at which a linear model with cumulative human footprint as a predictor variable, and latency to climbing as the response variable, would have the smallest mean square error Toms and Lesperance ; Sonderegger We then regressed two linear models: one using predictor data average latency to climb smaller than the derived break point and the other using predictor data average latency to climb larger than the break point, to demonstrate the change in wolverine behavior before and after this break point.
Behaviors varied among all three study areas Fig. Total event duration was the longest and most variable in the NPC Fig. Average latency to climb decreased across the range of human footprint values, but this trend was significantly greater in areas with human footprint measuring less than 0. The time that wolverines spent at a site was less in Kananaskis Country compared with the other two areas.
This difference is not subtle. However, in Kananaskis Country, wolverines rarely lingered. Instead, they consistently arrived at a site quickly, climbed quickly, and left quickly. We contend that this pattern, manifested over a very large landscape, a range of human footprint, and over individuals, is consistent with evidence for spatial variability in behavior correlated with increasing human footprint.
In developed areas, wolverines were constrained to a behavior where they climbed quickly if they climbed at all , and left quickly.
What might wolverines be afraid of, if they are indeed afraid? There are other contenders for mechanisms driving spatial patterns in wolverine behavior. In contrast, wolverine occurrence a surrogate for density is much lower in Kananaskis Country Heim If density were the sole driver, we may not have detected differences between the Willmore Wilderness and NPC.
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Because density changes with degree of human footprint, teasing these two factors apart may prove difficult. Behavior can also vary with the degree of intraguild competition Amarasekare Heim showed that wolverines were less likely to occur at sites with an increasing probability of coyote Canis latrans and red fox Vulpes vulpes occurrence and hypothesized that competition may be a factor influencing the differential response to human footprint between wolverine and mesocanids.
The presence of these potentially competing species varies with human footprint, requiring more research to tease apart these mechanisms. However, wolverines are trapped in both the Willmore Wilderness and Kananaskis Country, but wolverine detected in the Willmore Wilderness had a greater range of behavior than did wolverine detected in the Kananaskis Country region. Based on an assessment of camera data on prey communities, forage availability does not significantly differ between these three study areas.
Variation in wolverine behavior could be caused by several sources, but we are able to rule out some competing hypotheses. First, the signal we recorded is not likely due to detection error. Given that the probability of wolverine detection sensu MacKenzie via cameras approached 1. Second, despite relatively equal sampling efforts in all three areas, there were fewer wolverines occurring in Kananaskis Country than in the Willmore or NPC, resulting in fewer behavioral observations there.
However, we have no reason to suspect that is the case due to very high detectability of wolverine using our methods Fisher and Bradbury If these assumptions were not upheld, we would not expect to detect a behavioral signal that varies in space. However, we did find a signal, thus providing evidence to support our assumptions, which were founded in, and consistent with, behavioral theory. Wolverine behavior in the wild has never been assessed before, and spatial variation in behavior is a newly emerging subdiscipline Lima and Zollner Moreover, proving risk perception can sometimes be contentious, despite a great body of work on the subject Lima and Dill It might instead be the case that wolverines are quicker to climb, and quicker to leave, when conditions are good, although we could not formulate a reasonable guess why this might be.
Each WUA is to include all individual water users in an area and is responsible for the local water management. Previous irrigation boards, private schemes and government water schemes are or were transformed into WUAs. Establishment of WUAs, in particular for smallholders, used a top-down approach contrary to the National Water Act envisaged process, as bottom-up driven by water users WRC, Indeed, programmes of revitalization of smallholder irrigation schemes were initiated with the aim to transfer ownership of the schemes to farmers after technical and financial assistance Ledbawa, Ageing water infrastructures, either for water supply or for irrigation, require maintenance and upgrades.
Government is the main source of funding for development and rehabilitation of infrastructures with raw water tariffs per volume, varying significantly depending on regions and sources, but recovery rate is low. The raw water pricing strategy was under review in In irrigation, water is mostly unmeasured and thus uncharged, resulting in underinvestment. In addition, not all irrigators have a water licence yet OECD, A water market, enabling irrigators to save and sell excess water, has been initiated.
However, the main legislation is the National Water Act Act 36 , replacing the previous Water Act which was based on European laws and thus inappropriate for the country's climate condition and which was racially discriminating for water allocation DWS, The Act requires licensing for water, a public resource, while it was previously considered attached to the land. The Water Services Act Act prescribes the duty of municipalities to provide water supply and sanitation according to national standards and norms.
Both acts are being reviewed and it is expected that they might be merged into one act only to improve integration of the resources' management DWA, b. In addition, the National Environmental Management Act Act and its amendments of , , on waste and of on integrated management complete the legislation in relation with water. The three main policies related to water, especially for agriculture, are: The National Water Resource Strategy , indicating the water management, including water quality of the national water resources, and the expected water supply and sanitation services.
It is underpinned by three fundamental principles: equity, environmental sustainability and efficiency. The Integrated Water for Growth and Development Framework for agriculture, forestry and fisheries, guiding water development in order to alleviate poverty through the many activities depending on water supply.
The Objective Standard: Fall 2011, Vol. 6, No. 3
The National Groundwater Strategy , intended to make the best use of this resource while protecting it. In addition, drafts have been produced on specific themes but are still to be finalized and published: a draft national agriculture development strategy, a draft irrigation strategy and a draft irrigation policy framework. The latter is to focus on the revitalization of irrigation.
Finally, strategies for non-conventional sources of water have also been detailed: a reuse strategy and a desalination strategy aimed particularly to coastal cities. Overall, water quality is comparatively high OECD, However, only one third of the mainstream rivers are in good condition and one quarter of the river ecosystems are critically endangered.
This last ratio reaches almost half of the river ecosystems when considering only the main rivers without the tributaries OECD, Water monitoring since shows a decline of biological and chemical water quality of surface water and groundwater due to various factors: Wastewater: the wastewater treatment capacity is not sufficient in South Africa to treat all wastewater DWA, , resulting in pollution both from untreated wastewater and from treated effluents not meeting the standards and causing microbial contamination, in particular due to rapid urbanization in informal shanty towns that rise near cities.
Acid Mine Drainage AMD : water flowing from closed mines contains high concentrations of metals, sulphides and salts contaminating both surface water and groundwater. This occurs particularly in Gauteng province, as well as in the Witbank and Vryheid areas.
The Olifants and Vaal rivers, located in highly concentrated mining activity areas, are rich in sulphates, alkalinity and magnesium among others DWA, It is considered as the most pressing issue in water management in South Africa. Salinization: it is widespread in the country, both naturally by leaching from geological features or groundwater discharge, or due to human activity.
Natural salinization from sodium and chloride affects mostly the Sout and Berg rivers in the Western Cape, but it is coupled with seawater intrusion and intensive agricultural activities such as citrus and grapes cultivation using extensive fertilization. Rise in salinity in groundwater reflects local land-based activities such as in the Lower Vaal and the Upper Orange. The Nossob and Auob rivers flowing from Namibia—northern sub-catchment of the Lower Orange—experience rapidly increasing salinity.
On the contrary, improvement of the salinity levels occurs in the Limpopo and Olifants basins and small aquifers of the western Crocodile, Marico and northern Lower Vaal basins DWA, Eutrophication: this is a serious problem in Haartebeespoort, Rietvlei and Roodekoppies dams, where efforts to control it are in place DWA, Water contamination also occurs through toxicants, altered flow regime, suspended solid, radioactivity and agrichemicals DWA, As agriculture mostly uses water that was not previously treated, except for the small portion using treated wastewater, there is thus a concern on its impact when irrigating agricultural products DAFF, b.
The National Water Act specifies that a specific amount of water be kept earmarked to satisfy ecological requirements.
The Objective Standard: Fall , Vol. 6, No. 3 by Richard M. Salsman
All water balance calculations must include a provision for this ecological reserve to remain in the river, although the application of this principle has not been practically described. However, it has a positive impact by stopping unbridled development. It is nonetheless, difficult to meet environmental needs in fully developed rivers, such as the Vaal, Mgeni and Crocodile East, without reallocation of water licences.
For partially developed rivers, such as the Olifants and Mkuze rivers in particular, ecological reserve will help to avoid any further degradation. For the few rivers that have not been developed, the Mzimvubu and Mkomazi in particular but small coastal rivers also, applying the ecological reserve will be easier but should not be overlooked DWAF, Sedimentation of dams is a problem, especially in the dams that impound parts of the Central Plateau that are covered by the very old rock of the Karoo Karroo System and its sediments.
As a general rule the soils that develop from this material are prone to erosion and hence some dams in the central parts of the country have lost a substantial amount of their capacity. The exact dimensions of this problem have not been determined but some exceptional cases are known where dams have lost more than 25 percent of their capacity over the last 90 years. This addition is not supposed to demand extra water but to use the water saved by reducing water losses and improving irrigation efficiency, as well as water already allocated to agriculture but not used until now DWAF, Additional development would require dam building in these areas but would be costly.
Recommendation for the improvement of irrigation efficiency includes DWAF, : For commercial irrigation: irrigation scheduling, measurement of the quantity of water applied, change in technology. For household and community irrigation: revitalization of food plots in homeland irrigation schemes and support from the DAFF for this miniature irrigation including allocation of water, water harvesting and storage, water efficient technology such as clay pot.
For groundwater irrigation: development of groundwater for small-scale irrigation and food plots, in particular in isolated communities. Finally, the government has set a target of producing desalinated water up to 2 percent in , 3 percent in and 7 to 10 percent of all water withdrawals in the even longer term, promoting this technology in the coastal cities.
Increase of the share of groundwater in the water withdrawal as well as increased use of water either treated wastewater or drainage water, are also planned in order to reduce the dependence on surface water. Backeberg, G. Water institutional reforms in South Africa. Water Policy 7: Boccaletti, G. Confronting South Africa's water challenge. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Trends in the agricultural sector. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Draft business plan. Revitalization of irrigation schemes. Part I: Irrigation infrastructures.
Version 4. Department of Water Affairs. National Water Resources Strategy. Water for an equitable and sustainable future. Second edition. Strategic overview of the water sector in South Africa. National water policy review: Updated policy to overcome the water challenges of our developmental state to provide for improved access to water, equity and sustainability. Water as an instrument for social development in South Africa.
Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Water for growth and development framework. Version 7. Department Water and Sanitation. Irrigation potential in Africa: a basin approach. Land and Water Bulletin n. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. State of food security Managing shared aquifer resources in Africa. Progress on drinking water and sanitation — update. Social cohesion, groupthink and ethical behavior of public procurement officers.
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Performance Management Practices, Information and Communication Technology adoption, and managed performance. Journal of Quality assurance, 18 2 , Measuring Business Excellence, 15 4 , C, and Eyaa, S M, Ahiauzu and Eyaa, S. Journal of public procurement. Issue 1, Vol. Pages M and Eyaa, S Collaborative relationships, ICT, procurement practices and supply chain performance: the case of small and medium enterprises in Uganda.
Africa series Vol. C, Eyaa, S and Namugenyi, I. Journal of Business and behavioural sciences. J, Gerrit Rooks and Sarah Eyaa Supply chain swiftness in a developing country: The case of Uganda small and medium sized enterprises. Ntayi, M, J. Mawanga, F and Muliira, A, Ntayi, PhD : January 29, performance. Musiime, A. Marketing Culture, Psychological wellness, ethical climate, service performance and Loyalty.
Journal of Business and Retail Management Research. M, Namugenyi, I. Moses T Kamya, Joseph M.
Economy, agriculture and food security
Ntayi, and Augustine Ahiauzu International Journal of Innovation and Learning, Vol. DOI: Kamukama, N. M, A Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. M, Eyaa, S and Ngoma, M Journal of management Practice and Policy. Volume 11 4 , pages North American Business Press. Performance management practices, employee attitudes and managed performance. International Journal of Educational Management, 24 6 , - Kamya T. K, Ntayi, J. M, and Ahiauzu Knowledge Management and Competitive advantage: The interactive effect of market orientation. African Journal of Business Management 4 Competitive advantage: Mediator of intellectual capital and Performance.
Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol 12, No. Eyaa, S and Ntayi, J. Gender Diversity on the board, intellectual capital, and firm performance, in a developing commonwealth. Journal of Business and Economics, Vol 2, No. Ntayi, PhD : January 29, Vol 6, No. Mawanga, F and Ntayi, J,M Social Norms and Compliance with road traffic rules in urban areas: Initial impressions of drivers in Kampala, Uganda.
African Journal of Marketing. Nkundabanyanga, K. International Journal of Marketing Studies Vol. International Journal of Social Economics. ISSN: Ntayi : Relational capital and performance of tea manufacturing firms. African Journal of Business Management Vol. Sheila Namagembe and Joseph M. Ntayi International Journal of Economics and Management Sciences. Emerald Literati Network Awards for Excellence Individual ethical orientation, organizational culture and career growth of academic staff in universities in uganda.
Ethical sensitivity, academic dishonesty and career growth of academic staff in institutions of higher learning in uganda. Derek Friday, Joseph M. M, Eyaa, S, and Semukono, F Nangoli, S. Nkuutu, G. M, Available online at www. Nkuutu, G and Ntayi J. Perspective on bank-client cooperation: A survey of selected commercial banks in Uganda. Rulangaranga, D, M. Competence and ethical behavior of people appointed to contract management post in local governments in Uganda.
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